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THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D. 

EDITED BY 
tT. E. PAGE, C.TT., LTTT.D. 

tE CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. tW. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L. A. POST, l.h.d, E. H. WARMINGTON, 

M.A., F.R.HIST.SOC. 



THE ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

OF 

DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 
I 



THE ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

OF 

DIONYSIUS OF HALICAR^ASSUS 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 

EARNEST GARY, PhD. 

ON THE BASIS OF THE VERSION OF 
EDWARD SPELIMAN 

12s SEVEN VOLUMES 
I 




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHTJSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

MCMLX 



cop.2 



First Printed . 1937 
Reprinted . 1948, 1960 




Printed in Great Britain by The University Press, Aberdeen 



CONTENTS 

PAOI 

Introduction ...... vii 

Book I. ...«••. 2 

Book II 312 

Index ..♦»**. 543 



INTRODUCTION 

Life of Dionysius 

The few facts known about the life of Dionysius 
are virtually all given us by the author himself. At 
the close of the preface to the Romnn Antiquities 
(chap. 8) he announces himself as Dionysius, the 
son of Alexander, and a native of Halicarnassus. 
He also informs us (chap. 7) that he had come to 
Italy at the time when Augustus Caesar put an end 
to the civil war in the middle of the 187th Olvmpiad 
(late in 30 B.C. or in 29), and that he had spent the 
following twenty-two years in acquainting himself 
with the language and the literature of the Romans, 
in gathering his materials, and in writing his History. 
The preface is dated (chap. 3) in the consulship of 
Nero and Piso (7 B.C.), and the first part, at least, of 
the work must have been published at that time. 
It is generally assumed that the entire History 
appeared then ; but in Book VII. (70, 2) Dionvsius 
refers to Book I. as having been already published. 
This leaves it an open question in how many instal- 
ments and at what intervals he issued the work. 
We do not know the exact date of his birth ; but 
two casual statements in the History enable us to 
fix it within certain limits. He cites the disastrous 

vii 



INTRODUCTION 

campaign of Crassus against the Parthians as an 
event of his own lifetime (ii. 6, 4) ; and in describing 
the erection of the original Capitol he states that the 
new edifice, ' built in the days of our fathers,' stood 
on the same foundations as the old (iv. 61, 4). The 
first of these passages shows that he was born at 
least as early as 53, and perhaps as early as 54 or 
55, since the reference may very well be to the whole 
Parthian expedition. The second allusion is more 
indefinite. The new Capitol, begun by Sulla shortly 
after the burning of the old structure in 83, was 
formally dedicated by Catulus in 69 ; nevertheless, 
as late as the beginning of 62 Caesar, in bringing 
charges of embezzlement against Catulus, claimed 
that many parts of the tcin; !o were still but half- 
finished and accordingly wished to have Pompey 
entrusted with the completion of the work.^ We 
do not know how much justification there was for 
Caesar's action, though it is evident that it was 
primarily a political move ; in any case, he was 
unsuccessful, and Catulus' name remained on the 
pediment of the temple. Whether Dionysius knew 
of Caesar's charges or attached any importance to 
them we can only conjecture. Egger,^ taking these 
charges seriously, argued that Dionysius must have 
been born after 63 ; yet it is just as natural to 
believe that the historian dated the temple by the 
official dedication. The two passages, then, give as 
extreme limits for the date of Dionysius' birth 69 
and 53, with some possibility of the narrower limits 
of 62 and 55. Modern scholars have generally 

1 Dio Cassius, xxxvii. 44 ; cf. xliii. 14, 6. 

2 Max. Egger, Denya d' Halicamasse, p. 3. 

viii 



INTRODUCTION 

assumed a date between 60 and 55, from the feeling 
that Dionysius must have been a fairly young man 
when he came to Rome and undertook to master a 
new language and literature. The only other refer- 
ence in an ancient author to the time when Dionysius 
lived is even more indefinite than those just quoted. 
Strabo {ca. 63 B.C. — ca. 21 a.d.), in speaking of 
Halicarnassus, names, as authors who claimed that 
city as their birthplace, Herodotus, Heracleitus the 
poet, and, ' in our time,' Dionysius the historian 
(xiv. 2, 16). 

Halicarnassus had declined greatly in importance 
after the time of Maussolus, and finally suffered 
grievously at the hands of the pirates not far from 
the time when Dionysius was born. It was given 
a new lease of life by Quintus Cicero while he was 
serving as governor of Asia (61-58), if we may believe 
the enthusiastic tribute paid him by his brother.^ 
Such was the city in which Dionysius apparently 
spent his youth and early manhood. Whether he 
composed any of his rhetorical treatises while still 
residing there is uncertain ; but it is generally held 
that they were all written at Rome. 

In Rome Dionysius was a teacher of rhetoiic, 
probably giving private lessons ; in one of his 
treatises addressed to a pupil he refers to ' our 
daily exercises.' ^ From these shorter w^orks which 
took the form of letters addressed to friends, patrons 

^ Cicero, ad Quint, frafi . i. 1, 8 : urbes complures dirutas 
ac paene deserfas^ m quibus unam loniae nobilissimam, 
alteram Cariae, Samum et Halicarnassum, per te esse 
recrealas. 

^ On the Arrangement oj Words, chap. 20. 



INTRODUCTION 

or pupils, we learn the names of a number of his 
friends and associates ; but unfortunately they are, 
with one or two exceptions, otherwise unknown to 
us. Aelius Tubero may have been the historian 
and jurist who was consul in 11 B.C., the same 
historian who is praised in the Antiquities (i. 80, 1). 
Melitius Rufus, a pupil, and his father, whom 
Dionysius calls a most valued friend, were evidently 
Romans. Cn. Pompcius Geminus may well have 
been a Greek, in spite of his name ; Ammaeus also 
was probably a Greek, and so almost certainly were 
Demetrius and Zeno. Caecilius of Calacte, who is 
styled a dear friend, was a rhetorician and historian 
of whom a good deal is known In the introduction 
to the History (chap. 7) Dionysius states that he 
gained some of his information orally from most 
learned men (Romans by implication) with whom he 
came in contact. It would be interesting indeed to 
know the names of some of these men and how 
intimately he associated with them ; but, with the 
possible exception of Aelius Tubero, he nowhere 
names a contemporary Roman author, although he 
pays tribute to the many excellent works that were 
being produced in his day, — histories, speeches and 
philosophical treatises, — by both Romans and 
Greeks.^ From the circumstance that he gives 
particular credit to the ruling classes of Rome for 
the recent purification of literary taste, Roberts 
suggests that he may have been ' influenced more 
directly ... by the Roman men of affairs with 
whom (or with whose sons) his vocation brought him 

On Iht AncierU Orators, chap. 3. 



INTRODUCTION 

into contact than by any Roman man of letters." ^ 
One avowed purpose in writing his History was to 
make a grateful return to Rome for the education 
and other advantages he had enjoyed there ; ^ and 
this certainly suggests that he felt he had been 
made welcome in Rome. 

We have no information regarding the date of 
his death. If he was the author of the summary 
of his History in five books which Photius (Cod. 84) 
attributes to him, he doubtless wrote this after the 
publication of the large work, and so must have 
lived for some little time at least after 7 B.C. There 
are several passages in his shorter works in which 
he promises to discuss this or that topic ' if I have 
the time,' or ' if it is possible,' or ' if Heaven 
keeps us safe and sound.' These have sometimes 
been taken to indicate that he was already an old 
man or in poor health ; but it is by no means 
necessary to put such a construction upon his words. 

The Roman Antiquities 

The woik which Dionysius undoubtedly regarded 
as his masterpiece and the practical embodiment 
of his theories regarding historical writing was the 
Roman Antiquities.^ It treated the history of Rome 
from the earliest legendary times down to the 

1 W. Rhys Roberts, Dionysius of Halicamasstis The 
Three Literary Letters, p. 35. 

2 Antiq. i. 6, 5. 

' This is the traditional English rendering of the Greek 
title ; if we were translating it to-day for the first time 
we should probably render it Early History (or Ancient 
Lore) of Rome. 



INTRODUCTION 

beginning of the First Punic War, the point at which 
Polybius' history began. The work was in twenty 
books/ of which the first ten are preserved, together 
with the greater part of the eleventh. Of the re- 
maining books we have fragments amounting all 
told to a little more than the average length of one 
of the earlier books. Most of these fragments come 
from the great collection of historical extracts 
made at the direction of the emperor Constantine 
Porph^TOgennetus in the tenth century. 

In his preface Dionysius lays down two principles 
as fundamental for historians, first, that they should 
choose subjects noble and lofty and of great utility 
to their readers, and, second, that they should use 
the greatest care and discrimination in gathering 
their materials. He then proceeds to justify his 
own choice of subject and to describe the careful 
preparation he had made for his task. In two chap- 
ters, obviously imitated from Polybms' introduc- 
tion, he gives a brief survey of the empires of the 
past, from the Assyrian to the Macedonian, with a 
glance at the Greek hegemonies, and points out 
how greatly Rome had surpassed them all, both m 
the extent of her dominion and in the length of 
time it had already endured. He then undertakes 
to answer the anticipated criticism of those who 
might censure him for choosing the humble begin- 
nings of Rome as his particular theme when there 
were so many glorious periods in her later history 

* Photius, Cod. 83. Stephanas ot Byzantium cited 
numerous Italian i^lace- names from the Autuimticn. often 
giving the number of the book ; the last book he names 
is the nineteenth. 



INTRODUCTION 

that would furnish excellent subjects. He declares 
that the Greeks for the most part were ignorant of 
Rome's early history, having been misled bv baseless 
reports that attributed the founding of the city to 
some homeless wanderers, at once barbarians and 
slaves, and hence were inclined to rail at Fortune 
for unfairly bestowing the heritage of the Greeks 
upon the basest of barbarians. He promises to 
correct these erroneous impressions and to prove 
that Rome's founders wer<- in reality Greeks, and 
Greeks from no mean tribes ; he will also show that 
Rome from the very beginning produced countless 
instances of men as pious, just and brave as anv 
other city ever did, and that it was due to these 
early leaders and to the customs and institutions 
handed down by them that their descendants 
advanced to so great power. Thus he hopes to 
reconcile his Greek readers to their subjection to 
Rome. He points out that there had been no 
accurate history of Rome written by Greeks, but 
only summary accounts, and even the Romans who 
had ^vTitten histories of their country in Greek had 
passed lightly over events occurring before their 
own days. He feels, therefore, that in this earher 
period of Rome's history he has found a noble 
theme \nrtually untouched as yet. By treatint^ 
this period adequately he will confer immortal 
glory upon those worthy men of early Rome and 
encourage their descendants to emulate them in 
leading honourable and useful lives ; at the same 
time he will have the opportunity of showing his 
goodwill toward all good men who delight in the 
contemplation of great and noble deeds, and also of 

xiii 



INTRODUCTION 

making a grateful return to Rome for the cultural 
advantages and other blessings that he had enjoyed 
while residing there. He declares, however, that it 
is not for the sake of flattering the Romans that he 
has turned his attention to this subject, but out of 
regard for truth and justice, the proper objects of 
every history. He then describes his preparation 
for his task, — the twenty-two years he had spent in 
familiarizing himself with the language and litera- 
ture of the Romans, the oral information he had 
received from the most learned men, and the ap- 
proved Roman histories that he had read. Finally, 
he announces the period of Roman history to be 
covered in his work ^ and the topics to be treated. 
He will relate the wars waged by Rome with other 
peoples and the seditions at home, her various forms 
of government, the best of her customs and the most 
important of her laws ; in short, he wdll picture the 
whole life of the ancient city. As regards the form 
of his History, it will not be like the works of those 
who \>Tite of wars alone or treat solely of political 
constitutions, nor will it be monotonous and tire- 
some like the annalistic histories of Athens ; but it 
will be a combination of every style, so as to appeal 

^ He does not explicitly state why he terminated his 
History with the beginning of the First Punic War, but 
the reasons are not far to seek. With this war Rome 
emerged from the relative obscurity of her own peninsula 
and entered upon her struggle for the supremacy of the 
Mediterranean. There were already histories in Greek, 
notably that of Polybius, recounting her achievements 
from this time onward ; but for the period preceding the 
Punic Wars Dionysius could feel that he was virtually a 
pioneer in his undertaking. 

xiv 



INTRODUCTION 

alike to statesmen and to philosophers as well as to 
those who desire mere undisturbed entertainment in 
their reading of history. 

More than once in the course of his History 
(v. 56, xi. 1 ; cf. vii. 66) Dionysius interrupts his 
narrative to insist on the importance of acquainting 
the reader not only with the mere outcome of events, 
but also with the causes, remote as well as proximate, 
that led up to them, the circumstances in which the 
events occurred and the motives of the chief par- 
ticipants, — in fact, the whole background of the 
action. Such information, he says, is of the utmost 
importance to statesmen, in order that they may 
have precedents for the various situations that may 
confront them and may thus be able to persuade 
their fellow-citizens when they can adduce numerous 
examples from the past to show the advantage or 
the harm of a given course of action. Dionysius 
here shows an understanding of the true function of 
history, as he does also, in a measure, in his various 
protestations of devotion to the truth, though he 
nowhere sets up such a strict standard of absolute 
impartiality as did Polybius (i. 14, 4). 

Unfortunately, in spite of these high ideals which 
Dionysius tried to keep before him, his Antiquities 
is an outstanding example of the mischievous results 
of that unnatural alliance between rhetoric and 
history which was the vogue after the time of 
Thucydides. The rhetoricians regarded a history as 
a work of art whose primary purpose was to give 
pleasure. Events in themselves seem to have been 
considered as of less importance than the manner in 
which they were presented. Hence various liberties 

XV 



INTRODUCTION 

could be taken with the facts in order to produce a 
more telling effect ; and as long as this was done 
not out of fear or favour, but simply from the 
desire to make the account more effective, the 
writer was not conscious of violating the truth. 
Dionysius doubtless thought that he was living up 
to his high ideals ; but he was first and foremost 
a rhetorician and could see history only through a 
rhetorician's eyes. The desire to please is every- 
where in evidence ; there is a constant straining 
after rhetorical and dramatic effects. 

In conformity with the rhetorical tradition, he 
interlarded his narrative with speeches which he 
managed to insert on every possible occasion from 
the third book onward. One technical purpose 
which they were intended to serve — to give variety 
to the narrative — is clear from the very circumstance 
that there are scarcely any speeches at all in Books 
I. and II., which have a sufficiently diversified 
narrative to require no further efforts at variety, 
whereas from Book III. onward the speeches occupy 
very nearly one-third of the total text. Dionysius 
himself occasionally felt the need of some justifica- 
tion of his insertion of so many speeches and argued 
that, inasmuch as the crisis under consideration 
was settled by discussion, it was therefore important 
for the reader to know the arguments that were 
advanced on both sides (vii. 66 ; xi. 1). Yet he 
had no adequate conception of the talents required 
for carrying out this ambitious programme success- 
fully. Possessing neither the historical sense nor 
psychological insight, nor even any special gift of 
imagination, he undertook to compose speeches for 



INTRODUCTION 

anv and all occasions by the simple process of 
following certain stereotyped rhetorical rules. The 
main argument of many of his speeches he doubtless 
found already expressed in his sources, either in 
some detail or in the form of a brief resume, while in 
other cases there was probably a mere form of state- 
ment that implied a speech at that point , numerous 
instances of each of these methods can be seen in 
Livy (who was not one of his sources) on the 
occasions where Dionysius inserts a speech. But it 
was little more than the main argument at best 
that he took over from his sources in most of the 
speeches of any length. The speeches were the 
part of a history in which the author was expected 
to give the freest reign to his rhetorical talents ; 
and that Dionysius did not fail to make full use of 
this opportunity is evident from the many imitations 
of the classical Attic prose writers that are found 
in his speeches. One of his fundamental principles 
for the acquiring of a good style was the imitating 
of classical models, and in the speeches of the 
Antiquities we see how it was to be done. Not only 
do we find single phrases and sentences from 
Demosthenes, Thucydides and Xenophon para- 
phrased and amplified, but even the tenor of entire 
passages in those authors is imitated.^ It is not 
at all surprising, therefore, that these speeches fail 
almost completely to perform their true function of 

^ His imitations of the authors named have been 
analysed by Flierle, Ueber Nachahmungen des Demosthenes, 
Thucydides und Xenophon in den Reden der Rom. Archd- 
ologie des Dionysius von Haiicarnass, Loipzii:, 181)0 The 
investigation should be continued to include Lysias and 
other orators. 

xvii 



INTRODUCTION 

revealing the character and the motives of the 
different speakers. Nor are they redeemed by any 
profound thoughts, unless in the imitated passages, 
or bv any original sentiments ; for the most part 
they are little more than a succession of cheap 
platitudes and rhetorical commonplaces. Indeed, 
we might almost believe at times that we were 
reading the declamations of Dionysius' own pupils. 
It has generally been suspected that Dionysius 
invented a good many of his speeches outright, 
inserting them at points where there was no indica- 
tion of any speech in his sources. One fairly clear 
instance of the sort is found in his account of 
Coriolanus (viii. 5-8). After gi\^ng much the same 
account as Liv^' does of the trick played on the 
Romans by Attius Tullus at Coriolanus' suggestion 
in order to provoke them into giving the Volscians 
a just cause for going to war, Dionysius then re- 
presents Coriolanus as summoned by the Volscian 
leaders to advise them how best to prosecute the 
war. Coriolanus, in a speech clearly modelled upon 
the one addressed to the Spartans by the exiled 
Alcibiades (Thuc. vi. 89 ff.), says much by way of 
self-justification, and finally offers a fresh plan for 
providing the Volscians with a just ground for 
war. There is no valid excuse for this second plan, 
the first one having already proved successful ; 
Dionysius clearly wished to offer a parallel in his 
History to the famous episode in Thucydides. 
It is quite probable that several other speeches in 
this iong account of Coriolanus also originated with 
Dionysius. Yet it must be remembered that he 
drew largely on the late annalists, some of whose 



INTRODUCTION 

histories were very voluminous ; and he may have 
found at least hints of speeches more frequently 
than has generally been supposed. 

Quite in keeping with the tiresome speeches of 
the Antiquities are the long, circumstantial accounts 
of such events as Dionysius chose to emphasize in 
his narrative, and the cumulation of pathetic or 
gruesome details in tragic situations. His account 
of the combat between the Horatii and the Curiatii, 
followed by Horatius' slaying of his sister, occupies 
ten chapters (iii. 13-22) as against but three in Livy 
(i. 24-26) ; and there is even a greater disproportion 
in the length of their accounts of the events lead- 
ing up to the combat (Dionys. iii. 2-12, Livy i. 
22 f.) due in part to several long speeches in Dio- 
nysius. The outstanding instance of prolixity in 
the Antiquities is the account of Coriolanus. The 
events leading up to hi? exile (including 15 speeches) 
require 48 chapters (vii. 20-67), whereas Livy 
relates them in one-half of a single chapter (ii. 34, 
7-12) ; the remaining events to the end of his life 
are told by Dionysius in 62 chapters (viii. 1-62), 
and by Livy in 6 (ii. 35-40). Almost everywhere 
in the extant portions of Dionysius his account is 
longer than that of Livy ; but this relative fullness 
of detail was not maintained to the end of the 
History. To the struggle between the orders and 
to the Samnite wars he devoted less than four books 
(part of xiv. and xv.-xvii), where Livy has more 
than six (vi.-xi. and part of xii.). In other words, 
for events nearer his own day, for which the tradi- 
tions should have been fuller and more reliable, he 
contented himself with a briefer narrative than for 

xi:K 



INTRODUCTION 

the earlier periods, which for most historians had 
been full of doubt and uncertainty, thereby exactly 
reversing the logical procedure of L.i\y. An excep- 
tion is seen in his detailed account of the war with 
Pyrrhus, a war which aroused his special interest 
for more reasons than one. Nowhere is his fondness 
for minute detail more out of place than in his 
accounts of tragic events, such as the encounter of 
the triumphant Horatius w^th his sister, Tullia's 
behaviour when she forces the driver of her car to 
continue on his way over the dead body of her 
father, the grief of Lucretius when his daughter 
slays herself, Verginius' slaying of his own daughter, 
and Veturia's visit to the camp of her son Coriolanus. 
By his constant effort to make us realize the full 
pathos or horror of the scene he defeats his own 
purpose. The dignified restraint shown by Livy in 
relating these same events is far more impressive. 

Dionysius perhaps felt that he was making a 
distinct contribution toward the solidarity of the 
Graeco-Roman world when he undertook to prove, 
as his principal thesis, the Greek origin of Rome's 
founders. Not only did he trace the Aborigines 
back through the Oenotrians to Arcadia, but he 
even showed that the ancestors of the Trojans had 
come originally from that same district of Greece ; 
other Greek elements represented in the population 
of early Rome were the Pelasgians, naturally of 
Greek origin, Evander and his company from 
Arcadia, and some Peloponnesian soldiers in the 
following of Hercules, who had remained behind in 
Italy when that hero passed through the peninsula 
on his return from Spain to Argos. None of the 



INTRODUCTION 

various details of this theory was original with 
Dionysius. for he cites his authorities at every step ; 
but he may have been the first to combine these 
separate strands of tradition into a single, compre- 
hensive argument. The entire first book is devoted 
to the proving of this thesis ; and the argument is 
further strengthened at the end of Book VII. by a 
detailed comparison of the ceremonies at the Ludi 
Romani with early Greek religious observances. 
As we saw from his introduction, he hoped by this 
demonstration to reconcile his fellow Greeks to 
Rome's supremacy ; at the same time, he obviously 
understood the Romans of his day well enough to 
reahze that, far from regarding Rome's glory as 
thereby diminished in any way, they would feel 
flattered by the thought of such a connexion with 
the heroic age of Greece. Incidentally, the proving 
of his thesis afforded him an excellent opportunity 
for dealing with the legendary period and thus 
giving greater variety to his work. But the accept- 
ance of this theory was bound to pve him an 
inverted view of the course of Roman history. 
Instead of recognizing the gradual evolution of 
the people and their institutions from very rude 
beginnings, he sees an advanced stage of civilization 
existing from the very first ; and Rome's kings and 
later leaders are in such close contact with the 
Greek world that they borrow thence most of the 
new institutions that they establish from time to 
time. Thus he assumes that the celeres, the senate, 
the two consuls with joint powers, and the custom 
whereby the members of each curia dined together 
on holy days, were ali based on Spartan models ; 

xxi 



INTRODUCTION 

that the division of the citizens into patricians and 
plebeians folloM'ed a similar division at Athens ; 
that Servius TuUius organized a Latin League on 
the analogy of the Amphictyonic League of Greece, 
and that even the dictatorship was suggested by 
the practice followed in various Greek cities of 
appointing an aisymnetes to deal with a particular 
emergency. Dionysius probably found most, if not 
all, of these institutions thus explained in his sources ; 
in about half of the instances he qualifies his 
statement by the ^vords ' in my opinion,' but this 
does not seem a sufficient criterion for deciding the 
authorship of these views. 

Dionysius is so ready to praise Rome's ancient 
heroes and institutions on every occasion, with never 
a word of disapprobation, that his impartiality may 
well be questioned. On a number of occasions he 
praises the piety and other virtues of the early 
Romans, which secured for them the special favour 
of Heaven ; once (xx. 6) he styles them the most 
holy and just of Greeks. A number of their laws 
and practices, especially some of those said to have 
been instituted by Romulus, are declared to be 
superior to those in vogue among the Greeks. Thus, 
Romulus' policy of colonizing captured cities and 
sometimes even granting them the franchise is 
contrasted with the ruthless practices of the leading 
Greek states and their narrow-minded policy of 
wnthholding the rights of citizenship from outsiders 
(ii. 16 f., xiv. 6) ; and his laws regarding marriage 
and the patria potestas are described as better 
than the corresponding Greek practices (ii. 24-27). 
Romulus is praised also for rejecting such of the 

xxii 



INTRODUCTION 

myths as attributed any unseemly conduct to the 
gods and all grosser forms of religious worship 
(ii. 18 f.). Indeed, our historian even approves of 
the Roman censorship, the inquisitorial powers of 
which were not limited, as in Athens and Sparta, 
to the public behaviour of the citizens, but extended 
even inside the walls of private homes (xx. 13). 
But it is not the Greeks alone who are contrasted 
unfavourably with the old Romans ; Dionysius is 
just as ready to point out to the Romans of his own 
day their failure to maintain the high standards 
set by their ancestors. He contrasts the spirit of 
mutual helpfulness and forbearance that character- 
ized the relations of the plebeians and patricians in 
the early days with the era of bloodshed that began 
under Gaius Gracchus (ii. 11) ; similarly, he praises 
the simplicity of the first triumph (ii. 34), the 
excellent grounds on which Servius Tullius granted 
the franchise to manumitted slaves (iv. 24), the 
deference shown by the early consuls to the au- 
thority of the senate (v. 60), and the lawful and 
modest behaviour of the dictators down to the 
time of Sulla (v. 77), contrasting each of these 
practices and institutions with the evil forms they 
assumed in later days. In one instance (viii. 80) he 
leaves it to the reader to decide whether the tra- 
ditional Roman practice or the practice of the Greeks 
which some had recently wished to introduce at 
Rome, was the better. The pointing of all these con- 
trasts is part of the historian's function as moralist, 
the function which he had in mind when in his Letter 
to Pompeius (chap. 3) he said that the attitude of 
Herodotus toward the events he was describing was 



INTRODUCTION 

eveiA-vvhere fair, showing pleasure in those that were 
good and grief at those that were bad. Dionysius 
doubtless endeavoured to be fair and sincere in his 
judgments ; but he was. nevertheless, biased in 
favour of the Romans and in favour of the senatorial 
party, the Optimates of his own day. He even 
attempts to palliate one or two of the less savoury 
incidents associated with Rome's beginnings : he 
pictures Romulus as plunged into the depths of 
grief and despair at the death of Remus ; and 
again, as addressing words of comfort and cheer to 
the captured Sabine maidens, assuring them that their 
seizure was in accordance with a good old Greek 
custom, and that it was the most distinguished way 
for women to be married ! Livy makes no attempt 
to save the character of Romulus in the first in- 
stance, and in the second stops far short of Dionysius. 
In the matter of religion, also, Dionysius makes 
no concealment of his attitude. He frequently 
refers to a divine providence. He speaks scornfully 
of the professors of atheistic philosophies, ' if 
philosophies they should be called,' who deny that 
the gods concern themselves with the aflfairs of 
mortals (ii. 68, 2 ; viii. 56, 1). He, for his part, is 
assured that the gods do sometimes intervene on 
behalf of the righteous (ii. 68 f.) and also to punish 
the wicked, as in the case of Pyrrhus (xx. 9 f.). 
The Romans, in particular, because of their piety 
and other virtues, had frequently been the recipients 
of divine favour, while the designs of their enemies 
were brought to naught (v. 54, 1 ; vi. 13 ; vii. 12, 4 ; 
viii. 26, 3). The gods, he holds, manifest their will 
through portents, and the disregarding of these may 

xxiv 



INTRODUCTION 

be severely punished, as in the case of Crassus (ii. 
6. 4). Hence he recorded from time to time a goodly 
number of portents which he regarded as particularly 
noteworthy. With respect to the myths, he looked 
upon many of them, in which the gods played 
shameful parts, as blasphemous (ii. 18, 3) ; and, 
though he recognized that some of the Greek myths 
had a certain value as allegorical interpretations of 
natural phenomena, or as consolations in misfortune 
or other similar ways, he nevertheless felt that for 
the ignorant mass of mankind they did more harm 
than good, and he was more inclined himself to 
accept the Roman religion (ii. 20). It is to be 
observed that in relating myths he nowhere implies 
his own belief in them, but generally introduces 
them with some qualifying phrase, such as ' it is 
said,' ' they say,' etc. 

Dionysius doubtless made what he considered to 
be a thorough study of Roman political institutions ; 
but his narrative constantly shows that he came 
far short of a real understanding of many of them. 
His failure to distinguish accurately between 
patricians and senators and between the patrum 
auctoritas and a senatus consultum is a source of no 
little confusion ; but, worse still, he often uses the 
Attic term -n-po^ovXevfjia (preliminary decree) both 
for senatus consultum and for patrum auctoritas. 
His frequent use of ' patricians ' for ' senators ' is 
easily explained when we compare Livy, who con- 
stantly uses the word patres for both patricians and 
senators. This ambiguous term was doubtless found 
by both historians in their sources ; indeed, in a 
few instances Dionysius carelessly retained the word 

XXV 



INTRODUCTION 

as ' fathers ' (v. 33, 2 ; vi. 69, 2). In making his 
choice between the renderings ' patricians ' and 
' senators ' he seems to have adopted the former 
wherever the patres seemed to be opposed as a 
class to the plebeians {e.g., iv. 8, 2 ; viii. 82, 4 ; 
ix. 42, 3). The term patrum auctoritas was ap- 
parently no better understood by Livy than by 
Dionysius ; even for the early period he several 
times represents the auctoritas as preceding the 
vote of the comitia, and after the Publilian law of 
339, which required the auctoritas to be given before 
the people voted, he uses patrum auctoritas and 
senatus consuJtum indiscriminately. There is, in 
fact, every reason for believing that the term 
patrum auctoritas had become obsolete even in the 
time of the older annalists who were Livy's chief 
sources. But Dionysius, with sources before him 
that probably showed no greater misunderstanding 
of this term than does Livy, made matters much 
worse as the result of his assumption that the 
patrum auctoritas, and indeed any decree of the 
senate, was usually a preliminary decree to be 
ratified by the people. This view justified him in 
using the word 77po/SouAeu/xa, the name given to the 
programme of business prepared by the Athenian 
Boule for the consideration of the Ecclesia. It can 
hardly have been the desire to use the word Trpo- 
povXevfia that led him to adopt its essential implica- 
tions ; for he often uses Sdy/xa or ifj-qcfiLa^xa in the 
same way for a decree of the senate that was to be 
ratified by the people. He must have had some 
reason in the first place for believing that the 
patrum auctoritas was a necessary preliminary to 



INTRODUCTION 

action by the people. We know that it was cus- 
tomary for the consuls, as a matter of practical 
convenience, to ask the senate's advice and secure 
its approval before bringing any important matter 
before the people, inasmuch as the action taken 
in the comitia would have to receive the patrum 
auctoritas later in order to be valid. If Dionysius 
was aware of this custom but not of its purpose, he 
might well reason that it was absurd for the senate 
to give its approval more than once to the same busi- 
ness, and hence, since he knew the patrum auctoritas 
was required for all votes of the people, he would 
naturally identify this term with the preliminary 
approval of the senate. It is true this view of the 
matter seems to be directly opposed to an important 
statement which he makes at the very outset. 
When defining the powers of the senate and of the 
people as established by Romulus, he states that 
the senate was to ratify the decisions of the people, 
but adds that in his own day the reverse principle 
was followed, the decrees of the senate then requiring 
the approval of the people (ii. 14, 3). The natural 
implication of his statement is that the change -had 
come about in fairly late times, but he nowhere in 
the extant books has anything more definite to say 
on the subject. In a very few instances he speaks 
of the ' patricians ' (doubtless to him identical with 
the senators) as ratifying a vote of the people 
afterwards, e.g., in the case of the election of Numa 
(ii. 60, 3) and the appointment of the first tribunes 
(\-i. 90, 2) ; but as early as the election of Ancus 
Marcius he represents the people as ratifying the 
choice of the senators (iii. 36, 1), and a Httle later 

xxvii 



INTRODUCTION 

speaks of this as the normal procedure (iv. 40, 2 ; 
80, 2). In the last passage he is more exphcit, 
declaring it to be the duty of the senate to consider 
in advance {-npo^ovXeveLv) all matters relating to 
the general welfare, and the duty of the people to 
ratify their decision. It is fairly evident, then, 
that Dionysius' own theory w^as that a npo^ovXevfxa 
of the senate had been necessary from the beginning. 
If his narrative occasionally violates this theory in 
practice, it is probably either because his sources 
were so explicit in particular instances that he felt 
he could not contradict them, or because he was 
negligent now and then and forgot to make his 
practice conform consistently to his theory. Another 
important matter in which he failed to make theory 
and practice coincide at all times will be mentioned 
a little later. It is not clear whether he believed the 
plebiscita, also, required a TTpo^ovXevjxa ; his language 
is at times ambiguous and his accounts of the 
procedure in the case of various plebiscita are 
inconsistent with one another. He held the mis- 
taken view that all senators were patricians, even 
under the republic ; for he believed that plebeians 
were made patricians before being admitted to the 
senate (ii. 47, 1 ; v. 13, 2). But it is not in con- 
stitutional matters only that he made serious 
errors ; there is confusion also in his account of 
religious matters. Thus, he uses ' haruspex ' for 
' augur ' in ii. 22, 3, and his account of the duties 
of the pontifices (ii. 73) contains many errors. ^ 

1 On the subject of this paragraph see Edw. Scliwartz 
in the Real-Enc., s.v. Dionysius, pp. 940 ff., and E. Bux, 
Das Probuleuma bei Dionys. 

xxviii 



INTRODUCTION 

A few words must be said about Dioiiysius' 
chronology. His date for the founding of Rome 
was 751 B.C., two years later than that adopted by 
Varro ; and this difference between the two chronol- 
ogies remains constant for the first 304 years of the 
city down to the time of the decemvirs (the period 
covered by Books I.-X.). At that point the gap 
widens : Dionysius represents the decemviral rule 
as continuing for a third year, while Varro assigned 
to it only two years. Accordingly, for the half- 
dozen years covered by Book XI. Dionysius' dates 
are three years later than those of Varro. The 
fragments of the last nine books do not give any 
dates ; but three sporadic references in the earlier 
books to events of the third and first centuries B.C. 
show that for this late period his dates are the same 
as Varro's.^ Dionysius devotes two chapters (i. 
74 f.) to explaining how he arrived at the date 751 
for the founding of the city, and for fuller informa- 
tion refers the reader to a separate work - that he 
had published to show how the Roman chronology 
was to be reduced to the Greek. There are other 
passages also which bear witness to the particidar 
interest he felt in matters of chronology.^ Not- 
withstanding all the attention he devoted to this 
side of his work, modern scholars have for the most 

M. 8, 1 (265 B.C.); ii. 25, 7 (231 b.c); i. 3, 4 (7 b.c). 
See O. Leuze, Die rom. Jahrzdhluny, pp. 189-93, for a 
plausible explanation of the closing of the gap between the 
two chronologies before the end of the fourth century. 

^ Xpovoi, or riepl Xpovcov, cited by Clemens Alexandr., 
Stro7n. i. 102. 

« u 63 ; ii. 59 ; iv. 6 f., 30, 64 ; vi. 11 ; vii. 1. 

xxix 



INTRODUCTION 

part been very harsh in their judgments of him in 
this very regard, accusing him of carelessness gener- 
ally in the matter of his dates and, in particular, of 
following one system of chronology for the period 
treated in his History and another for events nearer 
his own day. Our historian had to wait long for 
his vindication ; but one of the most recent investi- 
gators in the field of Roman chronology, Oscar 
Leuze, has come ably to his defence and shown that 
at least the more important of these charges of in- 
accuracy rest upon misunderstanding of Dionysius' 
real meaning or of his usage. ^ 

Like most of the later Greek historians, Dionysius 
uses the reckoning by Olympiads, usually adding 
the name of the Athenian archon. From the 
beginning of the republic he normally gives the 
Greek date only for the first year of each Olympiad, 
identifjnng the intervening years merely by the 
names of the Roman magistrates. As the Athenian 
official year began in mid-summer and the Olympi- 
adic year of the historians either in mid-summer or 
early autumn, whereas the Roman consular year 
began, in later times, on January 1, though in 

^ Die rom. JahrzdJdung, pp. 177-99. Of particular 
interest is his defence of Dionysius' date for tlie beginning 
of the First Punic War (pp. 184-87). Leuze argues that 
Dionysius is here following a usage of Polybius and 
Diodorus, who in a number of instances regard as the 
beginning of a war, not the formal declaration of war or 
the first armed clash, but the event that was the immediate 
cause of the conflict. In the case in question this was 
Rome's decision to aid the Mamertines, apparently at the 
end of the year 265. The Antiquities naturally included 
the events of the year 2Go up to the sending of the 
Mauiertiue embassy to Rome. 



INTRODUCTION 

earlier times at various seasons of the year, the 
Greek historians were confronted with an awkward 
problem in synchronizing Roman and Greek dates. 
The solution apparently followed by Dionysius, 
and probably by Polybius and Diodorus also, was 
to adopt the later Roman year of uniform length for 
all periods of Roman history, and to identify a 
given Roman year with the Olympiadic year in the 
course of which it began, rather than with that in 
which it ended (as is the modern practice). The 
dates given in the notes of the present edition follow 
this principle, only a single year being indicated as 
the modern equivalent of the Greek year, instead of 
parts of two years. Thus Olymp. 7, 1 is identified 
as 751 B.C. instead of 752/1. The only exceptions 
are a few dates of non-Roman events, where 
Dionysius was probably not concerned with the 
exact Roman equivalent. 

Dionysius was in theory opposed to the annal- 
istic method of \vTiting history. In his Letter to 
Pompeius (chap. 3) he criticized Thucydides' chrono- 
logical arrangement of events, by winters and 
summers, as seriously interrupting the continuity of 
the narrative, and praised Herodotus for adopting 
the topical order. Yet when he him-. If was to 
write a history of Rome he evidently found it 
impracticable to avoid following the annalistic 
method in vogue among the Romans. For the regal 
period, it is true, he arranges the events of each 
reign under the two headings of wars and peaceful 
achievements. But beginning with the establish- 
ment of the republic, he treats the events of each 
year by themselves, first naming the consuls or 



INTRODUCTION 

other chief magistrates. For the greater part of 
the period that he covers this method could cause 
no confusion, as the mihtary campaigns were of 
short duration ; and it had the further advantage 
of avoiding monotony, since the narrative was 
constantly alternating between wars abroad and 
dissensions at home. 

As regards his sources, Dionysius states in his 
preface (chap. 7) that he had consulted the works 
of the approved Roman historians, — Cato, Fabius 
Maximus (ServQianus ?), Valerius Antias, Licinius 
Macer, Aelius (Tubero), Gellius, Calpurnius (Piso) 
and many others, — and that he had also derived 
information from conversations \dth the most 
learned men. And at the end of Book I. (chap. 89) 
he refers to his careful reading of many works by 
both Greek and Roman wTiters on the subject of 
the origin of the Romans. His claim certainly 
appears to be justified, so far at least as Book I. is 
concerned. In this one book he cites no fewer than 
thirty Greek authors, most of them historians or 
logographers, and seven Roman WTiters, — Cato, 
Tubero and Piso, of those named above, and Fabius 
Pictor, Lucius Alimentus, C. Sempronius (Tudi- 
tanus) and Varro. To the last-named he owns his 
indebtedness for his account of the old cities of the 
Aborigines (chaps. 14 f.) ; but he probably owes 
considerable more to him in this book in places 
where he has not named his source. After the birth 
of Romulus and Remus there was scarcely any 
further occasion for using Greek sources ; and he 
usually mentioned the Roman historians only in 
cases where there were divergent traditions. He 



INTRODUCTION 

naturally considered it to be his task as a historian 
to reconcile the didVn nt traditions so far as possible 
and present a smooth, uninterrupted narrative ; 
and in the main he has succeeded very well in doing 
so.^ But now and then he found such divergences 
among his sources that he could not ignore them. 
In such cases he presents the two or more versions 
and either expresses his own preference or, quite 
often, leaves the decision to the reader. At times 
he makes the decision with the greatest confidence, 
especially in matters of chronology. He is prompt 
to discover anachronisms, and rebukes rather 
sharply the historians who have carelessly per- 
petuated them ; Licinius Macer and Cn. Gellius 
are thus censured on two occasions (vi. 11,2; vii. 
1, 4), also Fabius Pictor (iv. 6 f. ; 30, 2 f.), while 
Calpurnius Piso Frugi is named in one instance 
(iv. 7, 5) as the only one to give the correct version. 
It is generally recognized that he followed the late 
annalists as his principal sources ; their histories 
were generally very voluminous, and in them he 
could find the full, detailed accounts which he 
frequently gives. His political orientation is that 
of the annalists of Sulla's time, who were strong 
champions of the senate's supremacy. They wrote 
their annals as propaganda, deliberately falsifying 
their account of events from time to time in order 
to make it appear that the senate had held from 
the first, or at least from the beginning of the 
republic, the same dominant position in the State 

^ A number of contradictions that appear in the History 
are probably due to hia using first one source aixl then 
another. 

xxxiii 
VOL. I. ^ 



INTRODUCTION 

that it held in the second and first centuries before 
Christ. They did this by representing the senate as 
ha\-ing been consulted in early times on various 
occasions where tradition made no mention of any 
action on its part.^ Dionysius seems to have held 
the extreme %'iew that even under the monarchy the 
senate had played a dominant part, the king's 
power being limited much as at Sparta (ii. 14, I f. ; 
cf. vi. 66, 3). This was his theory ; but in actual 
practice his narrative mentions very few specific 
occasions where the senate was consulted by the 
king, and we gain the impression that the power of 
the latter was \irtually supreme. But from the 
moment of the establishing of the republic his 
account of events is in strict agreement with his 
theory. His failure to reconcile practice and theory 
earlier argues a lack of inventiveness either on his 
part or on that of his sources ; it probably did not 
seem worth the trouble to work out the details. 
This view of the senate's original supremacy was 
the view taken also by Cicero in his De Republica ; 
but it was not the view of Li\y, who followed 
earlier annalists and rightly held that the senate 
had only gradually gained its wide powers. It is 
just such differences in orientation as this that 
make it fairly certain that Dionysius was not using 
Livy as his source in the numerous passages where 
their accounts seem at first ^ight strikingly similar.^ 
Besides the authors cited by Dionysius, he also 

^ A number of instances of this sort are discussed by 
Bux, Das Probuleuma, pp. 83-122. 

2 See Schwartz, Eeal-Enc, pp. 946-57, for an analysis 
of some of these passages. 



INTRODUCTION 

mentions a number of inscriptions, both at Rome 
and elsewhere, and there are sporadic references to 
the annates maximi^ the records of the censors, etc. ; 
but he does not say that he had seen any of these 
himself, and it is probable that he found the ref- 
erences in the annalists. 

The first historian to cite Dionysius was Plutarch, 
who modelled his style upon that of the Antiquities.^ 
Schwartz held that Dionysius was Plutarch's sole 
source for his Coriolaniis, but this view is opposed 
by Bux. The Romulus and Numa may each con- 
tain a little from the Antiquities, the Camillus is 
chiefly based on Livy.^ Dionysius is twice quoted 
in the Pyrrhus, but not enough of his account is 
preserved to enable us to make any accurate com- 
parison between the two. 

SCRIPTA RlIETORTCA 

The shorter works of Dionysius have generally 
gone under the name of Scripta Rhetorica ; but 
they contain more of literary criticism than of 
technical rhetoric. They are all in the form of 
letters addressed to some literary friend, patron or 
pupil. There is no internal evidence to show whether 
they were composed before or after the History 
was published ; but it is generally assumed that 
Dionysius wrote them from time to time during 
the years that he was engaged upon his great work. 
Although no absolute dates can be assigned to 
these several treatises, the relative order in which 

^ Goetzler, Einfluss des Dionys, p. 194. 
* So Schwartz, Real-Enc, pp. 943-45. 

XXXV 



INTRODUCTION 

they were composed can be determined in most 
cases by means of the frequent references in one to 
what the wTiter has abeady discussed or proposes 
to discuss in another. The order in which Roberts 
arranges them is as follows : 

1. First Letter to Ammaeus. 

2. On the Arrangement of Words, 

3. On the Ancient Orators. 

4. On the Style of Demosthenes. 

5. On Imitation : Books I., II. 

6. Letter to Cn. Pompeius. 

7. On Imitation : Book III. 

8. On Dinarchus. 

9. On Thucydides. 

10. Second Letter to Ammaeus. 

Egger would transpose the second and third 
items, seeing a greater maturity of judgment in the 
treatise on the Arrangement of Words. As regards 
the Dinarchus., he says we can be sure only that it 
was later than the Ancient Orators. 

The treatise on Imitation is known to us only 
from fragments. Only the first half of the study 
of the Ancient Orators is preserved, treating of 
Lysias, Isocrates and Isaeus ; in the second part 
Demosthenes, Hyperides and Acschines were dis- 
cussed. The treatise on the Style of Demosthenes is 
thought to be an enlarged edition of the discussion 
of Demosthenes in the earlier series. Other Works 
which have been lost were on the Choice of Words, 
on Figures^ and on Political Philosophy^ the latter 
a defence of the rhetoiic of Isocrates and his school 

xxxvi 



INTRODUCTION 

against its Epicurean iletractors. The early editions 
attributed to Diony^ius an Ars Rhetorica. but this 
is no longer liehl to be his work. 

For a detailed account of the Scripta Rheloricn the 
reader is referred to Max. Egger, Denys d' Hah- 
carnasse, pp. 20-246 ; a brief survey of these works 
may be found in W. Rhys Roberts, Dionysius 
of HaUcarnassiis : The Three Literary Letters, pp. 
4-34. Roberts also gives (pp. 209-19) a bibliog- 
raphy of the Scripta Rhetorica down to the year 
1900. 

To his labours as literary critic Dionysius brought 
a wide and thorough acquaintance with the works 
of the Attic prose writers, a discriminating taste, 
and great industry and zeal. His chief merit as a 
critic lies in his purity of taste ; he rejoiced in the 
recent triumph of Atticism over Asianism and did 
his best to strengthen that victory. His rhetorical 
works have much in common with those of Cicero, 
due to their both using many of the same sources. 
Like Cicero, Dionysius held Demosthenes in the 
greatest admiration ; but this excessive admiration 
jfor one man seems to have made him unfair in his 
judgment of others : he tended to judge aU the 
prose writers by the standards he set up for the 
orators. In other respects as well he is often 
narrow and superficial in his criticisms, and his 
manner is too dogmatic. 

The first reference to Dionysius as a rhetorician 
in any extant author is in Quintilian, who merely 
names him three times in lists of rhetoricians. In 
the third century the circle of Libanius paid some 
attention to him. From the fifth century onward 

XXX vii 



INTRODUCTION 

he was regarded by the Byzantines as the supreme 
authority on rhetoric. 

Manuscripts 

The manuscripts used by Jacoby for the 6rst ten 
books of the Antiquities are as follows : 

A. Chisianus 58, 10th cent. 

B. Urbinas 105, lOth-llth cent. 

C. Coislinianus 150, 16th cent. 

D. Regius Parisinus 1654 and 1655, 16th cent. 

E. Vaticanus 133, 15 th cent. 

F. Urbinas 106, 15th cent. 

C and E also contain Book XI. ; F contains 
only I.-V. 

The MSS. used for Book XI. and those for the 
Fragments of XII. -XX. will be listed in Vol. VII. 

A and B are by far the best of the MSS. ; the 
others are all late, and some of them, especially 
C and D, contain numerous interpolations. The 
editio princeps was based on D. B was first used 
bv Hudson, but he contented himself with giving 
its readings in his notes. The translators Bellanger 
and Spelman were prompt to adopt most of the 
good readings of B, and many were taken into the 
text by Reiske. Ritschl was the first to make a 
comparative study of A and B. As a result of his 
first investigation, based on insufficient evidence, he 
was incHned to rate A much higher than B ; but 
later he showed a better appreciation of the good 
readings found only in B, and concluded that a 
sound text must rest upon a judicious use of both 

jcxxviii 



INTRODUCTION 

A and B,^ — a conclusion in which Jacoby heartily 
concurred. Kiesslinir based his edition on B so far 
as possible. 

The individual symbols of the late MSS. appear 
very infrequently in Jacoby's (and the present) 
critical apparatus, since these MSS. are rarely of 
any service in establishing the text. An occasional 
good reading found only in the margin of D (Drag) 
may have been entered by R. Stephanus himself; in 
anv event such readings are evidentlv based on 
conjecture rather than on the authority of any 
manuscript. 

Editions 

The important editions of the Antiquities follow : 

Robert Estienne (Stephanas), Paris. 1546. The 
editio princeps of the Greek text. Books I. -XI. 
Based on the very inferior Cod. Reg. Paris. 1654-55. 

Friedrich Sylburg. Frankfort. 1586. Books I. -XI. 
and the Excerpta de Lpgatioiuhus^ translation 
(Gelenius' version revised) and notes. Svlburg 
made use, chiefly in his notes, of two MSS., a 
Romanus (not to be identified) and a Venetus (272). 
Reprinted in careless form at Leipzig in 1691. 

John Hudson. Oxford, 1704. Books I.-XI. with 
the Excerpta de Legationibus and Excerpta de 
Virtutibus et Vitiis. a revision of Portus' Latin 
translation, and notes of various scholars. Hudson 
was the first to use the Urbina- (which he called 

^ His monographs on Dionysius were repruited in his 
OpuscuLay Vol. i., pp. 471-540. 

xxxix 



INTRODUCTION 

Cod. Vaticanus), but cited its readings only in the 
notes. 

J. J. Reiske, Leipzig, 1774-75. The text and 
translation of Hudson's edition \v'ith Reiske's o\vn 
notes added. Too late to accomplish much in 
Vol. I., Reiske discovered that the printer was 
faithfully reproducing all the typographical errors 
of Hudson's edition ; but from Book III. 21 onward 
he corrected the proof sheets and also for the first 
time inserted the good readings of B in the text. 
Dionysius is often cited by the pages of this edition. 

Adolf Kiessling, Leipzig (Teubner), 1860-70. 
Based on B, so far as possible. 

Carl Jacoby, Leipzis (Teubner), 1885-1905 ; Index, 
1925. 

Adolf Kiesshug- Victor Prou, Paris (Didot), 1886. 
Greek text and Latin translation (Portus revised). 
An unfortunate edition. Kiesshng, after getting 
the work faiily started, dropped it completely ; 
and Prou, who was called upon to complete the 
task, was far from possessing Kiessling's critical 
ability. Jacoby recognized the hand of Kiessling 
through the greater part of Books I. -III. ; from 
that point on the edition has virtually no critical 
value. 

Besides these complete editions of the Antiquities, 
selected chapters were edited by D. C. Grimm 
{Archaeologiae Romanae quae ritus Romanos explicat 
Synopsis), Leipzig, 1786; J. J. Ambrosch (i. 9-38; 
ii. 1-29; ii. 30-56; ii. 64-74) in four academic 
Festschriften, Breslau, 1840-46; Fr. Ritschl (i. 
1-30), Bonn, 1846. Angelo Mai published at Milan, 
in 1816, some fragments from an epitome contained 

xl 



INTRODUCTION 

in a Milan MS., Cod. Ambrosianus Q 13 sup., and 
its copy, A 80 sup. These are now included (as 
the Exccrptn Arnbrosiana) among the Fragments of 
Books Xil.-XX. 

Traisslations 

The first Latin translation of the Antiquities 
(Books I. -XI.) was that of Lapus (or Lappus) 
Biragus, pubhshed at Treviso in 1480, three-quarters 
of a century before the first edition of the Greek 
text appeared. It possesses a special interest 
because it was based on two MSS., not as yet 
identified with any now extant, which were placed 
at the translator's disposal by Pope Paul II. 
Ritschl argued that one of these must have belonged 
to the better class of MSS. now represented by A 
and B, since the translation contains most of the 
additions to the text of the editio princeps that are 
found in one or both of the older MSS.^ Lapus' 

^ Opu-scula, i. pp. 489, 493. Since some of the inter- 
polations now found in C and D are included by Lapus, 
Ritschl concluded that he now and then consulted his 
later MS. for help (p. 530). Had Ritschl carried his 
investigation a little farther, he would have discovered 
that Lapus made diligent use of his older MS., closely 
related to B, only for Books I., II. and the first third of 
III., after which he practically ignored it. (The good 
readings which he has in common with B in the later 
books are in virtually every instance found also in C.) 
Down to iii. 23 he has most of the good readings of B, 
including a goodly number that appear in no other 
MS., but he avoids nearly all of B's errors ; he also 
ignores the interpolations of C. From iii. 24 through 
Book XI. he nearly always agrees with C's readings, 
uiuluding a, number of the marginal interpolations ; in a 

^i 



INTRODUCTION 

translation was reprinted, ' with corrections,' but 
also with a multitude of fresh typographical errors, 
at Paris in 1529, and again, as revised by Glareanus, 
at Basle in 1532. A fresh translation of Books 
I.-X. by Gelenius, based on the text of the princeps^ 
appeared at Basle in 1549 ; for Book XI. he merely 
reprinted Lapus' translation. Sylburg (1586) revised 
the translation of Gelenius and added his own 
version of Book XL Aemilius Portus brought out 
a new translation (Lausanne, 1588) ; and this trans- 
lation was adopted in the editions of Hudson and 
Rciske, and, with numerous corrections, in that of 
Kicssling-Prou 

An Italian translation by Francesco Venturi 
appeared at Venice in 1545, one year before the 
editio princeps. The translator names as his 
sources a Greek copy, very difficult to read, and a 
Latin translation [Lapus] full of errors. Apparently 
no serious use was made of the manuscript ; it may 
well have proved to be generally inferior to Lapus' 
reading. In any case, Venturi's translation, with 
the exception of a few minor changes which were 
probably due to conjecture, presupposes the same 
Greek text as that of Lapus. Another Italian 
translation was published by M. Mastrofini, Rome, 
1812-13. 

very few cases he supplies a few words missing in both 
B and C, so that one or the other of his MS8. must have 
been better than its present representative. Since he 
refers to the confused order of the text in both his MSS. 
at the end of Book XI., his older MS. cannot have been 
B ; and the interpolated one cannot have been C, if C ia 
correctly assigned to the sixteenth century. 



INTRODUCTION 

A French version by G. F. le Jay (Paris, 1722) 
was loudly acclaimed by the admirers of the trans- 
lator as representing perfection itself ; but the two 
men who next translated the Antiquities, Bellanger 
and Spelman, showed that it was a servile transla- 
tion of Portus' Latin version, errors and all. The 
following year Bellanger brought out, anonymously, 
his own translation, based on Hudson's text and 
the good readings of B contained in Hudson's notes. 
It is a smooth, fluent translation, but often rather 
free and at times little more than a paraphrase. It 
was reprinted later under Bellanger's own name. 

In German there have been translations by J. L. 
Benzler (1752 ; reprinted 1771-72) and bv G. J. 
Schaller and A. H. Christian (Stuttgart, 1827-50). 
Benzler's version was quite free, that of Schaller 
(Books I. -IV.) accurate and scholarly ; the part 
translated by Christian has not been seen by the 
present translator. 

The only English version to appear hitherto is 
that of Edward Spelman, which was published with 
notes and dissertations at London in 1758. It is a 
good and, for the most part, fairly close translation 
of Hudson's text (Books I.-XI.) as improved by the 
good readings of the Urbinas and occasional con- 
jectural emendations. See further on p. xlv. 



The Greek text here presented is based on the 
edition of Jacoby, but departs rather frequently 
from his text. All significant departures are indi- 
cated in the critical notes, but not, as a rule, minor 
details of orthography, elision and crasis, or correc- 

xliii 



INTRODUCTION 

tions of ob\'ious typographical errors that appear in 
his edition. Jacoby was fairly consistent in follow- 
ing out the principles which he had established \\4th 
greater or less probability in two preliminary studies 
of Dionysian usage. ^ But in the case of some 
phrases and combinations of vowels for which he 
could not show that elision or crasis is normally to 
be expected, he vacillated in his attitude toward 
the MSS., sometimes following them in permitting 
hiatus and at other times emending ; the present 
edition follows the MSS. (or some MS.) in all such 
cases. The MSS. are likewase followed in their 
spelling of the various forms of adjectives such as 
XaXKovs and -x^pvaovs. which appear in the con- 
tracted and the uncontracted forms with about 
equal frequency ; Jacoby occasionally emended an 
uncontracted form. He adopted the late spellings 
e-n-avad-qv and rjXdcrdrjv wherever they have the 
authority of any MS.,^ and occasionally elsewhere ; 
in the present text the Attic forms e-navd-qv and 
'qXdO'qv are everywhere restored. 

The present editor has permitted himself the 
liberty of spelling a few Latin proper names in the 
Greek text in the manner that many an editor 
would have liked to spell them, but as only a few 
of the earlier editors ventured to do in actual 

^ (a) Observationes criticae in Dionysii Hal. Anti- 
quitates Romanas, in Acta Socieiatis Philol. Lipsiensis, i. 
(1871), 287-344. (6) Ueber die Sprache des Dionysios von 
Ualikarnassos in der Bom. Archdologie, Aarau, 1874. 

* In one instance C alone seems to show the a ; else- 
where the only MS. giving it is B (about half the time), 
but even in this MS. the a has usually been deleted by a 
correcting hand. 

xliv 



INTRODUCTION 

practice, and tli ti only in the case of part of the 
names. It is hard to believe that Dionysius would 
have written such forms, for example, as 0aLaTv\os 
for 0avarvXog (compare his correct form Oavarlvos) , 
AojpevTov (in Book I.) for Aavpevrov (the form found 
in Book V. ; cf. AavpcvrlvoL and Aavpevria) , or 
Aavva for Aaov'Cvia in such a context as i. 59, 3 (and 
if he wrote the correct form here, he must have 
used it elsewhere). 

The critical apparatus lists only the more im- 
portant variants and emendations ; many simple 
emendations made by the early editors and adopted 
in subsequent editions are passed over in silence. 
No fresh collations of the MSS. have been available ; 
but here and there an obvious error in Jacoby's 
report has been corrected or a suspicious entry 
queried. 

The present translation is based on that of 
Spelman. His rendering of numerous passages, 
more especially in the speeches, is so spirited and 
so idiomatic, and often requires so few changes to 
make it seem thoroughly modern in tone, that it 
seemed desirable to use what was best of it in pre- 
paring this version for the Loeb Classical Library. 
If Spelman had been at his best more uniformly, a 
mild revision, to bring his translation into accord 
with the present Greek text, would have been all 
that was required. But the quality of his English 
is very uneven. He constructs a good many long, 
cumbersome sentences, in imitation of the Greek, 
shows an excessive fondness for the absolute use of 
the participle, and at times uses a vocabulary that 
seems more Latin than English. Where he thus 

xlv 



INTRODUCTION 

departs from a good English style, and wherever his 
rendering is not sufficiently close to the Greek for 
the present purpose, changes have been freely made, 
some of them very drastic. No attempt has been 
made to preserve the antique flavour that character- 
izes Spelman's rendering, as a \vhoIe, inasmuch as 
the passages which he has rendered most successfully 
from other points of \dew are usually the most 
modern in diction. He did not translate the frag- 
ments ; they appear here in English for the first 
time. The notes with which Spelman accom- 
panied his version were scholarly and useful in their 
day, but have not the same interest now ; accord- 
ingly, an entirely new set of notes has been prepared 
for this edition. 

For the convenience of the reader parallel 
passages from Livy have been indicated in the 
notes, beginning with i. 64. 



xlvi 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

A BIBLIOGRAPHY of the Ro7iuin Antiquities covering the 
period from 1774 to 1876 was published by Jacobv in 
Philologu.s, xxxvi. (1877), pp. 129-31, 152-54. It \vas 
continued in the introductions to the several volumes of 
his edition, including the Index (1925). To the lists there 
given should be added : 

Edw. Schwartz, in Pauly-VVissowa, Real-Encydopadie, 
8.V. Dionysius, cols. 934-61. 

Max. Egger, Dcnys d'Haiicarnasse (Pans, 1902) pp. 
1-19, 247-98. An excellent study of Dionysius, more 
particularly as rhetorician. 

H. Liers, Die Thtorie der Geschichtsschreibung dett Dionys 
von Halikarnasa. VValdenburg, 1886. 

Eiliv Skard, Ejngraphiache Fortneln bet Dionys von 
Halik'arnass, in Symbolae Osloenses xi. (1932). 55-60. 

E. Gaida, Die Schlachtschilderungen in den Antiquitates 
Romanae des Dionys von Halikarnass, Breslau, 1934, 



xivii 



STGLA 

A = Chisianus 58. 

B = Urbinas 105. 

C = Coislinianus 150. 

D = Regius Parisinus 1654 and 1655. 

E = Vaticanns 133. 

F = Urbinas 106. 

O = Ain the MSS. 

R = All ^ the MSS. not otherwise cited. 

a, b, and occasionally c, added to the symbol of a MS. 
indicate the successive hands ; mg denotes a marginal 
entry. 

Steph. = editio princeps of R. Stephanus. 

Steph.^ = notes of H. Stephanus. 

1 But there is good reason for suspecting that Jacoby 
usually ignored E and F ; in fact, he nowhere seems to 
cite the latter individually. 



xlviii 



THE ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

OF 

DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 



AIONYSIOY 

AAIKAPNA2En2 
PHMAIKH^ APXAIOAOriAS 
A0r02 nPQT02 
I. Tovs elajdoras airohihoGdai iv ^ tol? npo' 

OLjJLLO'S TOJV LGTOpLibv XoyOVg rjKLGTa ^ovXojjLei'os 

avayKatoixai nepl €/jLavrov TrpoeLTrelv, ovr" iv roZs 
IhioLS fieXXajv TrXeovdl^eLP eVatVotS", ovg iTraxOelg 
olha ^aivoixevovs rols olkovovglv, ovre hia^oXas 
Kad^ irepojv iyvcoKOj? TroLeloBat Gvyypa(j)€ajv, 
(LoTTep 'Ava^LfJievr]? "^ Kal QeoTTOfjLTTOs eV rot? npo- 
oilxioLS Twv LGTopLWv iTTOtrjGav, aAAa tovs ifiavTOV 
XoyiGfjLOV^ OLTToSeLKvij/xevog , olg expy]croLiJLrjv ore CTrt 
TavTTjv d)piJLr)Ga rrjv TTpayfiarelav, Kai nepl tcov 
d(f)Op[JLOJV aTToStSous" Xoyov, i^ ojv ttjv IpiTTeLpiav 
eXaf^ov TOJV y p a(f>T^ go fj.€v ojv . €7T€LGdr]v yap on Set 
rovs TTpoaipovixevovs fJLvqpieia rrjg iavrcbv ipvxijs 

^evSteph.^: om O. Jacoby. 

2 C. Miiller, Usener : dva^iXaos O, 

•Anaximenes of Lampsacus wrote a history of Greece 
(down to the battle of Mantinea) and a history of Philip 

2 



THE ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

OF 

DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

BOOK I 

I. Although it is much against my will to indulge 
in the explanatory statements usually given in the 
prefaces to histories, yet I am obliged to prefix 
to this work some remarks concerning myself. In 
doing this it is neither my intention to dwell too 
long on my own praise, which I know would be 
distasteful to the reader, nor have I the purpose 
of censuring other historians, as Anaximenes and 
Theopompus^ did in the prefaces to their his- 
tories but I shall only show the reasons that in- 
duced me to undertake this work and give an 
accounting of the sources from which I gained the 
knowledge of the things I am going to relate. For 
I am convinced that all who propose to leave such 
monuments of their minds to posterity as time shall 

of Macedon ; also an epic on Alexander. Theopompus 
in his Hellenica continued the history of Thucydides from 
411 down to the battle of Cnidus in 394; his Philippica, 
in 58 books, treated not only of Philip but of contemporary 
events elsewhere. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Tot? iTnyLyvofjLevoLS KaraXiTTelv, a fir] ovua(f)avL- 
odrjoeraL rols crcofJiacnv axrrujv vtto tov \p6vov, 
KOI TTavrajv fidXcara rovs avaypd(j)OVTas LGTopias, 
iv als KadSpvodai r-qv dXrideiav UTToXafi^dvofjiev ^ 
dpx'^v (j)povrio€(jjs re Kai oo(f)La? ovoav, rrpajTOv 
fi€V VTTodioeLS TrpoaipeZoOaL KaXds kol fieyaXo- 
vp€7T€Lg Kai TToXXrjv (h^eX^Lav rols dvayvaxJOfJLevoig 
cfiepovaa?, eVetra 7TapaGK€.vdL,eodaL rds iTTiT'qSeiovs 
elg rrjv di^aypa(f)T]v tt)? VTTodeueoj? d</>op/xds" /xerd 

3 TToXXris eVijLteAeta? re kol j)iXo7TOVLas . ol ficv yap 
vrrep dho^cxjv irpaypidrajv r) iTOvrjpchv r) pnqhefxids 
aTTOvSrjs d^LOJv luropLKas Kara^aXofiepoL rrpay- 
fjLarelas, etre rov TTpoeXdelv et? yvchoiv opeyoiievoi 
Kai rvx^Lv oTTOLOvSrjTTore ovopiaros , €ire TrepLOVoiav 
CTTtSetf aa^at ^ ttj? rrepl Xoyovs Svvdpieojs ^ovXo- 
fjLevoL, ovre rrjs yvwoeojs l^rjXovvraL irapd rols 
eTnyLypofxevoLS ovre rrjs Swdfiews inaLvovvrai, 
ho^av eyKaraXiTTOvres rols dvaXapL^dvovoiv avrcJov 
rds loropias on roLOvrovs el^'qXojGav avrol ^lovs, 
olas i^ehojKav rds ypa(j)ds emeLKCJS ydp drravres 
vofiL^ovoLV ecKovas eluai rrjs eKdorov ipvxrjs rovs 

4 Xoyovs. ol 8e Trpoatpovp^evoL ptev rds Kparior as 
VTTodeaeis, €LKrj 8e Kai paOvpLOJS avrds GVvriBevres 
eK r(x)v errLrvx_dvrojv aKovGpidrcjv, ovheva vnep rrjs 
TTpoaLpeGCCDS eiraivov KopLL^ovrat ■ ov ydp d^iovpiev 
avroGxehiovs ovhe paOvpLovs elvat rds irepi re 
TToXeojv evho^ojv Kai dvhpiov ev hvvaGreia yeyovo- 
Twv dvaypa<j)opievas iGropias ravra hrj vopLiGas 
dvayKoia kol npcjra OeojpiqpLara rols iGropLKols 

^ VTToXafx^dvofjLev B : inroXafi^dvofiev Trdvres A. 
4 



BOOK L 1. 2-4 

not involve in one common ruin with their bodies, 
and particularly those who write histories, in which 
we have the right to assume that Truth, the source 
of both prudence and wisdom, is enshrined, ought, 
first of all, to make choice of noble and lofty subjects 
and such as will be of great utility to their readers, 
and then, with great care and pains, to provide 
themselves with the proper equipment for the 
treatment of their subject. For those who base 
historical works upon deeds inglorious or evil 
or unworthy of serious study, either because they 
crave to come to the knowk 'Ige of men and to get 
a name of some sort or other, or because they 
desire to display the wealth of their rhetoric, are 
neither admired by posterity for their fame nor 
praised for their eloquence ; rather, they leave 
this opinion in the minds of all who take up their 
histories, that they themselves admired lives which 
were of a piece with the writings they published, since 
it is a just and a general opinion that a man's words 
are the images of his mind. Those, on the other 
hand, who, while making choice of the best subjects, 
are careless and indolent in compiling their narra- 
tives out of such reports as chance to come to their 
ears gain no praise by reason of that choice ; for 
we do not deem it fitting that the histories of re- 
nowned cities and of men who have held supreme 
power should be written in an offhand or negligent 
manner. As I believe these considerations to be 
necessary and of the first importance to historians 



"Schwartz: anoO^l^aadai, Q, Jacoby. 



DTOXYSIUS OF HALTCAKNASSUS 

€LvaL Kal TToXXr^v TroirjodjJLevos d{JL(f)OT€pajv im- 
jjieXeiav ovre TrapeXdeZv rov vrrep avTOJV Xoyov 
epovA7]6rjv ovre Iv dXXcp tlvl tottco KaTa)(ajpL(TaL 
[idXXov Tj TO) TTpooLjjLLa) TTj? TTpay flare La? . 

11. Trjv }i€v ovv VTToOeoLv on KaXrjv etXrjcf)a /cat 
fieyaXoTTpeTrrj /cat 77oAAots" (hj)eXiiiov ov p,aKpa)v 
OLjJLai Serycretv Xoycov rot? ye 817 [jltj Travrd-naGLV 
aTTeipcns exovcrt rrjs kolitjs luTOpias. el yap ns 
i7noTi]oas ttjv Stavotav eVt ra? irapaSeSopLeva? e/c 
rod TTapeX-qXvdoTOs XP^^^^ TToXeojv re /cat educov 
riyepLOvia?, erreira x^p't-S ei<daTr]v gkottwv /cat Trap* 
dXX'ijXas e^erdt,(jL>v hiayvojvai ^ovX-qdeirj rt? avrojv 
OLPXW "^^ p-eylcrr-qv eKTrjoaro /cat rrpd^eis dTTehei^aro 
XafiTTpordras ev elp'qvr) re /cat /card TToXefiov?, 
fj-aKpo) StJ nvL rrjv 'PcjjpLaiojv riyepioviav drrdaas 
VTTep^e^XrjfjLevrjV oilserai rds rrpo avrrj? pivrfpLovevo- 
jxevaSy ov pLovov Kara ro pueyeOog rrjg oipxrj? Kal 
Kara ro /cdAAo? rcDv iTpd^eojv, as ovttoj KeKocrpb-qKe 
Xoyo? ovSels d^icos, dXXd Kal Kara ro pLrJKO? rov 
TTepieiX-qt^oro? avrrjv XP^^^"^ P'^XP^ "^V^ ^^^' rjP'Oi? 
2 rjXiKias. rj fxev yap ^Aoavpiiov dpxrj iraXaid rts" 
ovo-a /cat els rovs pivdiKovs dvayop^evr] XP^^^^^ 
oXiyov rivos eKpdrrjcre rrjs 'Aglos piepovs. r) Se 
MrfSiKT] KaOeXovoa rrjv Auavpiojv Kal /^et^oi^a 
hvvaareiav TrepL^aXopievr} XP^^'^'^ ^^ ttoXvu /car- 
eaxev, dXX* eVt rrjs rerdprr]s KareXvdr] yeveds. 
riepo at he ol MrjSovs KaraywvLcrdpievoL rrjs p-ev 
*AoLas dXiyov helv TrdarfS reXevrojvres eKpdrrjorav, 
i7TLX€Lprj(ja.vr^S ok KQ,l Tols Evpa)7TQ.L0L^ ^OyeGLV 01) 

6 



BOOK I. 1. 4-2, 2 

and as I have taken p:reat care to observe them 
both. I have felt unwillinfi either to omit mention 
of them or to give it any other place than in the 
preface to my work. 

II. That I have indeed made choice of a subjecl 
noble, lofty and useful to many will not. I think, 
require any lengthy argument, at least for those 
who are not utterly unacquainted with universal 
history. For if anyone turns his attention to the 
successive supremacies both of cities and of nations, 
as accounts of them have been handed down from 
times past, and then, surve^'ing them severally and 
comparing them together, wishes to determine which 
of them obtained the widest dominion and both in 
peace and war performed the most brilliant achieve- 
ments, he will find that the supremacy of the Romans 
has far surpassed all those that are recorded from 
earlier times, not only in the extent of its domin- 
ion and in the splendour of its achievements — which 
no account has as yet worthily celebrated — but also 
in the length of time during which it has endured 
down to our day. For the empire of the Assvrians, 
ancient as it was and running back to legendary 
times, held sway over only a small part of Asia. 
That of the Medes, after overthrow ing the Assvrian 
empire and obtaining a still w^ider dominion, did not 
hold it long, but was overthrown in the fourth 
generation.^ The Persians, who conquered the 
Medes, did, indeed, finally become masters of almost 
all Asia ; but when they attacked the nations of 
Europe also, they did not reduce many of them to 

^ In 550 B.C., in the reign of Astyages, the fourth 
Median king according to Herodotus. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TToAAa vTr-qyayovTO , XP^^^^ '^^ °^ ttoXXo) TrXeiova 

3 hiaKooiojv ircov eyieLvav iirl rrjg dpxrj?. rj 8e 
MaKeSovLKTj Swaareia ttjv TJepowv KaOeXovaa 
lcr)(vv fJLeyeOei fiei' oipxv^ aTrdaas VTrepe^dXero rd? 
irpo avTTJs, xpo^ov Se ovSe avrrj ^ ttoXvp rjudrjuev, 
dAAa fjL€rd rrjv 'AXe^dvSpov reXevrr^v iirl rd x^^pov 
rjp^aro (f)€p€o6 ai. SLaaTTaadelaa ydp elg ttoXXovs 
riyejxovas evdvs dird rcov Siahoxcjov /cat /x6t' iKeivovs 
dxpt rrj? hevrepas t) rpinqs Icrxvc^OLcra irpoeXdelv 
yevea?, dadevrjg avrrj St' eavrrjg iyevero /cat 

4 reAeuTcucra vno ' PcjjfJLaiojv rj<j)avL(jdr]. /cat ovSe 
avTTj ^ jjL€VTOL TTOiOav iTTOLYjcraTO yrjv re Kal ddXacraav 
viT-qKOOV ' ovT€ ydp Ac^vrjs, on firj rrjg Trpds 
AlyvTTTCp ov ^ TToXXrjS ovar]?, eKpdrrjGev ovre rrju 
EvpcJoTTTjv dX-qv v7Tr]ydy€TOy oAAa toju pL€V ^opetcov 
a'urrjs jiepcjv p-^XP'- ^pd-K^qs TrporjXOe, rcjv 8' 
ioTTEpLOjv fiexpi- rrj? 'AdpLavfjS Kari^i] daXdacnqs. 

III. Al p,€V ovv i7TL(f)av€aTaTaL twv Trpdadev -qye- 
fjLovLciju, a? 7Tap€iXrj(f}ap.€V e/c rrjs iGTopias, roaavT'qv 
aKpirfv re /cat icr;^?)^ Xaf^ovaai KareXvOiqaav ' to,? ydp 
* EXX-qvLKds hvvdpieLS ovk d^tov avraZs avriTrape^erd- 
t,€iv, ovre pieyeOos dpx^j? ovre xpovov evri^avetas' 
2 ToaovTOv oGov e/cetvat Xa^ovaas. Ad-qvaloi piiv 
ye avrrj? p.6vov rjp^av rijs irapaXiov hveZv Seovra 
i^hopL-qKovra errj /cat ovSe ravrrjs aTrdcnqs, dAAa 

^avT-q Biicheler : outt) O. ^ ov added by Casaubon. 



1550-330 B.C. 

'i.e. "Successors," the term applied to the generals 

8 



BOOK I. 2, 2-3, 2 

submisHon, and they continued in power not much 
above two hundred years. ^ The Macedonian domin- 
ion, which overthrew the might of the Persians, did, 
in the extent of its sway, exceed all its predecessors, 
yet even it did not flourish long, but after Alexander's 
death began to decline; for it was immediately par- 
titioned among many commanders from the time of 
the Diadochi,^ and although after their time it was 
able to go on to the second or third generation, yet 
it was weakened by its own dissensions and at 
the last destroyed by the Romans.^ But even the 
Macedonian power did not subjugate every country 
and every sea ; for it neither conquered Libya, with 
the exception of the small portion bordering on 
Egypt, nor subdued all Europe, but in the North 
advanced only as far as Thrace and in the West dow^n 
to the Adriatic Sea. 

III. Thus we see that the most famous of the 
earlier supremacies of which history has given us 
any account, after attaining to so great vigour and 
might, were overthrown. As for the Greek powers, 
it is not fitting to compare them to those just 
mentioned, since they gained neither magnitude of 
empire nor duration of eminence equal to theirs. 
For the Athenians ruled only the sea coast, dur- 
ing the space of sixty-eight years,^ nor did their sway 
extend even over all that, but only to the part 

of Alexander who divided his empire among themselves 
after his death. 

3 By the overthrow of Perseus in 168, or possibly by 
the defeat of Phihp V in 197, followed by that of Antiochus 
in 190. Compare chap. 3 (end). 

4 From ca. 472 to 404. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TTJs evTOS Ev^eivov re ttovtov kol rod TlaiKJivXiov 
neXdyovSy ore /xaAtorra idaXaGaoKpdrovv. AaK€- 
oaifioi'LOL Se TleXoTTOvviqaov kol rrjs dXXrjg Kpa- 
rovvres 'EXXdSo? ea>? MaKeSovla? ttjv dp)(rjv 
TTpovf^L^acrav, eTravdiqaav he vtto OrjBaLojv ovSe 

3 dXa rpidKOVTa errj ttjv dpxqv Karaaxovre?. rj Se 
PcojJiaLajv ttoXls dTrdcrqs p-ev dpx'^i yrfs oarj pur) 
avefx^arog eunv, dXX vtt' dvQpoiiTUjv KaroLKelTat, 
Trdcrrjs he KpareZ 6aXdGcr7]g, ov pLovov T7J£ evrog 
*HpaKXei(x}v cmrjXcjv, dXXd Kal rrjs 'QKeavlrioos 
oar] TrXelorOaL pirj dSvvaros eWt, Trpcjr'q Kal ptovr) 
fGyv eK rod Travros atcDi^o? pLvqpiOvevopievojv dva- 
ToAas" Kal hvaeis opovg TroLTjaapLevr] rijg BwaGreta^ ' 
Xpovos re avrfj rod Kpdrovg ov ^pax^S, dXX ouos 
ovSejjLLa rojv dXXcov ovre TToXecov ovre jSacrtActcDv. 

4: evdvs piev yap ef ^PXV^ pierd rov OLKLcrpLov rd 
TrXrjGiov edvr) TToXXd Kal pidxip-a ovra irpoGryyero 
Kal TTpovjjaivev del irdv hovXovp,evrj ro avriiraXov • 
ravra Se rrevre Kal rerrapdKovra rjSr] rrpos eirra- 
KOGLOL? ereoiv eunv eh vrrdrovs KXavhiov Nepcjva 
ro Sevrepov vTrarevovra^ Kal Tleiacova KaXTTOvpviov, 
OL Kara rrjv rpir-qv IttI rat? evevqKovra Kal eKarov 

6 oXvpuTTidaiv dTrehelxO'qcrau. i^ ov 8e dXrjg eKpd- 
rrjGev '/raAta? Kal IttI rrjv aTrdvrojv eddpprjoev dpx;r)v 

1 vTrarevovra deleted (with Suidas) by Reudler, Jacoby. 

iThis statement is puzzling, since the period actually 
extended from the surrender of Athens in 404 to the 
battle of Leuctra in 371. The text may be corrupt. 

-Dionysius may have had in mind Pytheas' report of a 
ireirqyvla ddXaoaa (a sea filled with floating ice'C) in the far 

10 



BOOK T. 3, 2-5 

between the Euxine and the Pamphylian seas, when 
their naval supremacy was at its height. The Lace- 
daemonians, when masters of the Peloponnesus and 
the rest of Greece, advanced their rule as far as 
Macedonia, but were checked by the Thebansr l)efore 
they had held it quite thirty years. ^ But Rome 
rules every country that is not inaccessible or unin- 
habited, and she is mistress of every sea, not only 
of that which lies inside the Pillars of Hercules but 
also of the Ocean, except that part of it which is 
not navigable - ; she is the first and the only State 
recorded in all time that ever made the risings and 
the settings of the sun the boundaries of her domin- 
ion. Nor has her supremacy been of short duration, 
but more lasting than that of any other common- 
wealth or kingdom. For from the very begin- 
ning, immediately after her founding, she began to 
draw to herself the neighbouring nations, which 
were both numerous and warlike, and continuallv 
advanced, subjugating every rival. And it is now 
seven hundred and forty-five years from her founda- 
tion down to the consulship of Claudius Nero, consul 
for the second time, and of Calpurnius Piso. who 
were chosen in the one hundred and ninety-third 
Olympiad.^ From the time that she mastered the 
whole of Italy she was emboldened to aspire to 

north. From Eratosthenes we learn also that that other 
early navigator, the Carthaginian Hanno, who sailed far 
south along the west coast of Africa, was finally forced by 
many difficulties (of what sort we are not told) to turn 
back. 

'Nero and Piso were consuls in 7 B.C. This was the 
year 745 of the City according to Dion^^«!ius, who assigns 
its founding to the year 75i. See chap. 74, 

u 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TTpoeXSetv, eK^aXovaa jLtev e/c rrj? daXdrrrjg Kap^r]- 
SovLOVs, ot TTXeiorriv ecrxov vavTLKTjv SvvaiJLLv, vtto- 
X€LpLov he Xa^ovaa MaKeSoviav, i] recog iSoKeu 
[xdyLGTOv laxv^i-v Kara yrfv, ovSev en dvTLTTaXov 
exovaa ovre ^dp^apov (f)vXov ovre ' EXXtjvlkov ye- 
vedv i^BofJL-qv rjSrj rrjv eV ifxov Sia/xeVet Travro? 
apxovoa tottov ' edvos §€ ovhkv co? etVeti^ eariv o 
TTepl rrjs kolvtj? -qyepbovlag rj rod fxrj apx^odai irpos 
avTr]v hiacjuepeTai. dXXd yap on pLev ovre ttju 
iXaxicrr-qv tojv virodeaecov TTporjprjpai, Kaddrrep 
€(f)r)Vy ovre Trepl <f)avXas kol dcjTjpiovs Trpd^eig 
eyvojKa Starpi'Seiv, aAAa Trept re rroXecDS ypdcf)a> 
rrj? 7TepL(j)aveurdrrjS kol Trepl -rrpd^eajv cLv ovk av 
exoi n? erepas emhei^auBai Xap^ir pore pas, ovk otS' 
6 Tt hel TiXeiod Xeyeiv. 

IV. "On S' OVK dvev Xoyiapov Kal Trpovolag 
ep.(l)povos iTTL rd iraXaid rujv laropovpevojv ire pi 
avrrj9 erpaTToprjv, dAA' e^cDV evXoyiorovs dTTohovvai 
rrj? TTpoaipecreoJS alrlas, oAtya /3ji;Ao/xat Trpoeirrelv, 
tva /XT] nve? imnpLi^GcocrL (jlol rcbv 77po? aTravra 
(f)LXairLOJV, ovSev rrco ^ rcjv p.eXX6vrcor Br^Xovadai 
TTpoaKrjKooreg, on rrjg doiSlpLov yevopevr]? KaO* 
rjpd? TToXecxJS dSo^ovs Kal rrdvv raneuvas rag 
rypcfjra? dcfyopfJidg Xa^Gvar^g Kal ovk af ta? lorropLKTJg 
dvaypacftrjgy ov TroAAat? Se yeveals TTporepov elg 
e7Ti<j)dveLav Kal ho^av dcfyiypLeurjg, ef ov rdg re 

^ TTOJ Cobet : OVTTil) O. 

^ This would normally mean six full generations plus 
part of another. If Dionysius was counting from the battle 
of Pydna (168), he must have reckoned a generation here 

12 



BOOK T. 3, 5-4, 1 

govern all maiikiiiil, and after driving from off the 
sea the Carthaginians, whose maritime strength was 
superior to that of all others, and suhduing Mace- 
donia, which until then was reputed to be the most 
powerful nation on land, she no longer had as rival 
any nation either barbarian or Greek ; and it is now 
in my day already the seventh generation ^ that she 
has continued to hold sway over every region of the 
world, and there is no nation, as I may say, that 
disputes her universal dominion or protests against 
being ruled by her. However, to prove my state- 
ment that I have neither made choice of the most 
trivial of subjects nor proposed to treat of mean and 
insignificant deeds, but am undertaking to write 
not only about the most illustrious city but also 
about brilliant achievements to whose like no man 
could point, I know not what more I need say. 

IV. But before I proceed. I desire to show in a few 
words that it is not without design and mature premed- 
itation that I have turned to the early part of Rome's 
history, but that I have well-considered reasons 
to give for my choice, to forestall the censure 
of those who, fond of finding fault with everything 
and not as yet having heard of any of the matters 
which I am about to make known, may blame me 
because, in fepite of the fact that this city, grown so 
famouG in our days, had very humble and inglori- 
ous beginnings, unworthy of historical record, and 
that it was but a few generations ago, that is, 

at less than twenty-eight years (his usual estimate) ; but 
he may have felt that the Macedonian power was broken at 
Cynoscephalae (197). Or the seven generations may have 
been actually counted in some important family. 

13 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

MaKeSovLKOL? Kad^ZXe hwacrreia? /cat rovs 0olvl- 
KLKOvg Karcopdcocre TToXefxov?^ i^ov jjlol rcov ivBo^ojv 
TLva \a^€LV auTTJs" VTTodeaeojv, inl ttjv ovSev exovaav 

2 eVt^ave? apxcLLoXoylav aireKXiva. en yap ayvoel- 
rat Trapa rot? "EXXtjctlv oXiyov Setv Trdcnv rj TroAata 
rrj? ' PojfJLaLOJV rroXeajs IcrropLa, Koi So^at TLves ovk 
aXrjOeL? dAA' eV tojv eTTiTVXovrcov dKovapLOLTajv rr)P 
apxrjv Xa^ovaaL rovs ttoXXov? i^rjTTar'iJKacrLV, wg 
avecrriovs fteV nvas koi TrXdi^rjTag Kal ^ap^dpovg 
/cat ovSe TovTOvg iXevdepovs OLKiards evpofxeiT^g,^ 
ov St' evae^eiav 8e /cat SLKaLOcrvvrjv /cat ttjv dXXrjv 
dperrjv eirl ttjv dTrdvrajv -qyefioviav ovv XP^^V 
TrapeXOovcrqg, dXXd 8t' avropLarLcrfxov riva /cat 
"^^XW dhiKOV €LKrj SajpoviJL€inrjv rd fieyLcrra rcov 
dyaOcbv rols dveirtT'qheioTdroig • /cat ot ye /ca- 
KorjOeurepoL Kanqyopeiv elcoOaGL rrjg tvx'T)? Kara 
TO (f)avepdv w? ^apjjdpojv rots Trovripordrois rd 

3 TU)v 'EXXrji'OJV ;^apt^o/xeV-)7S' ^ dyadd. KairOL^ ri 
Set TTepl Twv dXXcov Xeyeiv, ottov ye Kal tojv 
cruyypacjjeatv rtve? eroXfju'qcrav ev rals tWoptat? 
ravra ypdipavres KaraXiTTelv , ^aaiXevGi ^ap^dpotg 
fjLLGOvcTL T7]v rjyefxovLav , OL? SovXevovre? avrol /cat 
rd Kad^ rjbovd? ofjLiXovvres SiereXeaav, ovre St/cata? 
ovre dX-qdels loropias x^P'-i^fievoL ; 

' evpofjLevrjs Sauppe, Trapexofievrjs Steph.^, K€KTTjfj.ev7js or 
B€xofx€VT)s Reiske : cvxofievrjs AB, Jacoby. 
^ Schwartz : 7TopLl,opL€vr]s O, Jacoby. 
* KaiTOL Capps : Kal O, Jacoby. 

^Sylburg suggested that Hieronymus and Timaeus 
(see beginning of chap. 6) were among the writers 

14 



BOOK I. 4, 1-3 

since her overthrow of the Macedonian power? 
and her success in the Punic wars, that she arrived 
at distinction and glory, nevertheless, when I was at 
liberty to choose one of the famous periods in her 
history for my theme, I turned aside to one so 
barren of distinction as her antiquarian lore. For 
to this day almost all the Greeks are ignorant of 
the early history of Rome and the great majority 
of them have been imposed upon by sundry false 
opinions grounded upon stories which chance has 
brought to their ears and led to believe that, having 
come upon various vagabonds without house or 
home and barbarians, and even those not free men, 
as her founders, she in the course of time arrived at 
world domination, and this not through reverence 
for the gods and justice and every other virtue, but 
through some chance and the injustice of Fortune, 
which inconsiderately showers her greatest favours 
upon the most undeserving. And indeed the more 
malicious are wont to rail openly at Fortune for 
freely bestowing on the basest of barbarians the 
blessings of the Greeks. And yet why should I 
mention men at large, when even some historians 
have dared to express such views in the writings 
they have left, taking this method of humouring 
barbarian kings who detested Rome's supremacy, — 
princes to whom they were ever servilely devoted 
and with whom they associated as flatterers, — by 
presenting them with "histories"' which were neither 
just nor true ? ^ 

Dionysius here had in mind and that Pyrrhus was one of 
the kings. 

15 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

V. Tavra? Sr] ras ireTrXavqiiivas , wairep €<f)r)v, 
VTroXrufjeLS i^eXeoOai rij? Biavoias tcjv iroXXihv ^ 
TTpoatpovfievos /cat avrtfcaraCT/ceuaorat ras" dXrjdelg, 
Trepl fiev rcov olKLcrdvrojv ttjv ttoXlv, olrives Tycrav 
Kol KaTCL TtVas" eKacrroL Kaipovs cruvi^Xdov Kal tlctl 
rvxoLi-? XPT)(^d.ixevoi rds Trarpiovs OLKrjGeis i^eXuTTOv, 
€V Tavrrj SrjXwcroj rfj ypa(j)fj, 8t' -i^? "EXXr^vds re 
avTOvg ovras eVtSet^etv VTTiGxyovpiai Kal ovk €/c 
Ta)v iXax^orTOjv tj ^avXoTdrcjv idvcov cruveXiqXvdoras. 

2 TTepl he rojv Trpd^eojv, a? iJierd top olklctjjlov evdeoj? 
aTTehei^avro y kol jrepl rcov iTnTr]hevpidriov , i^ osv 
el? roaavTTjv r]yejJLOViav Trp07]Xdov ol pier avrovg, 
(XTTO TrJ9 /xera ravrrjv dp^dpcevog dvaypa(f)7Js d(f)'q- 
yqcTOfJiai, TrapaXtTrajv ovhev oar] poL hvvapus rcov 
d^icxiv iGTopias, Iva rols ye ^ piaOovcn rrjv dXi^deiav 
d TrpoGT]KeL TTepl rfj? TToXeoj? rrjaSe Trapaarfj 
(jipovelv, el pLT] TTavrdiraoiv dypiws kol hvcrpLevcos 
hidKeivrai rrpog avriqv, Kal pL-qre axOeordai rfj 
VTTordieL Kara ro elKog yevopievr) (^voeojs yap 817 
vopLos diraai kolvos, ov onsets' KaraXvoei xpovog, 
dpx^f-v d^l rojv rjTTovojv rovs Kpeirrovas) /xtJtc 
Karrjyopelv rrjs rvx^jS, co? ovk eTTir-qheicp TToXei 
T7]XLKavrrjv -qyepiovlav Kal rooovrov rjSr] xpd^ov 

3 TTpolKa hwpTjGaixevqg • p^adovcrl ye Sr) napd rrj? 
LGropla^y OTL pivpias rjveyKev duSpwv dperds evOvg 
e^ dpx'^S p^erd rov olKiorpLov, chv ovr^ evae^earepovg 
ovre hiKaLorepovs ovre aa)(f)poovvr) irXeiovt. irapd 

^ TToXXuiv B : TToAtTcDv R, 

16 



BOOK I. 5, 1-3 

V. In order, therefore, to remove these errone- 
ous impressions, as I have called them, from the 
minds of the many and to substitue true ones in their 
room, I shall in this Book show who the founders 
of the city were, at what periods the various groups 
came together, and through what turns of fortune 
they left their native countries. By this means I 
engage to prove that they were Greeks and came 
together from nations not the smallest nor the least 
considerable. And beginning with the next Book 
I shall tell of the deeds they performed immediately 
after their founding of the city and of the customs 
and institutions by \drtue of which their descendants 
advanced to so great dominion ; and, so far as I am 
able, I shall omit nothing worthy of being recorded 
in history, to the end that I may instil in the minds 
of those who shall then be informed of the truth the 
fitting conception of this city, — unless they have 
already assumed an utterly violent and hostile 
attitude toward it, — and also that they may neither 
feel indignation at their present subjection, which is 
grounded on reason (for by an universal law of Na- 
ture, which time cannot destroy, it is ordained that 
superiors shall ever govern their inferiors), nor rail at 
Fortune for having wantonly bestowed upon an un- 
deserving city a supremacy so great and already of 
so long continuance, particularly when they shall 
have learned from my history that Rome from the 
very beginning, immediately after its founding, 
produced infinite examples of virtue in men whose 
superiors, whether for piety or for justice or for 

"^ Tols yi Ritschl, tois Kiessling : joTf. O. 

17 

VOL. T, C 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

naura rov ^iov ;^/37^o-a/xeVoL'9 ovhe ye ra TroAe/xta 
KpeLTTOVS aycovLcrras ovhefxia ttoXls rjveyKev ovre 
EXXag ovre ^dp^apos, el 8r] aireGTaL rod Xoyov to 
eTTL(j)dovov • e)(eL yap tl kol roiovrov tj roov Trapa- 

4 So^ojv Kal davpLaaraJv vttocjx^gl? . ol Se crupLTrav- 
res OL Touovro nepLdeureg avrfj hwaureiag fxeyedog 
ayvoovuraL Trpos * EXkrjvojv , ov TV)(^6vTes a^toXoyov 
uvyypa(^e(jL>s ' ovhepiia yap aKpt^'qg e^eXrjXvde irepl 
avTcov 'EXXtjvU LGTopia p-expL rcov Ka9' Vifjid? XP^' 
ViiiVy OTL fjLTj Ke(f)aXaici)heLS e7TiTop,al irdw ^pax^iOLL, 
\1. 7Tpa)TOV pLev, oaa /ca/xe elBevai, ttjv ^Pajpua'C- 
tcrjv apxcLoXoyiav eirthpapiOVTOs ' lepwvvpov rod 
Kaphiavov avyypa(l)eojs ev rfj rrepl rcov ^Emyovcxiv 
TTpaypLareia' eiretra TtpLaiov rod EcKeXiajrov rd 
pL€v apxolo. rcov laropiajv ev rals Koivals LGropiais 
d(j>r]yriGapievov , rovs he Trpos IJuppov rov ^HTreLpcorrjv 
TToXepLOVS etV ISlav Karaxcop^Gavros rrpaypareiav ' 
a/xa 8e roijroLS lAvrtyovov re /cat UoXvJSlov Kal 
UlXt^vov Kal puvpicov dXXcov rols avrotg TTpdypLaonv 
ovx opioiojs eTTi^aXovrojv, a)v eKaarog oXiya Kal 
ovSe aKpi^cjs avro) hLeaiTovhaapeva , dAA' eV rcov 

2 eTTLrvxovTCjov dKovapdra)v ovvdelg dveypaipev. opioi- 
as Se rovroLS Kal ovSev hiacfjopovs e^eSa)Kav luro- 
pias Kal 'PcDpLaiajv ouoi rd TTaXaid epya rrjs tto- 
Xeojs * EXXrjvLKfj hioXeKrcp cruveypaijjav , ojv elai irpe- 

^Hieronymus wrote a history of the Diadochi (the im- 
mediate successors of Alexander) and of their sons, some- 
times called the Epigoni (c/. Diodorus i. 3), covering the 
period down to the war of Pyrrhus in Italy. 

^Timaeus' great work was his history of Sicily down to 
the overthrow of Agathoclee in 289. It included the 

18 



BOOK I. 5, 3-6, 2 

life-long self-control or for warlike valour, no city, 
either Greek or barbarian, has ever produced. This, 
I say, is what I hope to accomplish, if my readers will 
but lay aside all resentment ; for some such feeling 
is aroused by a promise of things which run counter 
to received opinion or excite wonder. And it is a 
fact that all those Romans who bestowed upon their 
country so great a dominion are unknown to the 
Greeks for want of a competent historian. For no 
accurate history of the Romans written in the Greek 
language has hitherto appeared, but only very brief 
and summary epitomes. 

VI. The first historian, so far as I am aware, to 
touch upon the early period of the Romans was 
Hieronymus of Cardia, in his work on the Epigoni.^ 
After him Timaeus of Sicily related the beginnings 
of their history in his general history and treated 
in a separate work the wars with Pyrrhus of Epirus.^ 
Besides these, Antigonus, Polybius, Silenus ^ and in- 
numerable other authors devoted themselves to the 
same themes, though in different ways, each of them 
recording some few things compiled without accurate 
investigation on his own part but from reports which 
chance had brought to his ears. Like to these in 
all respects are the histories of those Romans, also, 
who related in Greek the early achievements of the 

histories of Italy and Carthage ; hence Dion ysius describes 
it as a " general history." 

^ Antigonus, ctted by Plutarch on early Roman history, 
is otherwise vmknown. Polybius is too well known to 
require comment here. Silenus was one of the historians 
in the suite of Hannibal ; his history of the Second Punic 
War was praised by Ciceio and Xepos. 

19 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

(T^VTaroi KoLVTOs re <Pd^ios Kal AevKios KiyKio^y 
dfX(f)6r€poL Kara, rovs 0OLVtKLKOvg dK[.idcravT€s rroXe- 
jxovs. TOVTOJV 8e Tcov di'Spojv 6Kdrepo<;, ot? fiev 
auTOS" epyoL? TrapeyeVero, Sid rvp ejXTTeipiav d/cpt- 
jScD? dviypaijje, rd he dpxala rd fxerd rrjp ktlglv 
TTJg TToXeojs yevojxeva K€(f)aXaia>Sdj^ ineOpafjiev. 

3 Sid ravra? /xev Stj rds alrias eSofe /xot fxr] Trap- 
eXOeZv KaXrjv loropiav iyKaraXeK^OelGau vtto tcjv 
TTpea^vrepcov dpLV-qp^ovevrov , i$ rj£ dKpi^cjs ypa- 
(f>€LGr]s cwfiprjaeraL rd KpdrcGTa Kal hiKaioraTa 
ra)v epycDV • rols p-^v iKTreTrX-qpcoKOOL rr^v iavTcov 
fjLolpav dvSpdaLv dyaOols oo^t]? alioviov rv)(€Lu Kal 
TTpos Tojv iTTiyiyvopievcxjv eTraLvelaOai , a ttoi€i ttju 
OvrjTTjv (f)VGiv op^oLOvadai rfj Beta Kal prj GVvaTTO- 

4 dvrjGK€LV rd^ epya roZs croj/xacri • rol? he dn^ eKeivcov 
rwv luoOiajv dvhpojv vvv re ovgl /cat VGrepov ecro/x€- 

VOiS piT] TOV rjhiGTOV T€ Kal pO-GTOV alpelGdai TCJJV 

^Lcxjv, dXXd rdv evyeveGrarov Kal (jtiXoTLpboraTov y 
ivOvpiOvpLevovs on rovs elXrjc^ora? KaXds to,? irpcj- 
ras if< rod yivovs d(f)oppLds pueya ecfy' eavroZg 
7TpoGT]KeL (fypovelv Kal pirjhev dvd^tov eTrcTrjheveiv 

5 TCOV TTpoyovojv • epiol he, o? ovxl KoXaKelag ;^ap£V 
CTTt ravT-qv (XTreVAtva rrfv TTpaypiareiav, dXXd Trjg 
dXrideias Kal rod hiKaiov npovoovpLevo?, cLv Set 
aTO)(dt>eGdai iraGav LGroplav, Trpcorov puev aTTO- 
hei^aGOai ^ ttjv ep,avTov hiduoLav, on XPV^'^V Trpo? 
airavrds ^ eGn rovs dyadovs Kal (^iXoOecopovs tcov 

^ TO. B : avTTJg to. A, avrois ra R. 
2 Ritschl : iniSei^aodai O, Jacoby. 
* a77aK7as B : aTravTas avOpJjTTOvs R. 

20 



BOOK I. 6. 2-5 

city ; the oldest of these writers are Quintus Fabiiis ^ 
and Lucius Cincius,'- who both flourished during the 
Punic wars. Each of these men related the events 
at which he himself had been present with great 
exactness, as bein^ well acquainted with them, but 
touched only in a summary way upon the early 
events that followed the founding of the city. For 
these reasons, therefore. I have determined not to 
pass over a noble period of history which the older 
writers left untouched, a period, moreover, the ac- 
curate portrayal of which will lead to the following 
most excellent and just results: In the first place, 
the brave men who have fulfilled their destiny will 
gain immortal glory and be extolled by posterity, 
which things render human nature like unto the 
divine and prevent men's deeds from perishing to- 
gether with their bodies. And again, both the 
present and future descendants of those godlike men 
will choose, not the pleasantest and easiest of lives, 
but rather the noblest and most ambitious, when 
they consider that all who are sprung from an illus- 
trious origin ought to set a high value on themselves 
and indulge in no pursuit unworthy of their an- 
cestors. And I, who have not turned aside to this 
work for the sake of flattery, but out of a regard for 
truth and justice, which ought to be the aim of every 
history, shall have an opportunity, in the first place, 
of expressing my attitude of goodwill toward all 
good men and toward all who take pleasure in the 



^ Q. Fabius Pictor. 
2 L. Cincius Alimentus. 



21 



DIOXYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

KaXwv epyojv Kal {leydXajv • eVetra ■x^apLor'qpiovs 
dfJLOL^d?, ag e^ot Svi-a/jLig rjv, dnoSovi'aL rfj TroAet, 
TratSetas" re fiejjLvrjiJLepcp /cat raJi^ dXXoju dyadojv 
oacDV diriXavaa SiarpLipas iv avrfj. 

VII. ^ATToSehojKOjg 8e top vrrep rrjs rrpoaLpeaco)? 
Xoyov €TL ^ovXofJLai Kal rrepl rcov d(f)op{jia)u elireZvy 
at? ixpyjcrdfJLrjv or ^fxeXXov i77i)(€Lp€lv rfj ypa(f)rj • 
laojg yap ol TrpoaveyvcoKoreg 'lepcopvpiov rj TlfiaLou 
7} IloXv^LOv Tj T(x)v dXXcov TLvd cruyypa(f}€OJv , vrrep 
(Lv iTroirjadfJLYjv Xoyov oXlyq) Trporepov c5s" eVt- 
oearvpKorojv rrjv ypac/y-r^v, TToXXd raju vtt^ ifiov 
ypa(/>o/LieVcov ovx evprjKores Trap ^Keii ot? Keljieva 
(TxeScd^eLv VTToXruJjovrai fie Kal ttoOeu tj tovtojv 
yvaxjLS els e/xe irapayiyovev a^iajcrovGL ixaOelv. 
tva hrj pLTj TOLavTT] So^a Trapaorrfj tlgl irepl ifJLOv, 
PeXriov d(f)^ cov (hpix-qd-qv Xoyojv re Kal viropLvq- 

2 jJLarLOjJiCJv TTpoeLTTelv. iyoj KaraTrXevaag el? ^ IraXlav 
d/jia TO) KaTaXvdrjvaL rov epL(j)vXiov rroXefjLov vtto rov 
Ze^aGTov Kaiaapos epSofxrjg Kal oySorjKoaTTJs Kal 
eKaroo-rrj's oAu/XTTtaSo? ixeaovcnq?, Kal rov ef eKeivov 
Xpdvov eTOJV hvo Kal e'lKoui pie^pi rod rrapovros 
yevoiievov ev 'Pcofxr} SiarpLipas, SidXeKTOV re rrju 
'PcofMaiKrjv eKfJiaOdjv Kal ypafJLfJLdrojv rwv ^ eTTi- 
yojpLojv Xa^ojv eTnarrjix'qv ^ ev navrl tovtco tco ^ 
Xpovcp rd ovvreLvovra npos rrjv vnodeaiv ravTrjv 

3 htereXovv TTpaypiarevopLevo?. Kal rd fiev napa rcov 
XoyLOjrdrojv dvhpa)v, oU els o/xiAtav tjXOov, hihaxf] 
TTapaXa^ojv , rd 8' eV rihv laropLcov di'aXe^dfievos, 

Itwv added by Reiske. ^rw added by Ritschl. 

22 



BOOK T. 6. 1^-7, 3 

contemplation of great and noble deeds ; and, in 
the second place, of making the most grateful 
return that I may to the city in remembrance of the 
education and other blessings I have enjoyed during 
my residence in it. 

VII. Having thus given the reason for my choice 
of subject, I wish now to say something concern- 
ing the sources I used while preparing for my task. 
For it is possible that those who have already read 
Hieronymus. Timaeus. Polybius. or any of the other 
historians whom I just now mentioned as having 
slurred over their work. since they will not have found 
in those authors many things mentioned by me, will 
suspect me of inventing them and will demand to 
know how I came by the knowledge of these par- 
ticulars. Lest anyone, therefore, should entertain 
such an opinion of me, it is best that I should state 
in advance what narratives and records I have used 
as sources. I arrived in Italy at the very time that 
Augustus Caesar put an end to the civil war, in the 
middle of the one hundred and eighty-seventh 
Olympiad ^ , and having from that time to this 
present day, a period of twenty-two years, lived 
at Rome, learned the language of the Romans and 
acquainted myself with their writings, I have de- 
voted myself during all that time to matters bear- 
ing upon my subject. Some information I re- 
ceived orally from men of the greatest learning, with 
whom I associated ; and the rest I gathered from 

^ Perhaps late in 30 B.C., if Dionysius wrote this preface 
early in the year 7 (chap. 3, 4) ; but the closing of the 
temple of Janus in January, 29, or Octavian's triumph in 
August may have marked for him the end of the war. 

23 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

a? ol TTpos avTCov eTraivovjJievoL ' Pcofxatcov crvue- 
ypaipav FIopKiOs re Kdrajv kol Od^tos Ma^t/u,o? 
Koi OvaXepio? 6 ^ ^AvTLev? Kal Alklvvlo? ^ MaKep 
A'lXlol re Kal FeXXLot Kal KaXTTOvpvioL Kal erepOL 
(TV)(vol TTpos rovroL? di'Spes ovk dcj^avels, a7r' €/cet- 
pojv opficopLevo? Tujv TTpaypLareicjv (etcrt 8c rats' 
*EXXiqviKaZ? )(^povoypa(f)Lais eoiKvlai), rore eVe;^€t- 
4 p-qaa rfj ypa(f)fj. ravra p.€v ovv VTrep €p.avTov 
StetAey/xat. Xolttoi' S' ert ^ /jlol Kal ire pi ttjs 

LOTOplaS aVTTJg 7TpO€L7T€LV, TLGL TC aVTrjV TTepiXap,' 

^dvoj xpo^oL? Kal TTepl rivojv Trotou/xai TTpayfxdrojv 
TTjv 8L-^y7](JLv Kal TToraTTOv dTTohihcojXi TO crp^T^/xa rfj 
TTpay liar eta. 

VIII. "Apxoj-iai p-ev ovv rrj? laropias diro rojv 
TTaXaLordrojp pvdcxjv, ov? -napeXiTTOv ol npo ipcov 
y€i'6p.€voi (jvyypa(j>els ;YaAe770us' oVra? dvev Trpay- 
2 [xaretas p^eydXr]? i^evpeOrjvaL ' Kara^L^d^o) Se rrjv 
Si'^y-qoLV iirl r7]v apx^jv rod TTpwrov 0olvlklkov 
TToXepov rrjv yevopievrjv iviavra) rpircp rrjs oyhoiqs 
Kal eLKOGrrjg irrl rals eKarov oXvpindcnv. d(f>rj- 
youjLtat Se rovs re oOveiovs 7ToXep.ovs rijs TToXeojg 
OiTTavra? ooovg "* eV eKeivoL? rols xpovoL? eVoAc/xr^crc, 
Kal ra? epLcjivXiovs ordoeLS onooas earaalaaev, i^ 

1 d added by Biicheler. 

2 Xlkiwios O (and so nearly always) : AikCvlos Jacoby (here 
only). 

3 8* In Gary : ert Se B, Jacoby, eWt 6e R; be Pflugk. 
* oaovs Kriiger : ovs O. 

24 



BOOK I. 7, 3-8, 2 

histories ,^'^ittcn by tlie approved Roman authors — 
Porcius Cato, Fabiii- Maximiis,^ Valerius Antias, 
Licinius Macer, the Aelii, Gellii and Calpurnii,- and 
many others of note ; with these works, which are 
like the Greek annalistic accounts, as a basis, I set 
about the writing of my history. So much, then, 
concerning myself. But it yet remains for me to 
say something also concerning the history itself — to 
what periods I limit it. what subjects I describe, 
and what form I give to the work. 

VIII. I begin my history, then, with the most 
ancient legends, which the historians before me have 
omitted as a subject difficult to be cleared up with- 
out diligent study ; and I bring the narrative down 
to the beginning of the First Punic War, which fell 
in the third year of the one hundred and twenty- 
eighth Olympiad.^ I relate all the foreign wars 
that the city waged during that period and all 
the internal seditions with which she was asitated. 



^ Probably Q. Fabius Maximus Servilianns (cos. 142) ; 
but we have very little evidence to go on. See Schanz- 
Hosius, Rom. Lifteraturgesch. i. p. 174. 

2 As Xiebuhr pointed out {Bom. Gesch. ii. note 11), 
these plurals are not to be taken literally, but in the sense 
of " men like Aelius," etc. We read of two Aelii, it is true, 
who were engaged in writing history — L. Aelius Tubero, 
a boyhood friend of Cicero, and his son. Quint us ; but it 
is doubtful whether the father ever published his work, 
whereas the son's historj^ is quoted several times. The 
only Gellius and the only Calpurnius known to have been 
historians were Cn. Gellius and L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 
sometimes styled Censorius (the ex-censor). Both lived in 
the time of the Gracchi and both wrote histories of Rome 
from the beginnincr down to their own day. 

' 20o B.C., the date of the casus beili. 

25 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

oloiv aLTLOJv iyevovro kol hi olcxjv rponcov re /cat 
Xoycxjv KareXvd-qoav • 7toXlt€lcov re tSea? Bie^eLfiL 
TTaaas oaacs ixprjcraTO ^auiXevofJievr] re Kal fiera 
rrjv KardXvGLV raJv fiovdpxcou, /cat rtV rjv avrcjv 
eKOiOT-qg 6 kogjjlo^ • eOrj re rd KpaTcara Kal vojjlovs 
Tovg iTn^aveurdrovs hL-qyovpiai Kal avXXrj^hiqv oXov 

3 aTToSetKi'VfjLL TOP dp)^aLoi' ^iov rrj? TroAeajS". ox'rjiJLa 
8e aTToSlSojiJLL rfj TrpaypLareia ov0^ ottolov ol rovg 
TToXepLov? piovovg ^ dvaypdifjavres ayroSeSco/cacrt rat? 
ioroplaL? ovd' orroZov ol ras" TToAtreia? aura? €(^' 
iavTOJv ScrjyrjordfjievoL ovre rat? ;!^poi't/<:at? napa- 
TrXrjaLOVy a? i^eSojKav ol rd? Mr^tSa? rrpaypiarev- 
adfjL€voi • pLOvoeiheis re ydp eKelvai ^ Kal ra^v 
TTpocTLGrdfxevaL rotg aKOVOVortv dAA' ef drrdanqs 
Ihias [JLLKrov evayojviov re Kal 9ea>prjrLKrjs Kal 
hfqyripiarLKT]s ,^ Iva Kal roX? irepl rov? rroXiriKovs 
hiarpi^ovGi Xoyovs Kal roZs rrepl rrjv (f)LX6ao(l)ov 
io-TTOvSaKocn decopiav Kal el rLcriv doxX't]rov Se-qaec 
SLaya)yrJ9 ev luropiKols dvayvajaixacnv djToxpdovrcJS 

4 exovcra ^atVi^rat. rj fJLev ovv LGropia irepl roiovrcov 
re yevrjGerai rrpayjidrajv Kal roiovrov reij^erac 
ox'^P'O.ros' 6 he ovvrd^a? avrrjv Alovuglos et/xt 
^AXe^dvhpov 'AXiKapvaaevs' ap;^o/xat 8' evdevhe. 

^iJLovovs added by Steph.^. 

*T€ yap eKelvai Pflugk : yap eKelvai re O, Jacoby ; yap 
eKelvai ye Reiske. 

^ Kal b(.7]yr]fjLaTLKrjs added by Gary, Kal rjbeLas by kStcjjh.*, 
Jacoby. 

26 



BOOK I. 8, 2-4 

slio^ving from ^vliat causes they sprang and by what 
methods and by what arguments they were brought 
to an end. I give an account also of all the forms of 
government Rome used, both during the monarchy 
and after its overthrow, and show what was the 
character of each. I describe the best customs and 
the most remarkable laws ; and, in short, I show the 
whole life of the ancient Romans. As to the form 
I give this work, it does not resemble that which the 
authors who make wars alone their subject have 
given to their histories, nor that which others who 
treat of the several forms of government by them- 
selves have adopted, nor is it like the annalistic 
accounts w^hich the authors of the Atthides ^ have 
published (for these are monotonous and soon grow 
tedious to the reader), but it is a combination of 
every kind, forensic, speculative and narrative, 
to the intent that it may afford satisfaction both 
to those who occupy themselves with political de- 
bates and to those who are devoted to philosophical 
speculations,^ as well as to any who may desire mere 
undisturbed entertainment in their reading of history. 
Such things, therefore, wall be the subjects of my 
history and such will be its form. I, the author, am 
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, the son of Alexander, 
And at this point I begin. 

^ Atthis (an adjective meaning " Attic ") was the name 
given to histories of Attica; there were many of these 
written in the fourth and third centuries. They made no 
pretension to hterary style. 

' A comparison of the introductory chapter of Book XI 
(§§ 1 and 4) makes it proh»able that the first group men- 
tioned here were those who took an active part in pubUc 
affairs, the second the political philosophers or theorists. 

27 



DIONYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

IX. Trju -qyefiova yrj^ Kal daXaacrrjs aTrdcrr]? 
ttoXlu, rjv vvv KaTOLKOvai 'PajfialoL, TraXatoraTOi 
TCx)v iJ.inrjiJLOV€VOfieva)i> Xeyovrai Karacrxeiv ^dp^apoL 
ZiKeXoiy edvos avOcyevs? ■ to. Se Trpo tovtojv ovd^ 
a>£ Karei-xero irpos irepcop ovd^ a»S" ep-qjxo? -qu 
ovhels e^ei ^e^aicos elrreiv. )(p6vcp Se vcrrepov 
^A^optylve? avrrjv rrapaXaix^dvovcn TToXepLCo jJcaKpo) 

2 TOV£ exovrag dc^eXopievoi • ot ro pikv irporepov 
€77t rots' opecTLV (pKovv avev ret^oji^ Kcopi'qSou Kal 
GTTopdhes, 67761 he lleXacryoL re Kal tojv d'AAojv 
^EXXiy.'OJV TLve? dvafJLixOivTes avrols ovvqpavTO rod 
TTpos Tovg ojJLorepiJLOvag TToXepLOV, to EiKeXtKov 
yevos dTTavaGTi'iGavTes i^ avTrjs TToXetg 77epte/3a- 
XovTO avx^d? Kal TrapeaKevaaav vtttjkoov avroXs 
yeveadaL Trdaap oarjv opitovoi -noTajiol h-uo Alpis 
Kal Tij^epis ' ^ ol rd^ fxev dpxd^ Xapi^dvovGi Trjg 
pvGea>9 eK ri^s VTTOjpelag toju ATrevvivajv opojv, 
v(f)' (Lp hiXG reixperai Traoa enl firJKOs r) "IraXia, 
StaGrdpTes Se Kara rds e/c/3oAa? OKraKOGid nov 
GrdSia ttTT-' dXArjXa>p els to Tvpp-qvLKOv e^epev- 
yovTGL TTeXayos, drro pLev twp /Sopetojv pLepoju 6 
Te^epLg '^CTTta? TroXeojg ttXt^glop eVStSou?, dno Se 
rod peGrjpLl3p'.pov KXcpLarog 6 Alpts Miprovpvav 
TTapapLeipopiePog • 'Pcupiaicov 8e elGiv at TroXeug 

3 dp,(f)6repaL dnoLKOi. Kal hiipieivav irrl rrjs avrrj<; 
OLKrjGeojg ovKeri irpog erepcop e^eXadepre?, ovopidrwv 
dAAayat?- diTTat?^ ot avrol dpOpcoTTOt irpoGayopevo- 
pLepoL, pLexpi- P-^v Tov TpojiKov TToXepLOv rrjp apxalap 

^Te^epis Ritschl: Tt'jSept? O (and so just below; but in 
later passages refiipis is the more common form). 

28 



BOOK I. 9, 1-3 

IX. This city, mistress of the whole earth and sea. 
which the Romans now inhabit, is said to have had 
as its earhest known occupants the barbarian Sicels, a 
native race. As to the condition of the place before 
their time, whether it was occupied by others or un- 
inhabited, none can certainly say. But some time 
later the Aborigines gained possession of it, having 
taken it from the occupants after a long war. These 
people had previously lived on the mountains in 
unwalled villages and scattered groups ; but when 
the Pelasgians,^ with whom some other Greeks had 
united, assisted them in the war against their neigh- 
bours, they drove the Sicels out of this place, walled 
in many towns, and contrived to subjugate all the 
country that lies between the two rivers, the Liris 
and the Tiber. These rivers spring from the foot 
of the Apennine mountains, the range by which all 
Italy is divided into two parts throughout its length, 
and at points about eight hundred stades from one 
another discharge themselves into the Tyrrhenian 
Sea, the Tiber to the north, near the city of Ostia, 
and the Liris to the south, as it flows by Mintur- 
nac, both these cities being Roman colonies. And 
these people remained in this same place of abode, 
being never afterwards driven out by any others ; 
but, although they continued to be one and the same 
people, their name was twice changed. Till the time 
of the Trojan war they preserved their ancient name 

^ As will be seen a little later (chap. 17), Dionysius re- 
garded the Pelasgians as a Greek nation. 



'■ aXXayals Dnig., iSteph. : dAAa rats O. 
' BiTTals Kiessling : avrals O. 



29 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Tiov *A^opLyLvcov ovofJLacjLav en awtovres , eVt he 
Aarivov ^aaiXiajs, os Kara rov ^IXiaKov TToXefxov 
4 ehvvdoreve, Aarlvoi dp^djJLevoL KaXelodai. ^Pa>- 
yuvXov Se rr^v eTTCovu/xov avrov ttoXlv OLKLaavros ^ 
eKKaiheKa yeveal? tcov TpojLKOJV varepov, rjv vvv 
exovGLv ovofxaGLav jjLeTaXaj36vTe?, edvos re pLeyiorov 
ef iXaxiorrov yeveodai ovv xpo'ia; TrapeGKevaaav 
/cat 7Tepi(j)aveuraT0v e^ dSrjXoTarov , rwv re Seopie- 
vojv olKi^aeoJS Trapd 0(J)lgl (j)iXav9pa>7T(jp vnohoxfj 
/cat TToXirela? /xeraSocret rot? pLerd rod yevvaiov 
€v rroXepLO) KpaT-qdelui, SouAcov re ogol Trap* avrolg 
eXevdepojdelev dG-olg elvai Gvyxcop-qGet, rvxr)? re 
dvdpojTTOJV ovSepLid^ el /xeAAot to koivov w^eXeZv 
cxTTaf tojcrct • vrrep ravra Be Trdvra KOGpLO) rod 
7ToXi~evp.aros^ ov e/c ttoXXcov KareGTrjGavro TraOrj- 
fxdrojv, e/c Travrog Kaipov XapL^dvovres ri xP'Q^'-y^ov. 
X. Tovs 8e ApopiyZvas, dcf)* cLv dpx^^ 'Pco/xaiot? 
TO yevoSi OL pLev avroxOova? ^IraXlas, yevos avTO 
Kad^ eavTO yevopLevou/ aTTOfjiaivovGLV' ^IraXiav Se 
KaXo) Ti]v dKTTjV GvpiTTaGav, oGiqv '/ovto? re koXtto? 
/cat TvpprjVLKT] OdXaGGa /cat rptVat TrepiexovGLV Ik 
yrj? AXTTeL?. /cat ti^v ovopLaGiav avrol? rrjv TrpcLrr^v 
(f}aGl redrjvac 8ta to yevcGecos toIs jLter' avTOVs 

^ Steph. : oLKT]oavTos O. 

^yevos . . . yevoixevov deleted by Garrer. 



^ This clause is added, possibly by a scribe, as a defini- 
tion of the well-known Greek word autochthones, here 
rendered " natives." The word means literally " sprung 
from the land itself," corresponding to the Latin indiyenae. 

30 



BOOK I. '), 3 10. 1 

of Aborigines ; but uiuior Latinus, their king, who 
reigned at the time of that war, they began to be 
cal?ed Latins, and when Romulus founded the 
city named after himself sixteen generations after 
the taking of Troy, they took the name which they 
now bear. And in the course of time they contrived 
to raise themselves from the smallest nation to the 
greatest and from the most obscure to the most 
illustrious, not only by their humane reception of 
those who sought a home among them, but also 
by sharing the rights of citizenship with all who 
had been conquered by them in war after a brave 
resistance, by permitting all the slaves, too, who 
were manumitted among them to become citizens. 
and by disdaining no condition of men from whom 
the commonwealth might reap an advantage, but 
above everything else by their form of government, 
which they fashioned out of their many experiences, 
always extracting something useful from every 
occasion. 

X. There are some who affirm that the Aborigines, 
from whom the Romans are originally descended, 
were natives of Italy, a stock which came into being 
spontaneously ^ (I call Italy all that peninsula which 
is bounded by the Ionian Gulf ^ and the Tyrrhenian 
Sea and, thirdly, by the Alps on the landward side) ; 
and these authors say that they were first called 
Aborigines because they were the founders of the 

It was the proud boast of the Athenians that thej- were 
autochthones. 

2 "The Ionian Gulf "or simply " the Ionian" is Dionysius' 
usual term for the Adriatic, or more particularly perhaps 
for the entrance to this sea. 

31 



DIONYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

apfai, a)G7Tep av rjiiels eLTTOifjuep yevedpxcis rj TrpcoTO' 

2 yoi'ov? erepoL Se XeyovGiv aveariovs nvas kol 
TTAavrjTa^ €K ttoXXcov ovveXOovras ')(Ojpi(DV Kara 
Saifiova 7TepL'TV)(^eZv dAAi^Aot? avrodi Kal rrjv o'lktjglv 
€Tn TOL9 €pv/jLaGL KaraGTrjGaud ai yt^Tjv Se oltto XrjGreias 
Kat uofjLTJs. TTapaXXdrrovGL Se Kal rr^v ovofiaGLau 
avTcbv IttI to rals tvxo.l<£ OLKeiorepov, ^A^epptylvas ^ 
XeyovreSy ware SrjXovcrOaL avrovg TrXdvqrag . klv' 
Svv€V€L S")) /caret tovtovs fjurjhev Stat^epetv to tojv 
^A^opiyivcxjv <^vXov cLv eKaXovv ol iraXaiol AeXeycov '^ 
rols yap avearioLs Kal pnyaGi Kal fMrj^e/uiiav yrjv 
^e^aiojg cvg TrarplSa KaroiKovGL ravr-qv irldevro^ 

3 rriv ovofiaGLav co? rd TroAAa. d'AAot 8e Atyuajv 
aTTOLKovs fivOoXoyovGLU avTovs yeveGdai rcov ofio- 
povvrojv ^OpL^pLKols' ol yap Acyves olkovgl /xev 
Kal rrjs VraAtas" 7TO/\Xaxfj, vefiovraL Se riva Kal rrjs 
KeXTLKTJ^. OTTorepa S' avrol? €Gtl yrj Trarplgy 
aSirjXov ' Ol) yap ert Aeyerat irepl avraju irpoGajrepo} 
Ga(f>€s ovhiv. 

XI. 01 Se Xoyiojraroi rcjjv 'Pcofxa'cKcou ovy' 
ypa(f)€a)u, ev ols e'crrt HopKLog re Kdrcov 6 rds 
yeveaXoylas rcav ev VraAta TroAecov eVi/xeAeWara 

^'A^eppLyivas Steph. : afioppiylvas B, ajSopiyiVas A. 
^AcXiyiov Dmg., Steph. ^r St) Aeyoj O. 
^ Schwartz : erreTidevro O, Jacoby. 

1 " Founders of famihes" and " first-born " respectively. 
* From the Latin aherrare (" wander"). 

2 Strabo cites (vii. 7, 2) some verses of Hesiod in which 
the Leieges are described as XeKTovs eV yatTy? Xaovs, " peoples 
gathered out of earth," an etymological word-play which 

32 



BOOK T. 10, 1-11, 1 

families of their descendants, or, as we should call 
them, genearchai or protogonoi.^ Others claim that 
certain vagabonds without house or home, coming 
together out of many places, met one another there 
by chance and took up their abode in the fastnesses, 
li^^ng by robbery and grazing their herds. And 
these writers change their name, also, to one more 
suitable to their condition, calling them Aberrigines,^ 
to show that they were wanderers ; indeed, accord- 
ing to these, the race of the Aborigines would seem 
to be no difl'erent from those the ancients called 
Leleges ; for this is the name they generally gave to 
the homeless and mixed peoples who had no fixed 
abode which they could call their country.^ StiU 
others have a story to the effect that they were 
colonists sent out by those Ligurians who are 
neighbours of the Umbrians. For the Ligurians in- 
habit not only many parts of Italy but some parts 
of Gaul as well , but which of these lands is their 
native country is not known, since nothing certain 
is said of them further. 

XI. But the most learned of the Roman historians, 
among whom is Porcius Cato, who compiled with 
the greatest care the '' origins " ^ of the Italian cities, 

he thinks shows that Hesiod regarded them as having been 
from the beginning a collection of mixed peoples. This 
derivation of the name from the root Aey ("gather") is 
the only one the ancients have handed down. 

* Cato's history seems to have consisted at first of one 
book, in which Rome's beginnings and the regal period were 
recounted, followed by two books devoted to the origin 
of the various Italian cities ; hence the title Oriyines. 
Later he added four more books, in which an account was 
given of the Punic Wars sjid subsequent events. 

33 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

crvvayayojv Kal rdio? Z^efiTrpcovio? ical a'AAoi crvx^'ol, 
"E/'^X'qi'a? avTov? elvai Xeyovcrt rojv eV M;)^aia Trore 
OLKriGavrajv, 7-oAAat? yeveatc TTporepoi' rov iroXifiov 
rod TpojLKOv ^xeravaurdvT X? . ovketl fxevroL hio- 

pL^OVCTLV OVT6 (j>vXoV ' EXXtjILKOV OV fJL€T€LXOl' , OVT€ 

ttoXlv ef rjs OLTravecrrrjcrav , ovre xpovov ovd^ rjyefjLova 
rrjs OLTTOLKias, ovB^ OTTolaig rvxat? XPT^aa/xerot r7]v 
^rjTpoTToXiv aTTeXiTTOV ■ ' EXXrjViKO) re ixvOco xpi-jGOL- 
fxevoL ovSeva rwv rd ' E/[XrjVLKd ypaijjdvTojv /Se- 
^accorrji' Trapeaxovro. to p.ev ovv dX-qOks cttoj? 
TTor €^€1, dbrjXoi' ' el S' iurlv 6 tovtojv Xoyog 
vyLT]g, ovK dv irepov tlvos e'l-qaav aTTOLKOi yevovg 

2 r^ Tov KaXovp.€vov vvv 'ApKadiKov. Trpcvroi yap 
'EXXrjvcQV oi'TOL TTepaLcvOevreg rov "Iovlov koXttov 
wKTjGav ^IraXlav, dyovrog avrovs Olvoj-pov rod 
AvKdovos ■ Tjv he TrepLTrros drro re ALC,eLOV /cat 
0opojveo)S rcbv Trpcorcov iv IleXoTrovvTJGcp Svvaarev^ 
odvrojv. 0opajveajg pL€v yap Nto^rj yiverai • ravrr)? 
Se VLO? Kal Aids, cos" Xeyerai, TleXaGyds • Alt,eiov he 
vlds AvKdojv rovrov he Ar^idveipa dvydrrjp- e/c he 
Arjiavelpag Kal FleXaayov AvKdojv erepog • rovrov 
he 0'Lva)rpos, eTrraKaiheKa yeveaZs rrpdrepov rcov 
inl Tpoiav urparevddvrcxjv . 6 [xev hi] XP^vo<;, ev 
(L rrjv aTTOLKiav eoretXav "EXX'qves els ^IraXlav, 

3 ovros Tji'. diravear-q he rrjs ' EXXdhog O'ivojrpos ovk 
apKovpLevos rfj pLoipa hvo yap Kal e'cKOGL -naihajv 
AvKdovi yevopuevcov els roaovrovs ehei KXr/povs 
vep.rjdrjvaL rrjv ApKahcov ;\'C/jpai^. ratW-qs p^ev hr) 
TTiS alrias eveKa UeXoTiovi^r^ooi^ Oli'ojrpos eKXcTrajv 

a4 



BOOK I. 11, 1-3 

Gaius Semproiiius ^ and a great many others, say 
that they were Greeks, part oi those who once dwelt 
in Achaia, and that they migrated many generations 
before the Trojan war. But they do not go on 
to indicate either the Greek tribe to which they 
belonged or the city from which they <removed, or 
the date or the leader of the colony, or as the result 
of what turns ol fortune they left their mother coun- 
try ; and although they are following a Greek legend, 
they have cited no Greek historian a? their author- 
ity. It is uncertain, therefore, what the truth of 
the matter is. But if what they say is true, the 
Aborigines can be a colony of no other people but of 
those who are now called Arcadians ; for these were 
the first of all the Greeks to cross the Ionian 
Gulf, under the leadership of Oenotrus. the son of 
Lycaon. and to settle in Italy. This Oenocrus was 
the fifth from Aezeius and Phoroneus, who were the 
first kings in the Peloponnesus. For Niobe was 
the daughter of Phoroneus, and Pelasgus was the 
son of N'obe and Zeus, it is said : Lycaon was 
the son of Aezeius. and Deianira was the daughter of 
Lycaon ; Deianira and Pelasgus were the parents 
of another Lycaon, whose son Oenotrus was born 
seventeen generations before the Trojan expedition. 
This, then, was the time when the Greeks sent the 
colony into Italy. Oenotrus left Greece because 
he was dissatisfied with his portion of h)S father's 
land ; for, as Lycaon had twenty-two sons, it was 
necessary to divide Arcadia into as many shares. 
For this reason Oenotrus left the Pe oponnesus, 

1 C. Sempronius Tnditanus (cos. 129). Besides his liber 
magistratuutn he seems to have written a historical work. 

35 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

/cat KaraaKevacrdjJievos vavriKov Staipei rov ^Iovlov •"■ 
/cat (jvv avro) /Teu/certos- rcov a8eA(/)a>v eh. elTTOin-o 
8e aurot? rod re olk€lov Xaov <JV-)(yoiy iroXvavd pcjTTOV 
yap Srj to e9vo<; tovto Xeyerai /car' dp^ois yeveaOaL, 
/cat Tcov dXXcjv 'EXXrjvojv ouol ^^cupav el-)(OV iXarroj 
rrjs LKavrjg. TJevKerio? fxev ovv, evOa to rrpcoTOV 
ojpfjiLoavro ttJ? '/raAta?, VTrep d'/cpa? ^lairvyias 
eK^L^dua? Tov Xeojv avTOV KaOSpveTai, /cat 0,77' 
avTov ol TTepl raura ra x^P^^ OLKovvTeg /Teu/certot 
€KXTq6rjGav. OlvcoTpos Se tt^i^ TrXeloj tov OTpaTOV 
jjLotpav dyofievos €i£ top erepoi/ dt^LKveiTaL koXttov 
TOV (XTTO Tojv ea-nepiajv fxepcou rrapd ttjv 'JraAtay 
avaxeo/xei^ov, og t6t€ fiev Avgovlos irrl tcov TTpoa- 
OLKOvvTOjv AvGovojv iXeysTO , irrel 8e Tvpprjvol 
daXaoaoKpdTopes iyevovTO, /xereAa^ev ^ rjv e;^et vw 
TTpoorqyopiav. 

XII. Evpcuv 8e x^P^^ 7roXXr)v fiev et? vofxdg, 
TToXXrjv Se et? dporous" evOeTov, eprjfiov Se tt^i^ 
TrXeLGTrjv /cat ouSe tt)^ oLKovfievrjv TToXvdvdpcoTTov, 
dvaKaOiqpas to ^dp^apov €/c jxepovg tlvos avTTJs 
wKLcre TToAets" puKpds /cat crwep^et? €7Tt rots' opecnv, 
oarrep rjv rots" TraAatots" TpoTTos olKrjcrecog awqdrjs. 
e/caAetro 8e 17 re x^P^ irdaa noXXr) ovaa o(jr]v 
KaTcax^v OlvojTpia, /cat ot avOpojiroL rravTes ocrojv 
rjp^ev OtvojTpoL, TpiT'qv fxeTaXa^ovTe? dvofiaoLav 
TavTTjv. e77t jxev yap Alt,€Lov ^aaiXevovTog ^t^etot 
iXeyovro, AvKdovog 8e napaXa^ovTO? ttjv dpxrjv 
an iK€Lvov avOis AvKdoves ajvojjLaadrjaav, OlvcjTpov 
36 



BOOK I. 11, 3-12, 1 

prepared a fleet, and crossed the Ionian Gulf with 
Peucetius, one of his brothers. They were accom- 
panied by many of their own people — for this nation 
is said to have been very populous in early times — 
and by as many other Greeks as had less land 
than was sufficient for them. Peucetius landed his 
people above the lapygian Promontory, which was the 
first part of Italy they made, and settled there : and 
from him the inhabitants of this region were called 
Peucetians. But Oenotrus with the greater part of 
the expedition came into the other sea that washes 
th^ western regions along the coast of Italy ; it 
was then called the Ausonian Sea, from the Ausonians 
who dwelt beside it, but after the Tyrrhenians be- 
came masters at sea its name was changed to that 
which it now bears. 

XII. And finding there much land suitable for 
pasturage and much for tillage, but for the most 
part unoccupied, and even that vv^hich was inhabited 
not thickly populated, he cleared some of it of the 
barbarians and built small towns contiguous to 
one another on the mountains, which was the cus- 
tomary manner of habitation in use among the 
ancients. And all the land he occupied, which was 
very extensive, was called Oenotria, and all the 
people under his command Oenotrians, which was 
the third name they had borne. For in the reign 
of Aezeius they were called Aezeians, when Lycaon 
succeeded to the rule, Lycaonians, and after Oenotrus 

^ '/dvtov KLessling, 'loviov koXttov Reiske : lovuiv nopov B, 

lOVlOV TTOvrov R. 

* Steph.2 : /ieTe^oAev O. 

37 



DlOIVi^SIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

oe Ko/jLLcravro? avrovg ei? ^IraXiav Ou'corpoi xpovov 

2 TLva eKXir^Orjaav . /xaprvpel Be fioi ^ toj Xoycp 
Zo(f)OKXrj? fih' 6 rpaycphoTTOios eV TpcTrroXefJicp 
opafiart ■ TTerroirjrai yap avrqj A7]fjLrjTr]p BthdaKovcra 
rov TpLTTToXefiov ocrqv )(a)pav dvayKaaO-qaeraL (jrrei- 
pojv rots* Sodelau' vtt^ avr-qg KapTTols StefeAi9etP' • 
jjLVTjaOeLGa Se rrjg iojov irpwrov '/raAta?, t] ianv 
oltt' aKpa? "laTTvyias fJ-^XP'- "^opOfjiov Elk^Xikov, 
Kai fxerd rovro rrj? dvTLKpvs ^ dxjjafxevq EiKeXias, 
eTTL rrjv iorripLOv ^IraXiav avdis dva(7Tpe(f)€L Kal rd 
fjLeyLGTa tojv oIkovvtojv rrjv TrapaXiov ravr-qv idvayv 
Sie^epx^raL, r7]v dp^rj^ drro rrjg Olvcorpcjjv olK-quecos 
TTOLrjuaixivq . dTToxpt] Be ravra pLOva XexOevra tojv 
lafi^eLaju, ev ol'^ (brjui ' 

rd S' e^OTTioOe, x^'-po? ft? rd Se^id, 
Olvojrpia re Trdua Kal TvpprjVLKos 
koXtto? AiyvGTiKri re yrj <je Seferat. 

3 AvTLOXo? Be 6 ZvpaKovGLOS, (jvyypa(f>evg irduv 
dpxoLiog, iv '/raAta? OLKLorficp rovs TraXaLordrovs 
OLK'^ropas Bte^icov, oj? eKaaroi, tl fJiepo? avrrjg 
Karelxov, Oli-ojTpovg Xeyei irpwrovs rcov /xi^- 
fjLOvevofjLevwv iv avrfj KaToiKrjcraL, elirajv ojBe • 
"^Avrioxo? Eevo<j)dveos rdBe uvveyparjie TrepVIraXL-qg 
eK TCi)v dpxo-iojv Xoycov rd TTLGTOTara Kal Ga<j)eGTara ' 



^ Jacoby : ixov O. 

* Kiessling : avriKpv O, Jacoby. 



38 



BOOK I. 12. 1-3 

led them into Italy they were for a while called Oeno- 
trians. What I say is supported by the testimony 
of Sophocles, the tragic poet, in hi? drama entitled 
Triptolrmua : for he ther^' represents Demeter as 
informing Triptolemus how large a tract of land he 
would have to trave' over while sowing it with the 
seeds she had given him. For. after first referring 
to the eastern part of Italy, which reaches from 
the lapygian Promontory to the Sicilian Strait, and 
then touching upon Sicily on the opposite side, 
she returns again to the western part of Italy and 
enumerates the most important nations that in- 
habit this coast, beginn ne with the set lement of 
the Oenotrians. But it is enough to quole merely 
the iambic? in which he says : 
" And after this. — first, then, upon the right, 
Oenotria wide-outstretched and Tyrrhene Gulf, 
And next the Ligurian land shall welcome thee." ^ 

And Antiochus oJ Syracuse.^ a very early h'storian, 
in his account of the settlement of Italy, when 
enumerating the most anc ent nhabitants in the 
ordei in wh^ch each of them held possession of 
an\ pa. t of it, says that die first who are reported 
to have inhabited that t^ountry are tne Oenotrians. 
His word« are these : " 4ntiochus, the son of 
Xenophanes, wrote this account of Italy, which 
comjtrises all that is most credible and certain out of 

^ Nauck, Trag. Grace. Frag.'-, p. 2G2, frg. 541. 

* Antiochus (latter half of fifth century) wrote a history 
of Sicily and a history of Italy. The former was used by 
Thucydides, and the latter is frequently cited by Strabo. 
The quotation here given is frg. 3 in Miiller, Frag. Hist. 
Grace, i. p. 181. 

39 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Trjv yrjv ravrr^v, tjtls vvv ^IraXlr]^ /caAetrai, to 
TToXaiov €LXOV Oaxarpoi/' eVetra Sie^eXdajv ov 
rpoTTOv eTToXirevovTO , /cat ojs /SacriAeu? iv avroZg 
^IraXo? dva xpovov iyevero, dcf)^ ov [xercoi'oiJidad'qcrav 
^IraXoi, rovTOV 8e rrju dp^-qv Mopyrj? SteSc^aro, 
d^' ov Mopy-qres iKXrjdrjaai^, Kal wg Ulk^Xos im- 
^evojdels MopyrjTL IS lav Trpdrrajv dp)(rjv hieGT-qGe 
TO edvos, e7n(j)€p€L ravri- " outcd Se UiKeXol /cat 
MopyrjTes iyevovro Kal ^ lTaXir]re<; iovres O'LvajrpoL.^* 
XIII. 0ep€ Brj /cat to y€vo<; odev ^ r)v to tojv 
OlvcjTpojv a770§et^co/xei^, erepov dvhpa twv dp)(O.LCjov 
ovyypacf)€a)v Trapaoxop^^voi pidpTvpa, 0€p€Kv8rjv tov 
^AdrjvaZov,^ yeveaXoyow ovhev6<g hevT€pov. TreTToit)- 
rat ydp avTOj Trepl tow iv Mp/caSta ^aocXevaavTcov 
oSe ^ 6 Aoyo? • " /TeAacryou /cat Ar]Lav€Lprj<g ytVerat 
AvKaojv' ovTog yafiei KvXXrjvrju, NrjiSa uvfX(f)rjv, 
d(f)' 179 TO 6po£ Tj KvXXrjvri /caAetrat." eVetra tovs 
€K TOVTOJV yevv-qOivTas hte^iajv /cat rtVa? €/ca(TTOt 

TOTTOVS CpKTjGaV, OiPCOTpOV Kal FleVKeTLOV fJLL/JLinj- 

cr/cerai Xeyojv t5Se • " Kal Ou'ojrpos, dcf)^ ov OlvcoTpoi 
KaXeovTai ol iu '/raAtr^ olKeovTes, Kal /Teu/certo?, 
d<^' ov TIevKeTLOL KoXeovTai ol iv tco ^lovicp koXtto).*^ 
Ta JjL€v ovv vtto tojv TTaXaiuiv elprjixeva ttoltjtojp re 
Kal jjLvdoypd(f)a)V Trepi re OLKrjoeoj? Kal yevovs tojv 
OlvcoTpajv Totaurd eotlv • ols iycb Treidopievog, el 

^Cobet: iVoAta O. ^Dobree: oaov O. 

'Casaubon : ratv adrjvaiojv O. * Kiiiger : coSe O. 

^ Pherecydes (fifth century) was one of the more prom- 
inent of the early logographers and the first prose writer 
of Athens. His great work was a mythological history, 

40 



BOOK I. 12, 3-13, 2 

the ancient tales ; this country, which is now called 
Italy, was (ormeily possessed by the Ocnotrians." 
Then he relates in what manner they were governed 
and says that in the course of time Italus came to 
he their king, after whom they were named Italians ; 
that this man was succeeded by Merges, after whom 
they were called Morgetes. and that Sicclus, being 
received as a guest by Morges and setting up a 
kingdom for himself, divided the nation. After 
which he adds these words : " Thus those who 
had been Oenotrians became Sicels, Morgetes and 
Italians." 

XIII. Now let me also show the origin of the 
Oenotrian race, offering as my witness another of 
the earlv historians, Pherecydes of Athens,^ who was 
a genealogist inferior to none. He thus expresses 
himself concerning the kmgs of Arcadia : " Of 
Pelasgus and Deianira was born Lyeaon ; this man 
married Cyllene, a Naiad nymph, after whom 
Mount Cyllene is named.'' Then, having given 
an account of their children and of the places each 
of them inliabited, he mentions Oenotrus and 
Peucetius, in these words : " And Oenotrus, after 
whom are named the Oenotrians who live in Italy, 
and Peucetius, after whom are named the Peuce- 
tians who live on the Ionian Gidf." Such, then, are 
the accounts given by the ancient poets and writers 
of legends concerning the places of abode and the 
origin of the Oenotrians ; and on their authority 

beginning with a brief theogony, but largely devoted to 
the genealogies of the great families of the heroic age. 
The following quotations appear as frg. 85 in Miillor, 
F.H.G. i. p. 92. 

41 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TO) OVTL ' EXXrjVLKOV (f)v\oV rjv TO rcjv lA^opLyivcDV, 

(L? KarojvL KOI UefjLTTpojvLCx) Kal ttoXXols aAAotS" 
€iprjTaLy rovTCov eyyovov avro ^ rwv Olvcorpajv 
Tidefiai.^ TO yap 8r] UeXaGyiKov /cat to KpiqTiKOv 
Kal oaa aAAa eV '/raAtg. WKrjaev, varepoig evpiuKOJ 
')(p6voLs a(f)LK6iJi€va • TTaXaioTepov Se tovtov gtoXov 
OLTTavaGTavTa Trjg 'EXXdSos els ra TrpoaeoTrepia ttjs 

3 EvpojTTTjs ovheva Svva^at KaTafxadelv. tovs 8e 
OlvcjTpovg TTjS T dXXr]£ '/raAtas" 77oAAa -)(Cx>pia 
otopiaL KaTaax^LV, tol piev eprjpia, tol 8e <t>avXoj? 
OiKOvpieva /caraAa^ovra?, /cat Srj /cat ttjs ^OpL^piKchv 
yrjs ecTLV rjv aTroTepLeo-dat, KX-qdrjvat Srj l4.^opLyLvag 
C77t TTJs iv Tols opeoiv oLKijoreojg {/4p/caSt/cov yap 
TO <f>iXo-)(a>pelv opeuLV ^), ws VTrepaKpiovs Tivas /cat 

4 TTapaXiovs ^Adrjvqcnv. et Se Tives 7Te(j)VKaai pur} 
Ta;\;et9 eti^at Trepl TrpaypuaTiov TraXatchv d^aaavLcrTCos 
ra XeyopLeva Sex^crOaL, pur] Ta;^et? eaTcoaav pLrjSc 
Aiyvas r) ^OpLppLKovg tj aAAou? tlvol? ^ap^dpovs 
avTovg vopLiaai, TreptjitetVavre? Se /cat tol Xolttcl 
fiadelv KpLveTOJcrav ef dTrdvTOJV to mdavcoTaTov. 

XIV. Tojp Se TToXeojv, iv at? to TTpcoTov <x)Krjcrav 
A^opiylve?, oAtyat TrepLTJcrav Itt* ipLov ' at Se TrAetcrrat 
V7t6 re TToXepLOJV /cat aAAa;v KaKcov OLKO(f)dop7]deL(jaL 
€pr]pLOi d(j)€LVTaL. -qoav S' eV ttJ 'PeaTLvr) yfj tcjv 

^ TOUTOJV eyyovov avro R : tovto • eyyovov avrajv B ; tovtwv 
eyyovov avrcov Jacoby. 

^rideixai Reiske, vnoTldeixai Jacoby: nildofKU U. 
^ opeaiv O : tV opeaiv Jacoby. 

42 



BOOK I. 13, 2-14, 1 

I assume that if the Aborigines were in reality a 
Greek nation, according to ibe opinion of Cato, 
Sempronius and many others, they were de- 
scendants of these Ocuotnans. For I find that the 
Pelasgians and Cretan? and the other nations that 
Hved in Italy came thither afterwards ; nor can I 
discover that any other expedition more anciont 
than this came from Greece to the western parts of 
Europe. I am of the opinion that the Oenotrians, 
besides making themselves masters of many other 
regions in Italy, some of which they found unoccu- 
pied and others but thinly inhabited, also seized 
a portion of the country of the Umbrians, and that 
they were called Aborigines from their dwelling 
on the mountains ^ (for it is characteristic of the 
Arcadians to be fond of the mountains), in the same 
manner as at Athens some are called Hypcrakrioi,^ 
and others ParaJioi.^ But if any are naturally slow^ in 
giving credit to accounts of ancient matters without 
due examination, let them be slow also in belicM'ng 
the Aborigines to be Ligurians, Umbrians, or any 
other barbarians, and let them suspend their judg- 
ment till they have heard what remains to be told 
and then determine which opinion out of all is the 
most probable. 

XIV. Of the cities first inhabited by the Aborigines 
few remained in my day ; the greatest part of them, 
having been laid waste both by wars and other 
calamities, are abandoned. These cities were in 
the Reatine territory, not far from the Apennine 

' A hybrid etymology : ab -j- opos (mountain). 

' People of the highlands. * People of the coast. 

43 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

^Arrewivajv opaav ov fiaKpav, co? Ovdppojv^ TepevTLog 
iu apxcLLoXoyiais ypd(f)eL, oltto rrjg 'PajjiaLCDV TroAeco? 
at TO ^paxvrarou aTrixovaai rj/jLepijcnov hidorripLa 
ohov ' (Lv iyoj rd? eVi^avecrrara?, ojg €K€ivos 

1 LcrropeX, SLrjy-qaofiaL. FlaXdrLov fikv irevre rrpos 
TOL9 €LKocn GTaSiOLs d(j)eurcji)aa 'Pedrov, TToXeoj? 
OLKovpiivqs - vrrd ^PajpLalcov en Kal etV e/xe, Ko'Cvrlas 
68ov TrX-quLOv. Tpi^oXa ^ he dfx(f)l rov? e^-qKovra 
orraSlov? rrjs avrrjs iroXecjs dcfyecrrojoa, X6<j)ov eVt- 
Ka6r)pL€V7] GvpLfierpov. Eveo^oXa "* he to avro 
hiduT'qpLa rrj? Tpi^oXa? direypvaa^ rdv Kepavvlcov 
opwv irX-qGLOv. aTTO he ravrr]? rerrapdKOVTa 
crrahiOLs hLjjprjfjLemrj ttoAis" e7TL(f)avr]^ Zovva,^ evda 

3 vecjg irdw apx^^os eoriv ""Apeos. Mrj<f)vXa he (hs 
rpiaKovTa Grahiovs^ dmodev rijs Uovvrjg- hei- 
KwraL he avrijs epeiTTid re /cat retxovs '^X^' 
TerrapdKovra he Gjahiovs dnexovGa Mrj(j)vX7]s 
^OpovtviOVy el Kai ris dXX'q rcbv avrodi rroXecov 
e77Lcf)avrjs Kal fxeydXrj • hrjXoi yap elaiv avrrjs ol re 
Oe/jLeXiOL Tojv reLX^'^ Kal Td(f)OL TLve? apx^^^OTrpeTreZs 
Kal TToXvavhpiojv ev viprjXol? ;Yco^acrt fi'qKvvopLevcov 

^Jacobv: ^dppojv O. ^ttoAi? oiKoviievq Bunsen. 

3 Tprj^ohXa Cluver. 

* avea^oXa AB : Zv^aaoXa Sylburg. 

^Z'oai'a Sylburg. ^ Kiessling : arahioLs O. 



^ This monumental work of antiquarian lore is no longer 
extant. Varro was a native of Reate (49 Roman miles 
north-east of Rome), and may well have taken a particular 
interest in these old sites of the Aborigines. The latest 
discussion of this chapter is to be found in Xissen, Italische 
Landeskunde, ii. 1, pp. 47i-6 ; Bunsen's article appeared 

44 



BOOK I. 14, 1-3 

mountains, as Terentius Varro writes in his Antiqui- 
ties,^ the nearest being one day's journey distant from 
Rome. I shall enumerate the mo5>t celebrated of 
them, following his account. Palatium, twenty-five 
stades distant from Reate (a city that was still in- 
habited by Romans down to my time),^ near the 
Quintian Way.^ Tribula, about sixty stades from 
Reate and standing upon a low hill. Suesbula, at 
the same distance from Tribula, near the Ceraunian 
Mountains. Suna, a famous city forty stades from 
Suesbula ; in it there is a very ancient temple of 
Mars. Mefula, about thirty stades from Suna ; its 
ruins and traces of its walls are pointed out. Or- 
vinium, forty stades from Mefula, a city as famous 
and large as any in thai region ; for the founda- 
tions of its walls are still to be seen and some lombs 
of venerable antiquity, as well as the circuits of 
bux-ying-places ■* extending over lofty mounds ; and 

in the Annali delV Instituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica, 
vi. (1834), pp. 129 ff. See also Smith's Diet, of Greek and 
Roman Geography, s.v. Aborigines. 

^ Bunsen emended the text so as to make the clause 
here included in parentheses refer to Palatium ; he held 
that Reate was too well known to call for such an ex- 
planation. 

3 The Via Quintia is not elsewhere mentioned, but seems 
to have been the more direct of two roads leading down 
the valley to the north-west of Reate. The names of the 
towns that immediately follow are probably corruptions 
of Trebula and Suessula. The Ceraunian Mountains are 
tentatively identified by Nissen with the Monte Rotondo 
of to-day. 

* The word polyandrion usually means a place where 
many are buried together ; it is contrasted, as here, with 
individual tombs by Aelian, Var. Hist. xii. 21, and Tau- 
sanias ii. 22, 9. 

45 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TTCpLpoXoL- €v6a Kal veojg ""Ad-qva? ianv apxctLO?, 
Ibpvfievo? €77t rrjs aKpa?. 

Mtto 8e GTahiajv oyhorjKOvra 'Pedrov rols 
lovcjL 8ta TTis Kovpia? ^ ohov Trapa Koprjrov - opog 
KopuovXa^ i^eojcrrl 8L€(f)9apfJL€vr). heiKwrai he rt? 
Kol vrjoos, "loaa avrfj ovofia, XipLvrj Trepippvrog, r^v 
Xcopis epvfiarog TTOL-qrov KaroLKTJaaL Xdyovrat TOt? 
reXfjiacn rrj? Xiiivq? OTTOcra reix^crL ;(;pa»/xerot. 
TrX-qaLOV Se ttJ? "loor-qs Mapoviov eVt to) fjivxcp 
TTj? avTTjS Xijiv-q'S KELfievT], rerrapaKovra orahiovs 
drrexovaa rajv KaXovp.evojv 'Etttol vhdrcjjv. 

Atto he ^Pedrov TrdXiv rot? ^ Tr]v enl AiOTLViqv ^ 
ohov LOVCJL ^ Baria fxev (xtto rpidKOvra crTahlcov, 
Tunpa he aTTO rpLaKOcrlajv, rj KaXovfxevq MarLijvrj. 

^Kovpias Chaupy, 'lovXias Portus, OvaXeplas Sylburg, 
UaXapia? Gelenius : tovpias O. 
^Koptrov Cluver. 
^ KapoovXa Cluver. 
^Tots Kiessling: om. O, Jacoby. 
^ Nissen : Atrtvryv A, XarivTjV R ; Xip.vrjv Bunsen. 
^lovai Kiessling: lovaiv rj O. 

1 The Via Curia is thought to have been a second road 
leading north-west from Reate but running round the 
east and north sides of the chain of small lakes called by 
the collective name of Lacus Velinus or Palus Reatina. 
W. Curius Dentatus in 272 drained the lowlands at the 
northern end of the valley, and he may well have con- 
structed this road at that time. Mount Coretus is un- 
known. The Maruvium here named is not to be confused 
with the Marsian capital on the Fucine Lake. Cicero 
mentions the Septem Aquae in a letter to Atticus (iv. 15, 5), 

2 This reading is due to Xissen, who believes that Listina 
(the district of Lista) was an earlier name for the district of 
Amiternum. In view of the story related at the end of the 

46 



BOOK I. 11, 3-5 

there is also an ancient temple of Minerva built on 
the summit. 

At the distance of eighty stades from Reate, as 
one goes along the Curian Way ^ past Mount Coretus, 
stood Coisula. a town but recently destroyed. There 
is also pointed out an island, called Issa, surrounded 
by a ake ; the Aborigine* are said to have lived on 
this island without an) artificial fortification, relying 
on the marshv waters of the lake instead o: walls. 
Near Issa is Maiuvmm, situated on an arm of the 
same lake and distant forty stades from what they 
call the Septem Aquae. 

Again, as one gees from Reate by the road towards 
the Listine district,- there is Batia,^ thirty stades 
distant; thenTiora, called Matiene, at a distance of 

chapter List a must have been fairly close to Aniiterniun, 
which was 33 miles east of Reate. The vulgate reading 
with AarhiQv, '' the road to Latium " or possibly " to the 
Latin Way," has been taken to mean a road leading south- 
east from Reate towards the Fucine Lake, and Bimsen's 
emendation XI^h-tjv was designed to make that direction 
still plainer. But the site, a few miles north-west of that 
lake, which various scholars have selected for Lista is 
more than 20 miles distant from Amiternum across a 
mountain pass ; moreover, it lies in the comitry of the 
Aequians, which is not reported to have been occupied by 
the Sabines at any time. Nissen's view likewise places 
Lista distinctly outside the Reatine territorj'. But it is 
quite possible that the distance of 300 stades assigned to 
Tiora is seriously in error ; we might then look for Tiora 
and Lista a little east of Interocreum, or somewhat more 
than half-way from Reate to Amiternmn. Xisson un- 
justifiably assumes that in this entire section Dionysius 
is counting the stade as only one-tenth of a Roman mile, 
instead of one-eighth of a mile, as he usually does. 
3 Or Vatia. 

47 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ev TavTTj Aeyerat XPV^'^VP'-^^'' '^P^o? yeveadat ndvo 
apxalov. 6 he rpoTTo? avrov TrapaTrX-qoLO'? tjv ws 
(f)a(7L rep irapa AojhojvaioLS fJivdoXoyovfievco nore 
yeveodai • ttXt^v oaov eKel {xev IttI hpvo? lepds 
TriXeia ^ KadeL,o/jL€VT] BeoTnojheZv eXeyero, napa hk 
ToZs ^A^opLyloL OeoTTejjLTTTOs opvLs, ov avTol fxei/ 
TTLKov, "EXXrives he hpvoKoXaTT-rqv koXovglv, eVt 
6 KLovog ^vXivov ^aivopievo? ro avro ehpa. reV- 
rapa? 8' CTTt rot? eiKooi orahtois arrexovoa ttj<s 
elpr^fievr]? noXews Aiara, jJLrjrpoTToXi? A^opLyLvcuv, 
Tjv TTaXaiTepov en Ea^lvoi vvKrcop eTiiGrparevoavreg 
CK TToXeoj? yijjLLTepvrjg a<^i)XaKrov alpovcnv ol S' eV 
TT^? aXcocrecxj? rrepLGOjOevres VTTohe^ajxevcjv avrov? 
^Pearlvojv, cLs ttoXXol TreipaOevreg ovx oloi re rjuav 
arroXa^elv , lepav dt'TJ/cai^ ojs G(f)erepav en rrjv yrjv^ 
i^ayiarovs TToi-qaavres dpal? rovg KapTrajGo/xevovg 
avrrjv VGrepov. 

XV. Ano he Grahccov e^hop.-qKovra 'Pedrov 
KorvXia TToAi? eTTicjyavris Trpo? opei Ketfievrj • rjg 
eGnv ov TTpoGCxj XlpLVT] rerrdpojv irXeOpcov e^ovGa 
rrjv hiaGraGLV , avdiyevov? TrXiqprjS vdp,aros dirop- 
peovro<£ del, ^ddos co? Xeyerat d^vGGO?. ravrrjv 

^TTiXeia added here by Jacoby, after Kade^ofxevr} by 
Sintenis ; nepioTepa added by Steph. 

^ At Dodona the god was said to dwell in the stem of an 
oak and to reveal his will from the branches of the tree, 
probably by the rustling of the leaves. In the time of 
Herodotus the oracles were interpreted by two or three 
aged women called neXeidBes or veXeiax, both terms 
meaning "pigeons." According to some it was actually 
a pigeon that delivered the oracles. 

48 



BOOK I. 14, 5-15, 1 

three hundred stades. In this city, they say, there 
was a very ancient oracle of Mars, the nature oi Winch 
was simihir to that of the oracle which legend says 
once existed at Doduna ; only there a f)igeon wrs 
said to prophesy, sitting on a sacred oak,^ whereas 
among the Aborigines a heaven-sent bird, which 
they call picus and the Greeks dryokolaptes.^ ap- 
pearing on a pillar ot wood, did the same. Twenty- 
four stades from the afore-mentioned city ^ stood 
Lista, the mother-city of the Aborigines, which at 
a still earlier time the Sabines had captured ty a sur- 
prise attack, having set out against it from Amiter- 
num by night. Tho«e who survived the taking of 
the place, after being received by the Reatines, made 
many attempts to retake their former home, but 
being unable to do so, they consecrated the country 
to the gods, as if it were still their own,, invoking 
curses against those who should enjoy the fruits of it. 
XV. Seventy stades from Reate stood Cutilia,* 
a famous city, beside a mountain. Not far from it 
there is a lake, four hundred feet in diameter, filled 
by everflowing natural springs and, it is said, bot- 
tomless. This lake, as having something divine about 

* Both the Greek and Latin words mean " woodpecker." 
' The context certainly suggests Ticra as the city re- 
ferred to ; but Holstenius understood Reate, and thus 
brought Lista between CutiUa and Reate, where the name 
Monte di Lesta is found to-day. 

* Also called CutiUae. Its approximate site is deter- 
mined by the remains of Aquae Cutiliae near by, a watering- 
place that was especially favoured by the Flavian emperors. 
It lay east of Reate, on the road last mentioned, if Nissen's 
identification of that road is correct. He suggests that the 
place is mentioned last, out of its natural order, in view of 
the important role the lake was to play later (see chap. 19). 

49 
VOL. I. D 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

€)(ovaau TL deoTTperres lepav rijs Nlktjs ol eirLXCJ^pf^oi 
vofxil^ovaL Kal TrepLeip^avres kvkXco GravpcopiaGi'^ 
rov /iTjSeva rev m/xart neXd^eLv a^arov (f>vXdTTOV(JLV , 
OTL fiTj Kaipols TLdLv eTT^cTtots",^ eV ot? lepd dvovuLv a 
i^ofiog eTTL^aivovres rrjg ev avrfj vqulhos oh ouiov. 

2 rj be vfjaos ean fjikv ajGrrepdv TrevrrjKOvra ttoBojv 
TTyv OiaixerpoVy virepaveuT-qKe be rod vaixaro? ov 
TTAeiov Tj TToScalov vijjos • dvihpvro'? 3' earl /cat 
TrepLvrj^eTai 7roXXa)^fj Slvovvtos a-uTqv dXXore /car' 
aAAou? TOTTovs 'qpe/ma rod Trvevfiarog. X^^V ^^ '^^^ 
€v avrfj (jyverai ^ovrofxa) 7Tpoa€pL(f)€pr]s Kal OdpLvoi 
TLves ov /jLcydXoL, 77pdy/xa Kpelrrov Xoyov rolg 
auedroLS chv -q ^vgls Spa Kal Oavixdrojv ovhevo^ 
Sevrepov. 

XVI. Trjv fiev St] TTpojT-qv oIk-qglv ol 'A^optylves 
ev Tovrois Xeyourai TTOtrjuacjOai rols roTTOcg, i^eXd- 
cravre? i^ avrow ^OpL^piKovs. ivrevdev 8e opfiw- 
fievoL rols re dXXoLS ^ap^dpois Kal Trdvroju fidXiara 
UiKeXoLS ofxarep/jLocnv ovaiv vrrep rrjg xcLpas eno- 
XepiovVy ro fiev rrpujrov lepd ns e^eXOovaa veorrjs, 
aVSpe? oXlyoL Kara ^tov t-qr-qaiv vtto roiv yeivafxevcDV 
diTOGraXevres , edog eKTrXrjpovvres dpx^-^ou, oJ 770A- 
Xovs ^apfjdpwv re Kal ' EXXi]vwv eVtcjra/xat XPW^' 

2 fxeuovs. oTTore yap els oxXov nXrjdos eTTioocnv 
at TToXeis rial Xd^oiev ojore pL-qKerL rds oiKeias 



Smit : ari^ifxaoi O, Jacoby. 

TLOLv irriaiois B : tlol bLeTrjaiOLS R. Jacoby. 



50 



BOOK I. 15, 1-16, 2 

it, the inhabitants of the country look upon as sacred 
to Victory : and surroundinji it with a palisade, so 
that no one may approach the water, they keep it 
inviolate ; except that at certain times each year 
those whose sacred office it is go to the little island 
in the lake and perform the sacrifices required by 
custom. This island is about fiftv feet in diameter 
and rises not more than a foot above the water ; 
it is not fixed, and floats about in any direction, 
according as the wind gently wafts it from one 
place to another. An herb grows on the island 
like the flowering rush and also certain small shrubs, 
a phenomenon which to those who are unacquainted 
with the works of Nature seems unaccountable and 
a marvel second to none.^ 

XVI. The Aborigines are said to have settled first 
in these places after they had driven out the 
TJmbrians. And making excursions from there, 
they warred not only upon the barbarians in general 
but particularly upon the Sicels, their neighbours, 
in order to dispossess them of their lands. First, 
a sacred band of young men went forth, consisting 
of a few who were sent out by their parents to seek 
a livelihood, according to a custom which I know 
many barbarians and Greeks have followed. ^ For 
whenever the population of any of their cities 
increased to such a degree that the produce of their 

^ The fullest account and explanation of this strange 
islet is given by Seneca {Nat. Quaest. iii. 25, 8). The lake 
is still to be seen, but the islet has disappeared. 

- The only recorded instance from the Greek world is that 
of the Chalcidians, who dedicated to Apollo one man in 
every ten and sent them to Delphi ; these men later 
founded Rhegium (Strabo vi. 1, 6). Compare chap. 24 and 
note. 

51 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

rpo(f>as OLTTaGLV etvat ScapKeL?, r) KaKCxjOelaa rat? 
ovpavLOLS jjiCTa^oXaLS r) yrj CTTraviovs rovs elcodorag 
KapTTOVs i^€V€yK€Lev,^ Tj TOLOvSe TL Trddos (xAAo ras" 
77oAets' Karaaxov ctre afxecvov etre -x^^Zpov dvdyKrjv 

i7TLO"n]G€L€ fJL€L(jOaeOJ9 TOV TtXtJOoVS, OeCOV OTCp Srj 

Kadiepovvres dvOpajrrojv ireiovs yovds iieTrefXTTOv 
ottXols KOGfJLiJGavTes Ik rrj? G(f)€Tepas' el fiev vnep 
evavhpias rj vlkt]? eV TToXipiov ;)(a/3K7T7Jpta Scots' 
aTToSiSotev, TTpoQvovTes Upd rd vopLtC^o/jLeva, eu^rj/xot? 
olojvois rds aTTOLKLa? TTpoTTCfJLTTOvreg ' el 8* ctti ixrjvi- 
fiaGL SaifJLOvLOL? dnaXXayds alrovpievoL tcov /care- 
)(6vTOJv 0(f)ds KaKOJV TO TTapaTrXrjGLOV hpcpev, avroi 
re dxOofjLevoL Kal uvyyvwfJLovag d^LOvvreg yeveaOai 

3 rovs dTTeXavvofxevovg . ol 8e dTravaardpreg d)9 
ovK€TL rrjs TTarpcpas yr\? fxeraXrjiljofjLevoL, el /xr) 
K-rquaiVTO erepav, rrju VTTohe^apLevqv avrous e'ire 
TTpds (jaXiav eire ev TroXefJLO) KparrjdeiGav Trarpiha 
eiTOLOVVTO • 6 re 6e6?, w KaTOvojuLaaOelev drreXavvo- 
fievoi, GvXXap.^dveLV avrols co? rd iroXXd ehoKei Kal 
TTapd rrjv dvdpcxjTrivrjV ho^av Karopdovv rds dTTOiKias. 

4 rovrcp Btj roj vcfxco xpf^'^P-evoi Kal rore rwv ^A^optyi- 
V60V nves dvdovvrcov dvhpdoi rojv ;)(6t)pia»v [Kreiveiv 
ydp ovheva rwv eKyovojv rj^lovv, dyos ^ ovSevos eXar- 
rov rovro ndliievoi), Oecov oro) Si) Kadcepcoaavres 
ivLavcTLOvs yoi'ds dvhpatOevras aTTOLKil^ovGL rovs 
rralbas eK rrjs a(f)erepas, ot rovs UiKeXovs dyovres 
re Kal (jjepovres hiereXovv, eTreLhrj rr]v eavrojv e^e- 

^Jacoby: e^ijveyKev O. 

2 dyos R : dyovs B, Jacoby. 

52 



BOOK I. 16. 2-4 

lands no longer sufficed for them all, or the earth, 
injured by unseasonable changes of the weather, 
brought forth her fruits in less abundance than 
usual, or any other occurrence of like nature, either 
good or bad. introduced a necessity of lessening their 
numbers, they would dedicate to some god or other 
all the men born within a certain year, and pro- 
viding them with arms, would send them out of 
their country. If. indeed, this was done by way of 
thanksgiving for populousness or for victory in war, 
they would first otfer the usual sacrifices and then 
send forth their colonies under happy auspices ; 
but if, having incurred the wrath of Heaven, they 
were seeking deliverance from the evils that beset 
them, they would perform much the same ceremony, 
but sorrowfully and begging forgiveness of the 
youths they were sending away. And those who 
departed, feeling that henceforth they would have 
no share in the land of their fathers but must acquire 
another, looked upon any land that received them 
in friendship or that they conquered in war as their 
country. And the god to whom they had been dedi- 
cated when they were sent out seemed generally 
to assist them and to prosper the colonies beyond 
all human expectation. In pursuance, therefore, of 
this custom some of the Aborigines also at that 
time, as their places were growing very populous 
(for they would not put any of their children to 
death, looking on this as one of the greatest of crimes), 
dedicated to some god or other the ofi'spring of 
a certain year and when these children were grown 
to be men they sent them out of their country as 
colonists; and they, after leaving their own land, were 

53 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

5 Xlttov. cu? S' aTTa^ ovtol ;!^a)ptcuv tlvcov rrjs rroXe- 
fjLLag eKpdrrjGav , Ik tov acr^aAecrrepou rihrj kol ol 
XoLTTOL ''A^opiylves ol SeofievoL yrjs Kara acjyd? 
exraarot eTrex^ipovv rot? o/xopoLS /cat iroXeis €KTL(jav 
aXXas re Tivas kol ras P-^XP'- "^ovSe otKovfJLevag, 
Mvre/xmras' /cat TeXXrjpelg kol 0lkoXv€OV'^ tovs 

TTpOS rOLS KaXovpLeVOLS KopVLKXoL? OpeGL KOL Ti^ovp- 

TivovSy Trap olg ert /cat els roSe xpo^'^v fiepos tl 
TTJg TToXeojs 6vofJLdi,€TaL EiKeXiKov • /cat riaav airdv- 
rcxiv fxaXiora rcov TrpocrocKovvTOJV XvTrrjpol rot? 
ZliKeXolg. dvicrrarai hk e/c tovtojv tcov hia(l>opa)V 
Tot? edveoLV oXocg iroXepios oaos ovSels rcov npo- 
repov yevopievcov iv VraAta, /cat TrporjXOev dxpi^ 

TToXXoV XPOVOV ^ firjKVVOfjLCVO?. 

XVII. "ErreLTa IJeXacryaJv rtves" rcov olkovvtcov 
iv rfj KaXovfjLevT] vvv QerraXia rrjv eavraJv dvay- 
KaoBevres eKXiTrelv gvvoikol yivovraL rols A^opLylaL 
/cat KOLvfj p.€T eKeivojv eVoAc/xouv irpos rovs Z't/ce- 
Xovg. ihe^avTO Se avrovs ol A^optylue?, Icrcjs p,ev 
Kal Kara t-^qv tov (l)(f)€XridrjGeadaL eAvrtda, ojs 8' 
2 iyoj TTeidojiaL Kara to avyyeves /xaAto-ra. tjv 
yap Srj /cat to tcjv IJeXacrycov yevos ^ EXXtjvlkov e/c 
rieXoTTOvvrjGov to dpxouov, ixp'^craTO 8e TvxoLiS 
hvdTTOTpiOLS els 77cAAa pev /cat oAAa, pdXtoTa 8' 
€ls TTjv TToXvTrXavov re /cat ovhevos tottov ^e^atov 
OLKrjGLV ' TrpoJTOv p.ev yap irepl to KaXovp.€vov vvv 
14;\;at/c6v "Apyos WK-qcrav avToxOoves ovTes, cos ol 
TToXXol TTepl avTtov XeyovGL. ttju 8e €7Ta>vvp.Lav 
eXa^ov e^ dpx^js TavTTjv eVt FleXacryov ^ ^aaiXews. 

' TToXXov xpovov KiesSiiiig : noppuj XP^^V ^* 

54 



BOOK I. 16. 5-17. 2 

continually plundering the Sicels. And as soon as 
they became masters of any places in the enemy's 
country the rest ot the Aborigines, also, who needed 
lands now attacked each of them their neighbours 
with greater security and built various cities, some 
of which are inhabited to this day — Antemnae, 
Tellenae, Ficulea. which is near the Corniculan 
mountains, as they are called, and Tibur. where 
a quarter in the city is even to this day called the 
Sicel quarter ^ ; and of all their neighbours they 
harassed the Sicels most. From these quarrels 
there arose a general war between the nations more 
important than any that had occurred previously 
in Italy, and it went on extending over a long period 
of time. 

XYII. Afterwards some of the Pclasgians who 
inhabited Thessaly, as it is now^ called, being obliged 
to leave their country, settled among the Aborigines 
and jointly with them made war upon the Sicels. 
It is possible that the Aborigines received them 
partly in the hope of gaining their assistance, but 
I believe it was chiefly on account of their kinship ; 
for the Pelasgians, too. w ere a Greek nation originally 
from the Peloponnesus. They were unfortunate in 
many ways but particularly in w andering much and 
in having no fixed abode. For they first lived in 
the neighbourhood of the Achaean Argos, as it is 
now called, being natives of the country, according 
to most accounts. They received their name orig- 
inally from Pelasgus, their king. Pelasgus was the 

^ Gary : tou TleXaayov 0, Jacoby. 

^ This would presumably be vicus Siculuv or regio Sicula 
ill Latin ; no mention of the quarter is found elsewhere, 

55 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

rjv Se 6 UeXaayo? Ik Alos, to? Xeyerai, kol 
Nlo^tjs rrjs 0opwv€OJ?, fj TTpcoTjj yvvatKL Ourjrfj 
/jLLcryerai 6 Zev? t6? o {jlvOos e;\;et. ^xttj S' vorepov 
yevea TJeXoTTovvrjoov iKXcTTovTeg et? ttjv rore fxev 
AlfJioviaVy vvv he QerraXiav ovojiat^ofiiv-qv fieravi- 
arrrjaav • rjyovvTO Se rrjg dTroLKia? 'AxcLiog /cat 0dlos 
KOL TJeXauyos ol Aapioiqs kol /JocretSalpo? vloi 

d(f)LK6lJL€VOL S' €L£ rrjV AlfXOl'LaU TOV? T€ KaTOLKOVVTa^ 

iv avrfj ^ap^dpov? i^eXavvovoi /cat veixovrai rr^v 
Xcjpav TpLxfjy Tol? rjyefjLOGL TroLijaavres o/jLOjvvfiovs 
rds" fJLolpas, 06uotlu kol Axatav /cat FleXaayLcbrLv. 
irivre he fjLeLvavres avroOi yeved?, ev at? irrl pLTj- 
KLGTOV evTVX^oLS rfXaaav rd Kpdriara rojv ev rfj 
QerraXia Trehlcov KapTrovfievoc, Trepl rrju eKTTjv 
yevedv e^eXavvovrai Qer-aXias vtto re Kovp-qrajv 
/cat AeXeycov, ol vvv AltcjjXol kol AoKpol KaXovvrau, 
/cat crvxvdjv dXXcxJv tojv irepl rdv Tlapvaoov olkovv- 
TOjv, -qyovfievov rcov rroXe jjllcxjv AevKaXLcovog rov 
Upofx-qdecxig, fxrjrpo? he KXvfxevrjS rrjs 'QKeavov. 

XVIII. ZKehaadevres he Kara ttjv (f)vyrjv ol jxev 
el? Kp'qTTjV drrrjXdov, ol he tojv KvKXdhcov vvjoajv 
TLvds Kareoxov, ol he rrjv ^ Trepl rov "OXvpiTrov t€ 
/cat Trjv "Ooraav, KaXovfievrjv he ' EoTLaicJartv co/ctcrav, 
oAAot he etV re Boiojriav /cat OcoKiha /cat Ev^oiav 
hLeKO/jLL(jdr)(jav ■ ol 3' etV r^v Aoiav TTepaLOjOevres 
TTJs nepl rov ' EXXrjOTTOvrov TrapaXiov rroAAd x^P^^ 
Kareoxov /cat ruyv TrapaKeijjLevojv avrfj vqacov dXXas 
re orvxvd? kol rrjv vvv KaXovjxevrjv Aeo^ov, dvapa- 
X^^VTes rols e/c rrjs 'EXXdho? areXXovai rrjv Trpcorrjv 
1 TTji' added by Kitschi. 

56 



BOOK I. 17, 3-18, 1 

son of Zeus, it is said, and of Niobe, the daughter 
of Phoroneus, who, as the h^gcnd goes, was the first 
mortal woman Zeus had knowledge of. In the sixth 
generation afterwards, leaving the Peloponnesus, 
they removed to the country which was then called 
Haemonia and now Thessaly. The leaders of the 
colony were Achaeus, Phthius and Pelasgus, the 
sons of Larisa and Poseidon. When they arrived 
in Haemonia they drove out the barbarian inhabi- 
tants and divided the country into three parts, 
calling them, after the names of their leaders, 
Phthiotis. Achaia and Pelasgiotis. After they had 
remained there five generations, during which they 
attained to the greatest prosperity while enjoying 
the produce of the most fertile plains in Thessaly, 
about the sixth generation they were driven out of 
it by the Curetes and Leleges, who are now called 
Aetolians and Locrians, and by many others who 
lived near Parnassus, their enemies being com- 
manded by Deucalion, the son of Prometheus and 
Clymene, the daughter ol Oceanus. 

XVIII. And dispersing themselves in their flight, 
some went to Crete, others occupied some of the 
islands called the Cyclades, some settled in the region 
called Hestiaeotis near Olympus and Ossa, others 
crossed into Boeotia, Phocis and Euboea ; and 
some, passing over into Asia, occupied many places 
on the coast along the Hellespont and many of the 
adjacent islands, particularly the one now called 
Lesbos, uniting with those who composed the first 
colony that was sent thither from Greece under 

57 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

anoLKLav etV avrrjv ayovrog MaKapo? rod KpivaKov } 

2 TO he irXeZov avrcov /mepos Slol rrj? fieoroyetov rpa- 

7TOfJL€VOL TTpO^ TOV? iv AojScOVrj KaTOLKOVVTaS (J(^iX)V 

crvyyevels, ols ovhels rj^lov TToXe/uLov i7n(j)ep€Lv c5? 
L€poL9, xpovov fiev TLva CTVpifierpoi' avTodi hierpujjav • 
irrel he XvTrrjpol adrol? ovres fjcrddvovTO ov)( LKavrjs 
ovG-qs arrav-as rpe^etv rrfs yrj?, eKXeLTTovai Trjv 
XOJpo.v XPV^I^V TreiOoixevoL KeXevovTi TrXelv els 

3 ^IraXiav, tj t6t€ Saropvia iXeyero. KaracrKevaad- 
jxevoi he vavs 77-oAAds" TrepatovvraL tov ^Iovlou, 
GTTOvhrjv jjiev TTOLOvpLevoL rwv eyyiara rrjs '/raAta? 
dipaadai ;\;copicov • vtto he voriov Trvev/JLaros Kal 
dyvoias rujv tottcov [JLeTeajporepoi evexOevres /cat 
Trpos evL Tojv rod TIdhov GrofJLdrwi' opfiLordpievoL 
Uttlvtjtl KaXovfJLevcp rds" ^ vavs p^ev avrov ravrr) 
Ko.raXeiTiOvui Kal tov rjKLara hvvdpLevov raXanrojpeZv 
oxXov, (jyvXaKTjv eV avrals ^ KaraorrTJcravres , cos 
exotev el /jlt] vpoxojpoLrj a<^i(jL rd rrpdypLara Kara- 

4 (j)vyrjv. Kal ol pLev vtto pie ivavres ev tovtoj to) 
X(Ji>pia), relxos toj cjTparoTrehcp TrepL^aXopLevot Kal 
raZs vavGLV eluKopiioavres rds els rdv ^iov evTTopias, 
eTTethr] Kara yvcopLrjv ehoKec x^opelv avrols rd Trpdy- 
pLara, ttoXcv eKnoav opLcovvpiov rw aropiari rov 
TTorapLov' ei>rvxf]crdv re ^ pidXiGra rd)v rrepi rdv 
^lovLOV olKOVvrojv OaXarroKparovvres dxp^ rroXXou, 

^ KpivaKov Wesseling, Kpidaov Sylburg, Jacoby : Kipaaiov 
B, Kpiaaiov R. 

^ras vav<; Hertlein : vavs O, Jacoby. 

'eV avTOis Madvig : eV avrovs A. avrov B. 

* evrvx-qadv re Steph. : evTvxT]oavT€S O. 

58 



BOOK T. 18. 1-4 

Macar, the son of Crinaciis.^ But the greater part 
of them, turning inland, took refuge among the 
inhabitants of Dodona, their kinsmen, against 
whom, as a sacred people, none would make war ; 
and there they remained for a reasonable time. 
But when they perceived they were growing burden- 
some to their hosts, since the land could not support 
them all. thev left it in obedience to an oracle that 
commanded them to sail to Italy, which was then called 
Saturnia. And having prepared a great many ships 
they set out to cross the Ionian Gulf, endeavouring 
to reach the nearest parts of Italy. But as the wind 
was in the south and they were unacquainted with 
those regions, they were carried too far out to sea 
and landed at one of the mouths of the Po called 
the Spinetic mouth. In that very place they left their 
ships and such of their people as were least able 
to bear hardships, placing a guard over the ships, 
to the end that, if their affairs did not prosper, 
they might be sure of a retreat. Those who were 
left behind there surrounded their camp with a 
wall and brought in plenty of provisions in their 
ships ; and when their affairs seemed to prosper 
satisfactorily, they built a city and called it by the 
same name as the mouth of the river.^ These 
people attained to a greater degree of prosperity 
than any others who dwelt on the Ionian Gulf ; for 
they had the mastery at sea for a long time, and 

^ This is the form of the name given by Diodonis 
(v. 81) and others; the son's name usually appears as 
Macareus, 

2 In reahty it was, of course, the town Spina that gave 
its name to the ostium Spineticum. 

59 



DIONYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

Kal SeKara? el? AeXcfyov? dvrjyov ro) Oeco ^ rajv oltto 

rrjs daXaTTTj? wcfyeXeLcov, etVep nve? /cat dXXoi, 

Aa/xTTporara?. varepov fxevroi fieydXr] x^'-p'^ '^^^ 

TTpOGOLKOVVrCOV ^ap^dpOJV €TTLGTpareVGdvTCx)V avToZ'S 

e^eXiTTOV Trjv ttoXlv • ol 8e ^dp^apoL fierd XP^^^^ 
dveurrjGav vtto 'Pajfialcov. Kal to fxev ev ro) 
ETTLvrjTi KaTaXeL(j)d€v ylvos rcov TleXacrycov ovtojs 
i(f)ddprj . 

XIX. 01 Se 8td rrj^ fjueaoyelov TpaTTopievoi, ttjv 
opeLvrju TTJ? '/raAia? VTrepj^aXovres, el? ttjv ^Ofj.^pt- 
Kujv dc^iKvovv-at x^P*^^ '^^^ ojxopovvTOjv ^Ajjopiylcn. 
TToAAd 8e Kal dXXa x<^P^ol ttJ? '/raAta? cvkovv ^OfjL- 
^pLKOL, Kal '^v Tovro TO eOvos iv Tolg rrdvv fieya re 
Kal dpxcuov. TO jxev ovv xrar' dpxds eKpdTovv ol 
rieXao-yol tcvv ;^coptajv euda to irpcoTOv ISpvcravTO 

Kal TToXlGfJidTLa TWV ^Ofl^pLKchv KaT^Xd^OVTO TLVa' 

ovveXdovTos 8' iiT* avTovs fieydXov GTpaTOV hei- 
GavTes Tiov TToXefJLLOJV TO nXrjOos etV ttjv 'AjSopiyl- 
2 I'ojv aTTLovTes rpeVovrat. Kal ol fiev ^ A^opiylve? 
are TToXefitOLS ehiKaiovv avTOis TTpou(j)€peodaL Kal 
cruvfjecrav eV twv eyytcrra x^P^^^ ^^^ Tdxovg a>? 
i^avaoT-qGovTe? avTOV?. ol 8e TJeXaGyol rvy- 
xdvovGL yap ev tovtoj to) xpovco /card haifxova irepl 
KoTvXlav 7t6Xli> A^optycvajv avXiGdixevoi ttXtjcIov 
TTjS lepds XifJivrj?) 60? 8rj ^ ttjv re vr^GiSa tt)^ eV 
avTrj TTepihtvovixevTjv KaTejxaOov Kal rrapd tcju 
alxfJ^o-XajTCov , ovs e/c rcuv dypojv eXa^ov, rjKOvaav 

to TOJU eTTLXO^pl-OJV OVOjJLa, TeAoS" ^X^*-^ G(f)LGL TO 



*<ccu after 9eu> deleted by Reiske. 

2S17 Ambrosch : be O, Jacoby j deleted by Readier. 



60 



BOOK I. 18, 4-19, 2 

out of their revenues from the sea they used to 
send tithes to the god at Delphi, which were among 
the most magnificent sent by any people. But 
later, when the barbarians in the neighbourhood 
made war upon them in great numbers, they de- 
serted the city ; and these barbarians in the course 
of time were driven out by the Romans. So perished 
that part of the Pelasgians that was left at Spina. 

XIX. Those, however, who had turned inland 
crossed the mountainous part of Italy and came 
to the territory of the Umbrians who were neish- 
hours to the Aborigines. (The Umbrians inhabited 
a great many other parts of Italy also and were 
an exceeding great and ancient people.) At first 
the Pelasgians made themselves masters of the 
lands where they first settled and took some of the 
small towns belonging to the Umbrians. But when 
a great army came together against them, they 
were terrified at the number of their enemies and 
betook themselves to the country of the Aborigines. 
And these, seeing fit to treat them as enemies, made 
haste to assemble out of the places nearest at hand, 
in order to drive them out of the country. But the 
Pelasgians luckily chanced to be encamped at that 
time near Cutilia, a city of the Aborigines hard by the 
sacred lake, and observing the little island circling 
round in it and learning from the captives they had 
taken in the fields the name of the inhabitants, 
they concluded that their oracle was now fulfilled. 

61 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

3 OeoTTpoTTLOv VTTeXa^ov. 6 yap iv AojSowr) yevo- 
fi€V09 avTols XPT^H-^^' ^^ ^'rjcri- AevKios MdXXiOS ^ 
avr^p ovK dar]pLog auro? ISelv eVt tlvos tojv iv tco 
TefJL€V€L Tov Alos K€Lfxevajv rpLTToSojv ypafZ/jLaOTLV 
dpxoitoLS iyK€xapay/jL€Vov, cLSl et^^ ' 

areLX^re ixaiojjLevoi EiKeXcov ^ EaropvLOv ^ alav 
7]^^ A^opiyiviojv KoTvXr]v, ov vdcrog ox^traL • 
of? avapLLxOevTe<^ SeKarrjv iKTrefjufjare 0oi^a) 
KOL K€(f>aXa.g KpovlSr)^ Kal tco Trarpl Tre/XTrere (j)6jra. 

XX. ^EXdovGL St] Tols M^optytcrt gvv ttoXXtj 
Grpana LKerripLas ol UeXacryol Trporelvopreg ofiocre 
XiJopovGiv avoTiXoL (f)pd^ovr€S re rd? iavrwv tvxols 
Kal SeopievoL Trpos <j>iXiav he^acrOai cr<f)ds cruvoiKOVS 
Ol) Xvir-qpov? eaopLevovs, irrei Kal to Sat/xoviov 
avTOvg els rr^rSe pLOvqv d'yet Trjv p^cupav, i^rjyov- 
2 fievoL TO XoyLOV. toIs Se M^opty tcrt raura irvdo' 
^levois iSoKet TTelOeadai to) OeoTrpoTTLCo Kal Xa^elv 
crupipLax^cLv ^ EXXtji'ikt^v /card tujv hia(j)6pa>v a(f>Lcn 
pappdpcov, KaTaiTOVovpLevoLS^ to) rrpog tovs ZiKeXovs 
TToXef-LCp. GTrivhovTal re 817 77^0? Toys' FleXacryovs 

* Sylburg : /xd^iios AB, ^ at/ceAot AB. 

^ Sjlburg, aarovpvLov Macrobius : aaropviav A, aarovpviav B. 

* KpovlBr] O : abr) Macrobius. 
^ Cobet : Trovovfxivots O. 

^ Or Manlius. Nothing is known of the man beyond 
what may be inferred from the present passage. 

2 A poetic variant of Cotyha, the Greek form of CutiHa. 

2 Varro's version of this story is quoted by Macrobius 
(i. 7, 28 ff.). In the last verse of the oracle he has 'Aih-Q for 

62 



BOOK 1. 19. 3-20, 2 

For this oracle, which had been delivered to them in 
Dodona and which Lucius Mallius,^ no obscure man, 
says he himself saw engraved in ancient characters 
upon one of the tripods standing in the precinct of 
Zeus, was as follows : 

" Fare forth the Sicels' Saturnian land to seek. 
Aborigines' Cotyle,^ too, where floats an isle ; 
With these men mingling, to Phoebus send a 

tithe, 
And heads to Cronus' son, and send to the sire 



XX. When, therefore, the Aborigines advanced 
with a numerous army, the Pelasgians approached un- 
armed with olive branches in their hands, and telling 
them of their own fortunes, begged that they would 
receive them in a friendly manner to dwell with 
them, assuring them that they would not be trouble- 
some, since Heaven itself was guiding them into 
this one particular country according to the oracle, 
which they explained to them. When the Aborigi- 
nes heard this, they resolved to obey the oracle and 
to gain these Greeks as allies against their bar- 
barian enemies, for they were hard pressed by 
their war with the Sicels. They accordingly made 
a treaty with the Pelasgians and assigned to them 

Kpovihrj. He says the oracle was at first taken to call for 
human heads as an offering to Dis and the sacrifice of 
men to Saturn. But several generations later Hercules 
taught the people a more humane interpretation : to 
Dis they should offer little images made in the likeness of 
men and Saturn should be honoured with lighted candles, 
since ^aJra meant " light " as well as " man." 

63 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Kal StSoaGLv avTolg ;\;6(jpia Trj? iavrwv OLTToSaad' 
fxevoL TO. Trepl rrjv lepav XifjLvqv, iv ol£ rfv ra ttoXXol 
eXcoSr], d vvv Kara rov dpy^alov rrjs SiaXeKTOv rporrov 

3 OveXca ovofidleTaL. avvqdes yap rjv rol? dpxatots 
"EXX-qGLV d)? rd TToXXd TrpoTcOevaL rcov ovo/xdrajv, 
OTTOcrojv at dpxdf- dno (f)a)mjevTa}V eyivovrOy rrjv ov 
ovXXa^r^v evl gtolx^loj ypa(f)opL€vrjv. tovto S' rjv 
(LuTTep ydjJLfia SirraLS inl pbiav opdrjv eTnt^evyvupievov 
rat? irXayloL?, ojg FeXevq Kal Fdva^ /cat Folkos 

4 Kal Feap^ Kal rroXXd Toiavra. eVetra /jLolpd rt? 
avTOJv ovK iXaxiCTTT), CO? 7) yrj TraGLv ovk dnexpr), 
7T€LGavTes TOV5 lA^opLylva? Gvvdpaudai g(J)lgi rrjs 
i^obov GrparevouGLV inl tov£ ^Op^^piKov? Kal ttoXlv 
avTcov evSalpLova Kal pieydXrjv dcf)vcjo npoGTreGovre^ 
alpovGL KpoTOJva ' ravrr] (l>povpLa) Kal eTTiretxicrp'arL 
Kara rCjv ^Opj^piKcvv xpd}f^^^OL, Kar€.GKevaGp.4vr) re 
oj? epvpLa €lvaL noXepLov dTroxpdj^TOJS Kal ;\;cupap 
ixovGT) rrjv Trept^ ev^orov, ttoXXcov Kal a'AAcov 
eKpdrrjGav x^P^^^ '^olg re ^A^opiylGi rov irpog rovg 
UiKeXovg TToXepiov en GvveGrwra ttoXXtj TrpodvpLLO, 

GVvSL€cf)€pOV, eCO? €^7]XaGaV aVTOVS €K TTJg G(f)€T€- 

5 pas'. Kal TToXeis 77oAAa?, ra? piev OLKovp.€vas Kal 
TTporepov V7t6 rdJv EiKeXajv, rds S' avrol Kara- 
GKevdaavreg, cokovv ol UeXaGyol kolvtj pberd tcov 
A^opLyLVOJv, (Lv iariv yj re KaiprjravcJjv ttoAi?, 
"AyvXXa Se rore KaXovpLevr) , Kal IJiaa Kal Earopvia 

^ Feap Can,', Faprjv Naber : Fdrjp B(?), Jacoby, Fdvrjp A. 

1 This letter, vau, later called digamma, has actually 
been found in numerous early inscriptions from various 

64 



BOOK T. 20, 2-5 

some of their own lands that lay near the sacred 
lake ; the greater part of these were marshy and 
are still called Velia, in accordance with the ancient 
form of their language. For it was the custom of 
the ancient Greeks generally to place before those 
words that began with a vowel the syllable ov, 
written with one letter (this was like a gamma, 
formed by two oblique lines joined to one upright 
line), as feXevrj, Fdva^, Folko?, Fiap and many 
such words. ^ Afterwards, a considerable part of the 
Pelasgians, as the land was not sufficient to support 
them all, prevailed on the Aborigines to join them in 
an expedition against the Umbrians, and marching 
forth, they suddenly fell upon and captured Croton, a 
rich and large city of theirs. And using this place 
as a stronghold and fortress against the Umbrians, 
since it was sufficiently fortified as a place of de- 
fence in time of war and had fertile pastures lying 
round it, they made themselves masters also of a 
great many other places and with great zeal assisted 
the Aborigines in the war they were still engaged 
in against the Sicels, till they drove them out of 
their country. And the Pelasgians in common 
with the Aborigines settled many cities, some of 
which had been previously inhabited by the Sicels 
and others which they built themselves ; among these 
are Caere, then called Agylla, and Pisae, Saturnia, 

parts of Greece ; its value was that of the Latin v or 
Enghsh w. See Kiihner-Blass, Griech. Gram. i. 1, § 16 f. 
Dionysius assumes that Veha is an early form of lAeta 
("marshy"). In his day the Latin v was usually repre- 
sented in Greek by ov, sometimes by /3. 

65 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Kai "AXglov Kal a'AAai rwe?, a? dva )(p6vov vno 
TvppTjVwv d(f)7]p€6rjGai' . 

XXI. OaXepiov he Kal 0aoK€Pviov en Kal el? 
e/JLe -qdav oLKOvjjLevai vtto ' Pajfiaicov , /jllkp* arra Sia- 
(jcjo^ovaaL t,a>7Tvpa tov [JeXaayLKou yevovs, StKeXiov 
VTTapxovcrai Trporepov. ev ravrais Siefieive ttoXXol 
Tcov dpxatojv hiaLTrjiJidrojv , ols to ^ EXXtjvlkov ttot 
exp'Tjcraro, IttI plt^klgtop xP^^^^> otop- o re tcjv 
ottXcdv ra)v TToXepLiGT-qpiajv /coct/xos", daTTihes 'Apyo- 
XiKal Kal Sopara, Kal oirore TToXefiov dp^ovres ^ 
Tou? eiTLOin-as dpivvopLevoi arparov virepopiov * diro- 
crreXXoiev lepoi rives dvSpe? dvoirXot irpo twv dXXojv 
lovres OTTOvhoc^opoL, rcov re lepojv al KaraoKeval 
Kal rd eSrj rcov 6ea)v dyiopLoi re Kal OvaLai Kal 

2 TToXXd roiavra erepa Trdvrtov he 7Tepi4>aveGrarov 
fxvrjfJLelov rrjs ev "Apyei nore OLK-qoeajg rcov dvdpcj- 
TTOJV eKeivojv ol rov? ULKeXovs e^rjXaoav, 6 rrjg 
"Hpas ved>s ev ^aXepico KareoKevaafxevog ct>? iv 
"Apy eiy evda Kal rcov dvrjTroXLOJV 6 rpoiros o/jlolos 
rjv Kal yvvaiKes lepal depanevoucrai to refxevos rj 
re XeyofievT) Kavr)(f)6pos dyvrj yafxajv naU Karap- 
)(OfjLevr) rojv dvfidrajv x^pol re napOevcov vpLvovacJov 

3 rrjv Oeov cohalg rrarpiois. eo^ov he riva Kal 
ovroL rd)v KaXov^evojv Ka/JLTTavojv ev^orcov rrdw 
Kal rrjv oifjiv rjhiarajv nehiajv ovk eXaxiorr^v fiolpaUy 
edvos Tt ^ap^apLKOv Avpojvioaovs '^ eV fiepovs dva- 

^VTTcpopLOU Kiessling : vmip tcov cpcur O. 

^ AvparyKovs or Avpovy ovs Sylburg, Portus. 



Tho JttiaLes ; see ii. 72. 



66 



BOOK I. 20, 5-21, 3 

Alsium and some others, of which they were in the 
course of time dispossessed by the Tyrrhenians. 

XXI. But Falerii and Fescennium were even 
down to my day inhabited by Romans and pre- 
served some small remains of the Pelasgian nation, 
though they had earlier belonged to the Sicels. In 
these cities there survived for a very long time 
many of the ancient customs formerly in use among 
the Greeks, such as the fashion of their arms of 
war, like x\rgolic bucklers and spears ; and w henever 
they sent out an army beyond their borders, either 
to begin a war or to resist an invasion, certain holy 
men, unarmed, went ahead of the rest bearinfi the 
terms of peace ' ; similar, also, were the structure 
of their temples, the images of their gods, their 
purifications and sacrifices and many other things 
of that nature. But the most conspicuous monu- 
ment which shows that those people who drove out 
the Sicels once lived at Argos is the temple of Juno 
at Falerii, built in the same fashion as the one 
at Argos ; here, too, the manner ol the sacrificial 
ceremonies was similar, holy women served the 
sacred precinct, and an unmarried girl, called the 
canephorus or " basket-bearer," performed the initial 
rites of the sacrifices, and there were choruses of vir- 
gins who praised the goddess in the songs of their 
country. These people also possessed themselves 
of no inconsiderable part of the Campanian plains, 
as they are called, which aflbrd not only very 
fertile pasturage but most pleasing prospects as 
well, having driven the Auronissi,'^ a barbarous 

"The name occurs nowhere else and is very probably 
a corruption of Aurunci. 

67 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

arrjGavTes avrcou Kal 
aAAa? T€ Kal Adpioav ^ inl Trj<; ev IJeXoTtowiqacx) 
4 acfiiov yL'qrpoTToXeojs ovofia de/jLeuoc avrfj. rcov fjiev 
ovv dXXcov TToXLOfiOLTcov €OTLV d Kal fiexpi-? ifJiov 
opda -qv, SLafieajjama ttoXXolkls rovg OLKijTopag- rj 
be AdpLGa e'/c rroAAajj^ ndvv xpovojv iprjfjLwdelcra 
ou3' et TTCoTTore ojKrjOiq ^ yvojpiGfJLa (^avepov ovSev 

€)(€L TOLS VVV OTL fJLYj TOVVOfJLa, Kal Ov8e TOVTO 77oAAot 

LoaGLV • Tju 8e dyopds TJoTTiXias KaXovixeirqs ov 
TTpoooj. TToXXd Se Kal oAAa Tr\s re napadaXaTrlov 
Kal €V rfj fieGoyela) xcjpia Kariu^ov d^eXofxevoi 
rovs UiKeXou?. 

XXII. 01 he SiKeXol [ov yap €tl avTe^^eiv oloi 
re TjGav vtto re UeXaGycov Kal A^opiyivajv ttoXc/jloV' 
IX€voi) T€Kva Kal yvvaiKa? Kal rwv -y^prnxdrajv oaa 
)(pvo6s r) dpyvpog rju dvaaKevaadpievoL fiedUvraL 
avTol<i dndcrrjs ttjs y^S- rpaTTOfxevoL Se 8id tyjs 
opeivrjs inl rd voria Kal hie^eXdovres d-naaav 
^IraXiav ttju Kdrco, iireihri navraxodev d7T7]Xav- 
vovTOy Gvv xpouo) KaraGKevaGafxevoL G^eSiag em 
TO) nopdfjLa) Kal ^vXd^avres Kariovra rdv povv 
diTO TTjS '/raAta? hii^iqGav inl ttju eyytGra i/rJGov. 
2 Karelxov 8' avr-qv UtKauoi, yivos ^IjSrjpLKOu, ov 
TToAAoj TTporepov ivoLKLGdjJievoL ^ Alyvas (j^evyovres, 
/cat TTapeGKevaGav dcf)' iavrojv ZiKaviav KXiqdrjvaL 
TTji^ inJGOv. TpLvaKpiav rrpOTepov ovofiat^o^xivriv inl 

' Ritschl : \dptaoa^ O (arid similarly elsewhere). 

^Kie«!siing: d>Kiodrj O. 

^ Co bet : QwoLKTjudixevoi. AB. 

68 



BOOK I. 21, 3-22. 2 

nation, out of part ot them. There they built 
various other cities and also Larisa, which they 
named after their mother-city in the Peloponnesus. 
Some of these cities were standing even to my day, 
having often changed thoir inhabitants. But Larisa 
has been long deserted and shows to the people 
of to-day no other sign of its ever having been 
inhabited but its name,^ and even this is not gener- 
ally known. It was not far from the place called 
Forum Popilii.^ They also occupied a great many 
other places, both on the coast and in the interior, 
which they had taken from the Sicels. 

XXII. The Sicels, being warred upon by both 
the Pelasgians and the Aborigines, found themselves 
incapable of making resistance any longer, and so, 
taking with them their wives and children and such 
of their possessions as were of gold or silver, they 
abandoned all their country to these foes. Then, 
turning their course southward through the moun- 
tains, they proceeded through all the low^er part of 
Italy, and being driven away from every place, 
they at last prepared rafts at the Strait and, w atching 
for a downward current, passed over from Italy to 
the adjacent island. It was then occupied by the 
Sicanians, an Iberian nation, who, fleeing from the 
Ligurians, had but lately settled there and had caused 
the island, previously named Trinacria, from its 

' Larisa originally meant " citadel." Places with thus 
name, of which there were several in Greece and Asia, 
seem to have been of Pelasgic origin. 

- This Forum Popilii was in the Falernian district at the 
northern end of the Campanian plain, a few miles south of 
Teauum. 

69 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Tov Tpiycovov GXTJlJ-OLTog. rjaau Se ov ttoXXol vi 
fieydXrj avrfj oLKt^rope?, dAA' r) TrXeiajv rrjs )(d)pas 
€TL rjv eprjfJLOS- Karax04vres ovv elg avTTjv ZiKeXol 
TO fi€V TTpcorov €v Tol? ioTTepioLs /jLepeoLU ojKrjcrav, 
eVetra Kal dXXr] TToXXaxfjj kol rovvopia r) vrjaos errl 

3 Toijrojv TJp^aro HiK^Xla KaXelaBaL. to pikv orj 
EiKeXiKOv yevo? ovtcos i^eXiTrev ^IraXiav, ws p^ev 
^EXXdvLKOS 6 Aio^LOS (j^rjCTL, '^P^'^'V y^'^'^d TTporepov 
T<jL}v TpojLKWv ^AXKVoviqs UpcupLevT^g iv "Apyei /card 

TO €KTOV KOI eLKOGTOV €TOg. SvO §6 ^ 770(61 O'ToAoUS' 

^ IraXiKovg Staf^dvTag el? ZtKeXiav • rov pikv rrpo- 
repov ^EXvpicov, ov? cfirjaiv v-n Olvcorpcov i^ava- 
arrjvaLj tov Se pL.eTd tovtov eVet Tre/xnTCp yevopuevov 
AvGovojv ^laTTvyas (^evyovTcov • ^acnXea Se tovtojv 
aTTO^aiveL StKcXoVy d(f)^ ov Toui-o/xa ToXg t€ dvdpo)- 

4 TTOig Kal TTJ v^GO) TeOrjuaL. wg 8e 0lXlgtos 6 
HvpaKOVGio? ypd<j)ei,^ xpovos pi€v ttjs Sia^ao-eco? 
rjv €Tos oyho-qKOGTOv Trpo tov TpcoiKOV rroXepLov, 
eOvos Se TO SiaKOpLLGdev i$ '/TaAta? ovTe Avgo- 
vojv ^ ovT ^EXvpLOJV, dAAd Aiyvojv, dyovTog avTovs 

^ Se added by Ritschl. ^ Kiessling : eypoupe O, Jacoby. 

' Before ovre Avaovcov Stephanus inserted ovre UlkcXcov. 
Kiessling was the first editor to bracket these words, which 
appear in none of the MSS. By a strange inadvertence 
Jacoby replaced them in the text, attributing them to 
Kiessling ! 

^ Hellanicus (fifth century), the most prominent of the 
logographers, wrote histories of various Greek lands, in- 
cluding an Atthis for Attica and a Fhoronis for Argoa 
(c/. chap. 28, 3), as well as accounts of the Trojan ex- 
pedition and the Persian invasion. He also compiled some 
chronological lists, such as T/^e Friestesses of Hera at Argoa 

70 



BOOK I. 22, 2-4 

triangular shape, to be called Sicania, after them- 
selves. There were very few inhabitants in it for so 
large an island, and the greater part of it was as yet 
unoccupied. Accordingly, when the Sicels landed 
there they first settled in the western parts and 
afterwards in several others ; and from these people 
the island began to be called Sicily. In this manner 
the Sicel nation left Italy, according to Hellani- 
cus of Lesbos,^ in the third generation before the 
Trojan war, and in the twenty-sixth year of the 
priesthood of Alcyone at Argos.^ But he says that 
two Italian expeditions passed over into Sicily, the 
first consisting of the Elymians, who had been 
driven out of their country by the Oenotrians, and 
the second, five years later, of the Ausonians, who 
fled from the lapygians. As king of the latter 
group he names Sicelus, from whom both the people 
and the island got their name. But according to 
Philistus of Syracuse ^ the date of the crossing was 
the eightieth year before the Trojan war ^ and the 
people who passed over from Italy were neither 
Ausonians nor Elymians, but Ligurians, whose 

(c/. chap. 72, 2), with the apparent purpose of devising 
a scientific chronology. The present quotation appears 
as frg. 53 in Miiller, F.H.G. i. p. 52. 

2 Probably in the second quarter of the thirteenth cen- 
tury B.C. ; but it is not certain that Hellanicus is here 
using the generation as a definite measure of time (usually 
reckoned as one -third of a century). Unfortunately the 
date of Alcyone's priesthood is not known. 

3 Philistus (first half of fourth century) stood high in the 
counsels of the elder Dionysius, for a time, and particularly 
of the younger Dionysius. He was famous for his history 
oi Sicily, which closely imitated the style of Thucydides. 
Miiller, F.H.G. i. p. 185, frg. 2. * ai. 1263 B.C. 

71 



DIONYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

ZiKeXov ' Tovrov 8' elvai (f)r](jLV vlov '/raAou, 
Kal Tovs aid pco-novs eVt TO}jrov hwaarevovrog 
ovofJLaaOrji'ai UiKeXov?' i^avaarrji'aL 8* €K ttjs 
iavrcjv tovs Alyvag vtto re ^Ofi^pcKcbv Kal TleXao- 
ya)v. AvTLO-)(OS 8^ o UupaKOVGLog XP^^''^^ M^^ ^^ 
Sr]XoL TT^S" hia^aoeojg, ElkeXovs Se tov<^ fxer- 
avaaravras drrocfiaLveL ^LaoOevras vtto re OiViorpajv 
Kal ^OmKcJov, Zrpdrcjva ^ 8' ^ rjyefiova rr\s aTTOLKLas 
TTOL-qaafievov?. ©ou/cuS/Sr^s" 8e UtKeXov? [lev etvau 
ypd(j)eL rovs fieravaGrdi'rag , ^Ottlkovs 8e rov? 
eK^aXovra?, rov 8e XP^^^^ ttoAAoi? ereat rwv 
TpojLKWV varepov. rd [xev hrj irepl UiKeXaJv Xeyo- 
fieva Tojv e^ VraAta? ixereveyKafievajv rrjv olktjglv 
els ZiKeXiav vtto rcJov Xoyov d^icxiv roidhe eoriv. 

XXITI. 01 he IleXaoryoL 7ToXXrj<; Kal dyadrjg 
XCiipciS KparTjOavres , TioAet? re TroAAa? piev 77apa- 
Xa^ovres,^ aAAas" 8' avrol KaraoKevdoavres , fie- 
ydX-qv Kal rax^^o.^ eTT&ooLV eXa^ov el? evawSplav 
Kal rrXovrov Kal rrjp dXXrjv evrvxLCLV, tjs ov ttoXvv 
(jjvavro xpdvou dXj\' rjVLKa pidXiara rots GvpLnaoiv 
dvOelv ehoKovv, haiixoviOLS rial ;(dAo<s' eXaarpr]- 
Sevres ol jiev vrro rojv delojv GvpL(f)opdjv, ol 8e vtto 
rd)v TrpoGoiKOVvra>v ^ap^dpcov e^€(f)ddpr]Gav, ro Se 
nXeLGrov avrdJv piepos et's" rrjv ' EXXdSa Kal rrjv 
Bdp^apov avOiS eGKeSdaOrj (jTepl cov ttoXvs dv e'lrj 
Xoyos, €i ^ovXoLpLTjv TTjv aKpl^eiav ypdcfyeiv), oXiyov 

^ Zrpdrwva Uriichs, FlaTpcDva Beriiays, SvpdKojva Reiske: 

JTpaTcZv O. 

- 8' added by Reiske. 

^itoMls 77apaAa/3orr€s Ambrosch; noA^i-s ve nap^Aa^ov 

(vooaeXafioi' A) BAi 

72 



BOOK I. 22. 4-23, 1 

leader was Sicelus ; this Sicelus, he says, was 
the sou of Italus and in his reign the people were 
called Sicels, and he adds that these Ligurians had 
been driven out of their country by the Umbrians 
and Pelasgians. Antiochus of S\Tacuse ' does not 
give the date of the crossing, but says the people 
who migrated were the Sicels, who had been forced 
to leave by the Oenotrians and Opicans, and that 
they chose Straton^ as leader of the colony. But 
Thucydides writes ^ that the people who left Italy 
were the Sicels and those who drove them out the 
Opicans. and that the date was many years after 
the Trojan war. Such, then, are the reports 
given by credible authorities concerning the Sicels 
who changed their abode from Italy to Sicily. 

XXIII. The Pelasgians, after conquering a large 
and fertile region, taking over many towns and 
building others, made great and rapid progress, 
becoming populous, rich and in every way pros- 
perous. Nevertheless, they did not long enjov their 
prosperity, but at the moment when they seemed 
to all the world to be in the most flourishing con- 
dition they were \'isited by divine wrath, and some 
of them were destroyed by calamities inflicted by 
the hand of Heaven, others by their barbarian 
neighbours ; but the greatest part of them were 
again dispersed through Greece and the country of 
the barbarians (concerning whom, if I attempted 
to give a particular account, it would make a very 

' See p. 39, n. 2. Miiller, F.H.O. i. p. 181, frg. 1. 
* The name rests on conjecture. See critical note. 
8 VI. 2. 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Se KaTefjL€ivev iv '/roAta tojv ^A^opiyivajv Trpovoia. 

2 npcoTov fjL€v ovv rrj? oLKO(f)dopLa9 rats TToXeaiv 
ihoKei avxficp rj yrj KaKOjOeLcra ap^at, rjVLKa ovr 
Ittl toZs hevhpeGL Kapnog ovSel? copaio? yeveaOaL 
hUfJieLvev, aAA' ojfJLol Kareppeov , ov6^ oiroaa cnrep- 
pidrojv avevra ^Xaarovs a.v67]Gei€v ecu? cttolxvos 
OLKjjLTJg rovs Kara uofiov i^eTrXrjpov ;)^pdi/ous", ovre 
TToa KTT]veaLV €(f)veTo Stap/CT^s", tcov re va/jbdrcuv rd 

fJL€V OVK€TL TTLVeCjOaL GTTOvhala TjV , TO. S' V7TeXl{Ji7TaV€ 

3 ddpovg, rd S' els re'Aos" dTrca^evvvro . dSeA^a 8e 
TOUTOt? iylvero Trepi. re rrpo^drcov Kal yuvaiKcov 
yovdg ^ ydp i^T^fi^Xovro rd efi^pva rj Kard rovs 
roKOVS ScecjideLpero eariv a Kal rds <f)epovGas avv- 
hiaXvpirjvdpLeva. el he n hiacfivyoi rdv Ik rcjv 
(LSlvojv klpSvvov, eixTTTjpov T) dreXeg rj §{' dXXrjv nvd 
T~fJXW ^Xa(f)9€V rpei^eodat ;^p')]crTOv ovk i)v ' erreira 
Kal rd dXXo ttXtjOo? rd ev aK/jifj fxaXtGra eKaKovro 
vooois Kal davdrois irapd rd elKora avxyoig. 

4 iJLavrevojJLevoLS S' avrols riva dewv r) haipioviov 
TTapa^dvres rdSe rrdcrxovcn Kal rt TTorqaaGLv avrols 
Xw(pTJ(jaL rd hetvd iXiTLS, 6 Oeds duelXeu on rvxdvres 
wp €J3ovXovro OVK aTTehoaav a ev^avro, dXXd npoa- 

5 o(f)€LXovGL rd rrXelorov afta. ol ydp TleXauyol 
d(f)opLa5 avrols yevo^Jieviqs ev rfj yfj iravrajv XPVH'^' 
rojv ev^avro ro) re Ad Kal ro) ArroXXojVL Kal rots 

1 Similar calamities are mentioned, much more briefly, 
in Sophocles, Oed. Rex 25-27. 

74 



BOOK I. 23. 1-5 

long story), though some lew ol them remained 
in Italy through the care of the Aborigines. The first 
cause of the desolation of their cities seemed to be 
a drought which laid waste the land, when neither 
any fruit remained on the trees till it was ripe, 
but dropped while still green, nor did such of the 
seed corn as sent up shoots and flowered stand for 
the usual period till the ear was ripe, nor did sufl&- 
cient grass grow for the cattle ; and of the waters 
some were no longer fit to drink, others shrank during 
the summer, and others were totally dried up. 
And like misfortunes attended the offspring both of 
cattle and of women.^ For they were either abortive 
or died at birth, some by their death destroying 
also those that bore them ; and if any got safely 
past the danger of their dehvery, they were either 
maimed or defective or, being injured by some other 
accident, were not fit to be reared. The rest of the 
people, also, particularly those in the prime of life, 
were afflicted with many unusual diseases and un- 
common deaths. But when they asked the oracle 
what god or divinity they had off^ended to be thus 
afflicted and by what means they might hope for 
relief, the god answered that, although they had 
obtained what they desired, they had neglected to 
pay what they had promised, and that the things 
of greatest value were still due from them. For the 
Pelasgians in a time of general scarcity in the land 
had vowed to off"er ^ to Jupiter, Apollo and the 

^ The verbs Karadvoeiv (here) and d-n^dvoav (just below) are 
rendered by the ambiguous word " offer " ; for, though 
both are compounds of dvoj (" sacrifice"), they sometimes 
mean merely " dedicate " or " devote." 

75 



DIONYSTUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

Ka^eipois Karadvoeiv SeKaras tcjv npoGyevrjao- 
fi€PWv airavrajv, TeXeadeLcrqs Se rrj? €vxrj? e^eAd- 
fi€VOL Kaprrujv re Kal ^oaK-qyidrcxjv aTTavrcov ro 
Xa.-)(OS OLTTedvorav Tolg deolg, cu? 8rj Kara tovtojv 
fiovojv ev^dfJLevoL. ravra Brj MvpoiXos 6 AealStog 
ioroprjKev oXiyov helv tol? avrols ovo/uLacji ypd<j>ajv 
ols ^yoj vvv , ttXtju oaov ov TleXaGyovs KaXel tovs 
dvdpajTTovg dXXd Tvppr)vov? ■ ttjv 8' alriav oXiyov 
varepov ipco. 

XXIV. Q? 8e d7T€V€xOevra rou ^^^piqapLov e/xaOov, 
OVK el-)(ov rd Xeyofjieua crujJi^aXelv. diirj^^avovoi Se 
avrols Tcou yepairepcov rts Xdyet avfi^aXcju to 
Xoytov, on rov iravros rnJLapTTjKaoLv , el olovrai 
TOVS Oeovs dSiKcog avrolg iyKaXeZv. ■x^p-qfidTcov 
fjL€v yap dTToSeSoadaL Tag drrapxds avrols aTrdoas 
opOcos Te Kal Gvv ^Ikt), dvdpoiTTOJV he yovrjs to 
Xdxos, xprifjia rravTOS fidXiOTa Oeols TifiLcoraTov, 
6(f)€LXeadaL el Be St] Kal tovtcuv Xd^OLev ttjv hiKaiav 
2 fjLolpav reXos e^eiv GcjiiGL to Xoytov. Tolg ^ev 
hrj opdcos ehoKei Xeyeadai TavTa, tols Se e^ eVt- 
PovXrjs ovyKelodai 6 Xoyos ' elo-qy-qoapievov he 
TLVos TTjv yvajjJLrjV top deov eTrepeadat, el avTcp 
(^lXou dvdpo'jTTOjv heKdras aTToXapL^dueLV, TTefinovo-t 
TO hevrepov deoirpoTrovs . Kal 6 Oeos dvelXev ovtoj 

^ Myrsilus (first half of third century) composed a history 
of Lesbos. This quotation is frg. 2 in Miiller, F.H.Q. iv. 
pp. 456 f. ^ In chaps. 25 and 29. 

3 In a similar story related by Strabo (v. 4, 12) theSabines 
had vowed to dedicate all their increase of the year, and 
learning, as the result ot a famine that later befell them, 
that they should have included their children, they dedi- 

76 



BOOK T. 23, 5-24, 2 

Cabeiri tithes of all their future increase ; but when 
their prayer had been answered, they set apart and 
offered to the gods the promised portion of all their 
fruits and cattle only, as if their vow had related 
to them alone. This is the account related by Myr- 
silus of Lesbos,^ who uses almost the same words 
as I do now, except that he does not call the 
people Pelasgians, but Tyrrhenians, of which I shall 
give the reason a little later.^ 

XXIV. When they heard the oracle which was 
brought to them, they were at a loss to guess the 
meaning of the message. While they were in this 
perplexity, one of the elders, conjecturing the sense 
of the saying, told them they had quite missed its 
meaning if they thought the gods complained of 
them without reason. Of material things they had 
indeed rendered to the gods all the first-fruits in 
the right and proper manner, but of human offspring, 
a thing of all others the most precious in the sight 
of the gods, the promised portion still remained 
due ; if, however, the gods received their just share of 
this also, the oracle would be satisfied. There were, 
indeed, some who thought that he spoke aright, 
but others felt that there was treachery behind his 
words. And when some one proposed to ask the 
god whether it was acceptable to him to receive 
tithes of human beings, they sent their messengers 
a second time, and the god ordered them so to do.^ 

cated these to Mars, and when the chikken had grown 
up, sent them out as colonists. Dionysius has already 
narrated (in chap. 16) a Uke procedure on the part of the 
Aborigines. This form of vow, when it involved the in- 
crease of a particular year, was called a ver sacrum, as we 

[Note contiiuied on p. 79. 

77 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

7TOi€LV. eV 8e TovTov araGLS avrovg KaraXafji^dvei 
TTepl rod rpoTTOV rrj<; Se/careucrecos'. /cat iv oAAt]- 
XoLS OL TTpoeorriKores rcov TrdAeojy to ^ rrpcorov 

3 €Tapd)(^drj(Tav' eVetTa Kal to Xolttov TrXrjdog 8t' 
VTTOiplas Tovg iv TeXet iXd^^avev, eyivovTO t€ 
ovSevl KOGfjLO) dTravaoTdaeis ,^ aXX codirep ^Ikos 
oujTpcp Kal Oeo^Xa^eia aTTeXavvofzevaL, Kal ttoXXol 
i<f)€(JTia oXa i^rjX€L(f)6r] fiepoug avTOJV fxed Lcrraixivov • 
01) yap ihiKalovv ol npoG-qKovTeg rot? i^tovGiv oltto- 
XeiTTeadai re tcov <f)LXTdTcov Kal iv tols ixdiaTOig 

4 VTrofieveLV. rrpajTOL ^ikv Srj ovtol jjLeTavaorTdvTCS 

i^ '/raAta? ei's" re ttjv 'EXXdSa Kal Trjg ^ap^dpov 

TToXXrjp inrXavriOiqaav . fxeTa 8e tov? TTpcoTOvg erepot 

TO avTO^ eTTaOov, Kal tovto StereAct yivoiievov oGeT-q. 

ov yap dvieoav ol SvvaGTevovT€? iv rat? TToAecrt Trjg 

avSpovfidv-qs del veottjto? i^aLpovfxevoL tols aTrapxa?, 

rots' T€ OeoLS ra SiKaia VTTOvpyelv d^tovvTcg Kal 

(TTaaiaafJLOVs iK tcov StaAa^orrojv * SeSiore?. rjv 

Se TToXi) Kal TO Trpo? e^Opav gvv Trpo^daei €V7rp€7T€L 

^t6 Sintenis : totc O. 

^ aTTavaoTdacLS A : al enavaaTdoeis B ; au dnavacrrdoeLS 
Jacoby. 

^ TO avTO O : ravrov Jacoby. 

* biaXadovrcov O : bLoXaxovTUJV Sylburg, del Xaxovruji' Cobet. 

78 



BOOK I. 24, 2-4 

Thereupon strife arose among them concerning the 
manner of choosing the tithes, and those who had the 
government of the cities first quarrelled among them- 
selves and afterwards the rest of the people held their 
magistrates in suspicion. And there began to be dis- 
orderly emigrations, such as might well be expected 
from a people driven forth by a frenzy and madness 
inflicted by the hand of Heaven. Many households 
disappeared entirely when part of their members left; 
for the relations of those who departed were un- 
willing to be separated from their dearest friends and 
remain among their worst enemies. These, there- 
fore, were the first to migrate from Italy and wander 
about Greece and many parts of the barbarian 
world ; but after them others had the same experi- 
ence, and this continued every year. For the rulers 
in the cities ceased not to select the first-fruits of the 
youth as soon as they arrived at manhood, both 
because they desired to render what was due to the 
gods and also because they feared uprisings on the 
part of lurking enemies. Many, also, under specious 

learn from Paulus Diaconus in his abridgment of Festus, 
p. 379. He states that it was a custom of the Italian 
peoples in times of dire peril to vow to sacrifice (immo- 
laturos) all the living things that should be born to them 
during the following spring ; but that, since it seemed to 
them cruel to slay innocent boys and girls, they reared 
these and then drove them forth, with their heads veiled, 
beyond the boundaries. It is not altogether clear in the 
case of the Pelasgians what the fate of the human tithes 
was, whether mere expulsion or actual sacrifice. Im 
favour of the former view may be urged the ^nct "A ciieir 
respite until they had grown up ; yet the violent disturb- 
ances that accompanied the selection of the tithes would 
seem to point to a more cruel fate. 

79 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

aneXavvofievov vtto tcov hiacjiopujv • ware ttoKKoI at 
OLTTavaardGeL? ^ iyivovro /cat €ttI irXelGTOv yrjs to 
IleXacryLKOv yevos SLe(f)opi]dr]. 

XXV. ' Haav Se rd re ^ TToXefjua Ik rod /xera 
KLvhvvojv 7T€7TOL7]adaL TOi? fxeXeras ev edveai (j>iXo- 
TToXefioLS ^a>vr€s ttoXXcjv dfjieivovs kol rrjs Kara ra 
pavTLKa i7TLaTT]ixr]s Std rrju jxerd Tvpprjvcjv oLKYjortv 
IttI TrXelcrTOV iX-qXaKor^s ' ^ tj re dvdyKTj LKavrj 
ovaa rot? aTTOpovpLevois ^lou roXfiav Trapaax^lv 
rjyefjLwi^ re /cat StSacr/caAos" rod Travros KLvhvve-6- 
jLtaro? avToZs lyivero, ware ov ;\;aAe7rajs' ottt] 

2 eTTcXOotev eVe/cparouv. eKaXovvro he vtto tG)v 
dXXojv dvdpo)7T(jjv T7J? re ^(copas ernKX-qaeL d(j>* r^s 
egavecrrqaav /cat tov TraAatov yevovs fJLvrjpLrj ot 
auTOt Tvpprjvol /cat HeXacryoL. Sv iyoj Xoyov 
i7TOLrj(jdjj,rjv rod fx-q riva Oavfxa Trotetcr^ai, eVetSdv 
TTOLrjToJu Tj cruyypa(f}icx)v aKovj) rovg /TeAaoyous" 
/cat Tvpprjvovs ovopLat^ovrcov , ttoj? dfJi(j)OTepas eu^ov 

3 rd<^ iTTCjuvvpLLag ol avroi. e^ei yap irepl avrcjv^ 
QovKvhih-qs fxev ivapyrj ^AKrrjg^ rrj? SpaKiag 
fiinjfirjp ^ /cat rcov iv avrfj Keifidvajv TToXewu, as 
oIkovglv avdpcxJTTOi hiyXojTTOL. TTepl he rod TleXao- 
yiKOV edvovg ohe 6 Aoyo? • " eVt he ri /cat XaA/ct8t- 
KoVj ro he TrXelarov IJeXacr/LKOv rd)v /cat Arjfivov 

^ dnavaaTdaeis A : eTravaaTaaets B. 

^re placed after to. by Kiessling : after klvBwcov in B; 
A omits. 

^Steph.^: aTToAeAaLi/coTes' O. 

* Trepi auTcuj' A : kol nep: aurcDv B ; TTi.p auTcDi' /cai Ritschl, 
Jacoby. 

80 



BOOK I. 24, 4-25, 3 

pretences were being driven away by their enemies 
through hatred ; so that there were many emigra- 
tions and the Pelasgian nation was scattered over 
most of the earth. 

XXV. Not only were the Pelasgians superior to 
many in warfare, as the result of their training in 
the midst of dangers while they lived among warlike 
nations, but they also rose to the highest proficiency 
in seamanship, by reason of their living with the 
Tyrrhenians ; and Necessity, which is quite suffi- 
cient to give daring to those in want of a livelihood, 
was their leader and director in every dangerous 
enterprise, so that wherever they went they conquered 
without difficulty. And the same people were called 
by the rest of the world both Tyrrhenians and Pelas- 
gians, the former name being from the country out 
of which they had been driven and the latter in 
memory of their ancient origin. I mention this so 
that no one, when he hears poets or historians call 
the Pelasgians Tyrrhenians also, may wonder how 
the same people got both these names. Thus, with 
regard to them, Thucydides has a clear account ' of 
the Thracian Act^ and of the cities situated in it, 
which are inhabited by men who speak two lan- 
guages. Concerning the Pelasgian nation these 
are his words : " There is also a Chalcidian element 
among them, but the largest element is Pelasgian, 

Mv. 109. 



^evapyrj aKrrjs Jacoby : eV apK-rqi A, ev apKT-ql B. 
* fivTJfjLTjv Steph. : nvrj/J-rfL A, fiv^fxr] B; Ae'yet yap . . . €v 
'^/CTTjs T. @. tJLvriixrj Sauppo. 

81 

VOL. 1. E 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

4 TT-ore Kal ^AO-qvas olKiqGavrcov Tvpprjvcvv.^' Uo' 
^oAcAet 8' €v ^Ivax^p SpdjjLaTL avdiraLurov vtto tov 
)(opov Xeyofievov 7T67TOLr]TaL cSSe 

"Iva^e vdrop^ ttol tov Kp-qvcov 
TTarpos, QKeavov, fieya Trpea^evojv 
"Apyovs T€ yvats "Hpas re TtdyoLs 
Kal Tvpa-qvoLCTL ^ FleXaGyol?. 

6 TvpprjvLas pLev yap Srj ovofia tov ')(^p6vov eKelvov 
dva TTjv 'EXXdSa tjv, Kal Trdora tj TrpoGeGTrepios 
VroAta TO.? /card to edvos ovofxaalas dc^atpe^etaa 
TTjv ^ eTTLKXr^aiv eKelviqv eXdpi^avev y cjcnrep Kal ^ tt^s 
*£'AAdSos" d/\Xr) T€ TToXXaxfj Kal rrepl ttjv KaXovpbiirqv 
vuv IJeXoTrowTjaov iyeveTO • iirl yap cVo? tcov 
olkovvtcov iv avTrj edvcbv, tov AxalKov, Kal rj 
avfiTTaaa x^PPO^V^^^' ^^ fl ^^'^ '''^ ApKahiKov Kal 
TO ^ lojvLKov Kal aXXa (jv)(ya edviq eveaTLV, A)(ata 
(hvopbdadr]. 

XXVI. '0 he xpovos iv CO TO IJeXaayiKov /ca- 
Kovadai rjp^aTO Seurepa yeved ^ ax^hov npo tcov 
TpcjjiKwv iyev€TO • Stereii^e Se /cat p^eTa Ta TpcoiKa, 
ecDS els iXaxi-CTTov crvveoTdXiq to eBvos. €^co yap 
KpoTcovos TTJs iv ^OpL^pLKolg TToXecvs o^ioAoyou, 
/cat el Bt] Ti aXXo iv Trj A^optyivcxyv oiKtodev 
€Tvyx(iv€y Ta XoiTra tcjv IleXacrycjv Stecfyddpr) ttoXL' 
(7/u.ara. r] he KpOTCjv dxpi- ttoXXov Sta^uAd^acra 
to naXacov ax^jpLa XP^^^^ ^^ ttoXvs ef ov tt]v t€ 

^Meineke: vdrop Ba, yewaTop ABb. 

^Meineke: rvpprjvols AB. 

*Trjv Ambrosch : Kal ttjv O. 

* Kox added by Reisko. ^bevr^pu ytvta B. 



BOOK I. 25, 4-26, 1 

belonging to the TyTrhenians who once inliabited 
Lemnos and Athens." And Sophocles makes the 
chorus in his drama Inachus speak the following 
anapaestic verses : 

*' fair-flowing Inachus, of Ocean begot. 
That sire of all w aters, thou rulest with might 
O'er the Argive fields and Hera's hills 
And Tyrrhene Pelasgians also." ^ 

For the name of Tyrrhenia was then known through- 
out Greece, and all the western part of Italy was 
called by that name, the several nations of which 
it was composed having lost their distinctive appel- 
lations. The same thing happened to many parts of 
Greece also, and particularly to that part of it which 
is now called the Peloponnesus ; for it was after one 
of the nations that inhabited it, namely the Achaean, 
that the whole peninsula also, in which are comprised 
the Arcadian, the Ionian and many other nations, 
was called Achaia. 

XXVI. The time when the calamities of the 
Pelasgians began was about the second generation 
before the Trojan war ; and they continued to 
occur even after that war, till the nation was 
reduced to very inconsiderable numbers. For, 
with the exception of Croton, the important city in 
Umbria,'^ and any others that they had founded in 
the land of the Aborigines, all the rest of the Pelas- 
gian towns were destroyed. But Croton long pre- 
served its ancient form, having only recently changed 



^Nauck, T.O.FJ, p. 189, Irg. 248. 
2 See chap. 20, 4. 



83 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ovofiaolav /cat rovs OLKijropa? rjXXa^e kol vvv icrri 
'PcDfjiaLOJi' d-OLKLa, KaXelrat Se Kopdojvia. ol 
Se TcDv IkXlttovtcov Tqv x^P^^ fleXacrycju Kara- 
cry6vT€S tol? ttoXcls oAAot re 770AA06 rjaav, co? 
eKaaroL tlcjiv ervxov ofiorep/jLOvas ra? otVrJo-etS" 
eyovre?, /cat iv rolg /xaAtara TrXetoras re /cat 
apicrras Tvpprjvoi. rov? Se Tvpp-qvov? ol fJL€V 
avTOxOova? 'IraXta? aTTOc^aivovoiv , ol Se irrrjXvSas' 
/cat rrji^ iTTOJvvpLLav avrol? ravr-qv ol fiev avOiyeveg 
TO eOvos TTOiovvres eVt tcou ipvpLdroji', d npcoTOL 
TOJV rrjhe OLKOVvroiv KareoKevdoavro , reOrjvai Ae- 
yovdi ' Tupcret? ydp /cat irapd Tupp-qvolg at iv- 
reixf-OL Kal areyaval ot/crjcret? ovoiidtovr at ojoirep 
Trap* "EXX-qaiv. diro B-q rov ai'jJLlSePrjKorog avrols 
diiovoL redrjvaL rovvofxa, coGirep Kal rots ev ^Aala 
MoGCWvoLKOL? ' ^ OLKOVGL fxev ydp Sr) KdKelvoL eVt 
^uXivoLS (hoTTepdv irvpyois vxjj-qXols crraupcojLtacrt, 
fjLOOoruvas ^ avrd KoXovvres. 

XXVII. 01 he fieravdarag pivdoXoyovvres avrovs 
etvai Tvpprjvov d7TO(j)aivovGLV -qyefiova rrjs diroLKias 
yevojievov ac/)' iavTOV Oeodai to) edvet TOVuofjLa- 
Tovrov he Avhov ehai to yeuos e'/c Trjg -nporepov 
Mrjovias KoXovpLev-qg, -naXatov hrj riva pLeTaudoTrjv 
ovra'^ elvai 8' avrdv TrepLTTTOv diro Aids, Xeyovres 
€fc Aids Kal Frj? Mdvr]v * yeveadat Trpchrov ev rfj yfj 
ravrrj /SacrtAea • rovrov he Kal KaXXtpporjg ^ rrjs 

^ TOLS . . . ixoaawotKOis B : tovs . . . imoovvoLkovs A. 
^ yioacruvas B : fxocwvas R. 

^ y.€ravaaT-qv ovra Sintenis: fieTavaoTdina O. 
*Sylburg: udovriv O (and similarly in ^ 3). 
'Gary : KoMipo-qs O, Jacoby. 

;84 



BOOK T. 26, 1-27, 1 

both its name and inhabitants ; it is now a Roman 
colony, called Corthoriia.^ After the Pelasgians left 
the country their cities were seized by the various 
peoples which hai)pened to live nearest them in 
each case, but chiefly l)y the Tyrrhenians, who made 
themselves masters of the greatest part and the best 
of them. As n^gards these Tyrrhenians, some de- 
clare them to be natives of Italv, but others call 
them foreigners. Those who make them a native 
race say that their name was given them from the 
forts, w^hich they were the first of the inhabitants 
of this country to build ; for covered buildings 
enclosed by walls are called by the Tyrrhenians as 
w^ell as by the Greeks tyrseis or " towers." ^ So they 
will have it that they received their name from this 
circumstance in like manner as did the Mossynoeci ^ 
in Asia ; for these also live in high wooden palisades 
resembling towers, which they call mossynes. 

XXVII. But those who relate a legendary tale 
about their having come from a foreign land say 
that Tyrrhenus, who was the leader of the colony, 
gave his name to the nation, and that he w as a Lydian 
by birth, from the district formerly called Maeonia, 
and migrated in ancient times. They add that he 
was the fifth in descent from Zeus ; for they say the 
son of Zeus and Ge was Manes, the first king of that 
country, and his son by Callirrhoe, the daughter 

^ i.e. Cortona. Compare the name Cory thus used by 
Virgil (Aen. in. 170). 

2 The form Tyrrhenoi is the Attic development of 
Tyrsenoi, the form used by most of the Greeks. 

3 This people lived on the shore of the Euxine, a short 
distance west of Trapezus. Xenophon mentions theni in 
the Anabasis (v. 4). 

85 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

^QKeavov Ovyarpos yevvrjOrjvai Korvv • ro) 8e Korv'C 
yrj^iavrL dvyarepa Tv/\Xov rod yrjyevovs 'AXirjv 8vo 

2 yevearOai TralSas Agl7]v /cat "Arvv eV 8e "Arvos 
/cat KaXXideas Trjs Xcopaiov AvSov <j)vvaL /cat Tvp- 
pTjvov ' /cat Tov fxev Avhov avrov /cara/xetWrra rrji' 
TTarpwav apx^iv TrapaXa^elv /cat dn^ avrov AvSiav 
rrju yrjv ovoixaadi^vai • Tvpprjvov 8e ri^s airoLKias 
TjyrjGOLjJLevop TToXXrjv Krrjaaodai rrjg ^IraXias /cat 
TOts" arvvapafievoLS rov aroXov ravrrjv dddOai rrjv 

3 eTTOjwpLLav. ' HpoSorco 8c etprjvraL ^ "Arvos rod 
Mdvecx) TTolhes ol nepl Tvpprjvov, /cat rj /jLeravdaracn^ 
rcov Mrjovcov els ^ IraXiav ovx eKOvoLos. (f)7]al yap 
eVt rrjs *Arvos dpx^S d<j)opiav Kaprrcbv iv rfj yrj 
Mr]6vajv yevdadai, rovs 8e dvOpcoTrovs riojs fJLcv 
VTTO rrjs (juXoxojpias Kparovpuevovs TroAAct StafjiT]- 
XOLvrjaaoOai irpos rrjv GVfji(f)opdv dXe^rjrri p la , rfj fjLev 
irepa rwv rifxepajv fxerpia airla irpoo^epopievovs ^ 
rfj 8' irepa SuaKaprepovvras ' ;!(/30^'t^o^'ros" 8e rod 
hcLvov SeiveLfjLavra? dnavra rov hrjfjiov Stxfj ^ kX'^- 
povs^ rat? fJiOipaLS iTTi^aXelv, rov fiev eV e^o8a> 
rrjg x^P^^> "^^^ ^' ^'"^^ H-^^V' ^^'- '^^^ "Arvos rraihajv 

4 rov {X€v rfj npodveLfjiaL, rov 8e rfj.* Xaxovcrqs 8€ 
rrjs dfjLa Av8cp fioLpas rrjv rov /xeivat rvyyiVy^ c/c- 
XCopijcraL rrjv irdpav dnoXaxovoav rcov XP'OH'^'^^^ 

^Reiske: etpT^raiO; elfyqToi u>s ■ . . (.KovoLosy^yovev^yWiuig. 

^hixfi BmgCD, hia AB. 

^ kXtjpovs Steph. : KX-qpov O. 

* Toi' ^kv TTJ TTpoaveifxai tov Se ttj B : tov pLCv Trpoofieivai tov oe 

^TTjv TOV fxelvai (or fj.€viiv) Tvx^jv Casaubon : rijv fiev a^mvui 
Tvxqv O. 

86 



BOOK 1. 27, 1-4 

of Oceanus, was Cotys, who by Halie, the daughter 
of earth-born Tylliis, had two sons, Asies and Atys, 
from the latter of whom by Callithea, the daughter 
of Choraeus, came Lydus and Tyrrhcnus. Lydus, 
they continue, remaining there, inherited his father's 
kingdom, and from him the country was called 
Lydia ; but Tyrrhenus, who was the leader of the 
colony, conquered a large portion of Italy and gave 
his name to those who had taken part in the ex- 
pedition. Herodotus, however, says^ that Tyrrhenus 
and his brother were the sons of Atys, the son of 
Manes, and that the migration of the Maeonians to 
Italy was not voluntary. For he says that in the 
reign of Atys there was a dearth in the country of 
the Maeonians and that the inhabitants, inspired 
by love of their native land, for a time contrived a 
great many methods to resist this calamity, one day 
permitting themselves but a moderate allowance of 
food and the next day fasting. But, as the mischief 
continued, they divided the people into two groups 
and cast lots to determine which should go out of 
the country and which should stay in it ; of the 
sons of Atys one was assigned to the one group and 
the other to the other. And when the lot fell to that 
part of the people which was with Lydus to remain 
in the country, the other group departed after re- 
ceiving their share of the common possessions ; and 

* i. 94. But the quotation is inaccurate in two im- 
portant details : Herodotus mentions only one son of Atys, 
Tyrrhenus, and says that Atys joined himself to the group 
destined to remain at home, but assigned his son to the 
other. 

87 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ra fi^py], 6pfJLLGaiJL€inrjv S' CTrt rot? ecrrrepLOig ixipeoL 
TrjS '/raAtas", evOa tjv ^O/x^pLKols r) o'lK-qaiSy avrov 
Karafxeluaaav IhpvoaodaL ttoX^is ras ^tl /cat /car* 
avToi^ eK€lvov ovoas. 

XXVIII. TovTCp Ta> Xoyu) ttoXXovs Kal dXXovs 
crvyypa(f>elg ^ rrepl rod Tvpp-qvojv yivovs XPV^^~ 
fjL€vovs irrLGTa/jLaL, rovs pi€v Kara ravrd, rovs Se 
fjLeradevras rov oIkloixov Kal rov -x^povov. eXe^av 
yap Sij rLV€S ' HpaKXeovs vlov elvai, rov Tvpp-qvov 
i^ ^OfJi(f)dXr]s rrjs AvSrj? yevojxevov • rovrov S* 
d^LKopievov els ^IraXiav eK^aXelv rovs HeXaayovs 
€/c Tcuv TToXecxJV ovx aTraocJov, aAA* ocrai iripav rjaav 
rod Te^epios eV rep ^opeico jLtepet. erepoi 8e Tr]Xi- 
<f>ov TTalba rov Tvpp-qvov d7TO<^aivovGLV ^ eXdelv Be 
2 pL€rd ^ Tpotas dXcoatv els 'IraXlav. EdvBos he 6 
Avhos luropias TraXaids el Kai ns dXXos epureipos 
OiVy rrjs he rrarpiov Kal ^e^aiojrris dv ovhevos vrro- 
heecrrepos vopLLaOeLS, ovre Tvppiqvov (hvofiaKev ov- 
hapLOV rrjs ypa(f)rjs hvvdarrjv AvSwv ovre dTTOLKiav 
M-Qovojv els ^IraXiav Karaaxovaav eVto-Tarai Tup- 
p-qvias re p-vq/jL-qv d)S Avhd)v dnoKriaews ^ ranet- 
vorepojv dXXojv piepLvrjpLevos ovhepilav TrerroL-qraL' 
'Arvos he nalhas yeveadai Xeyei Avhov Kal Top-q^ov, 
rovrovs he p^epiaapLevovs rqv irarpcLav dpxqv ev 
Mcrta KarapLelvaL d{ji<f)orepovs ' Kal rots edveoLv ojv 
rjp^av eV eKeiva>v (f)7]Gl redrjvai ras ovop^aaias, 
Xeyatv She' ^' dno Avhov pLev y ivovr ai Avhoi, 0,770 

^ airyypa<f)€iS Ambrosch : ev ypa<f)fi O. 
'^/jLCTa. O : ii€Ta ttjv Jacoby. 
''aTTO/cTtaecws Ba(?): dnoiK-qaecDS R. 

88 



BOOK I. 27, 4-28, 2 

landing in the western parts ot Italy where the 
Umbrians dwelt, they remained there and built the 
cities that still existed even in his time. 

XXVIII. I am aware that many other authors 
also have given this account of the Tyrrhenian 
race, some in the same terms, and others changing 
the character of the colony and the date. For some 
have said that Tyrrhenus was the son of Herakles 
by Omphale, the Lydian, and that he, coming into 
Italy, dispossessed the Pelasgians of their cities, 
though not of all. but of those only that lav beyond 
the Tiber toward the north. Others declare that 
Tyrrhenus was the son of Telcphus and that after 
the taking of Troy he came into Italy. But Xanthus 
of Lydia,^ who was as well acquainted w ith ancient 
history as any man and who may be regarded as 
an authority second to none on the history of his 
o\\-n country, neither names Tyrrhenus in anv part 
of his history as a ruler of the Lydians nor knows 
anything of the landing of a colony of Maeonians 
in Italy ; nor does he make the least mention of 
Tyrrhenia as a Lydian colony, though he takes 
notice of several things of less importance. He 
says that Lydus and Torebus were the sons of Atys ; 
that they, having divided the kingdom they had 
inherited from their father, both remained in Asia, 
and from them the nations over which they reigned 
received their names. His words are these : " From 
Lydus are sprung the Lydians, and from Torebus 

1 Xanthus, an older contemporary of Herodotus, was 
the first barbarian to write the history of his country in 
Greek. The passage here cited is given as frg. 1 in Miiller, 
F.H.Q. i. p. 36. 

89 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Top-q^ov 8e Toprj^oL. tovtojv rj yXcoaaa oXlyou 
Trapa(f)€p€L, Koi vvv en (tlWovglv ^ aXXrjXovs ^ pr]- 
fxara ovk oXlya, couirep "Icoveg /cat Aajptels.'^ 

3 ' EXXdvLKOs 8e o Aecr^LOS rovg Tvpprjvovs (f)r]aL 
rieXacryovs irporepov KaXovfievovg, eTTeiSr] Karco- 
KTjGav iv 'ZraAta, TrapaXa^elv tjv vvv exovai irpocrq- 
yoplav 6x^1 Se avrco iv Oopajvlhi 6 Xoyos chhe' 

' Tov HeXacryov rov ^aaiXeo? ^ avrcov kol MevLTnriq^ 
TTjS rj-qveiov iyevero Opdarcop, rov Se l4.fivvTa>p, 
TOV Se TevTafjLiSrjg, rod Se Ndvag inl tovtov 
BauiXevovTog oi rieXaayol vtt' 'EXXtjvojv dveoTr]aav, 
Kal eTTL Uttlvtjtl TTorafJico iv rco ^lovtcp ^ koXttco ra? 
vrias KaraXiTTOVTes Kporajva ttoXlv ev fxeaoyeicp 
elXov Kal ivrevOev oppiOJfJievoL rrjv vvv KaXeofxivrfv 

4 TvpoTjvirjv eKTiaavy MvpolXos Se Ta epLTraXiv 
aTTO^aivcjv ^ ' EXXavLKOj tovs Tvppiqvovs (t)rj(jLV, 
eTreiSr) rrjv iavrwv i^eXiTTov, iv rfj nXdvr) fieTo- 
vopLaadrjvaL FleXapyov?, tojv opveojv tols KaXov- 
jxdvoLS neXapyoLS eLKacrOevTas, <x>? Kar dyeXas 
i(l)OLTcov e'ls T€ Trjv ' EXAdSa Kal ttjv ^dp^apov Kal 

^ olAAovolv a, atAAofati B: avXaJOLv Ritschl. d/xoAoyoucrtv 
Sintenis, avvabovaiv Jacoby (in note), ^wovaip Meineke, 
^m'ldaiv Naber. 

^ dXX-qXous O: dXX-qXois Sintenis, Meineke. Jacoby (in 
note), aXA-qXwi Naber. The construction required by the 
rare verb otA/\6a» is uncertain, but the double accusative is 
very questionable ; probably either dAAT/At^i prifxara or oAA?;- 
Aovs etV p-qfJLara should be read. 

90 



BOOK T. 28. 2-4 

the Torebians. There is Httle difference in their 
language and even now each nation scoffs at many 
words used by the other,^ even as do the lonians 
and Dorians." Hellanicus of Lesbos says that the 
Tyrrhenians, who were previously called Pelasgians, 
received their present name after they had settled 
in Italy. These are his words in the Phoronis : ^ 
*' Phrastor was the son of Pelasgus, their king, and 
Menippe, the daughter of Peneus ; his son was 
Amyntor, Amyntor's son was Teutamides, and the 
latter's son was Nanas. In his reign the Pelasgians 
were driven out of their country by the Greeks, and 
after leaving their ships on the river Spines ^ in the 
Ionian Gulf, they took Croton, an inland city ; and 
proceeding from there, they colonized the country 
now called Tyrrhenia." But the account Myrsilus 
gives is the reverse of that given by Hellanicus. 
The Tyrrhenians, he says,^ after they had left their 
own country, were in the course of their wanderings 
called Pelargoi or " Storks," from their resemblance 
to the birds of that name, since they swarmed 
in flocks both into Greece and into the barbarian 

1 In other words, they simply spoke different dialects 
of a common language and each nation jested at the 
"provincialisms" of the other. This explanation obvi- 
ates the numerous emendations that have been offered for 
the rare word oLXXovaLv. 

^Miiller, F.H.O. i. p. 45, frg. 1. 

8 The Spinetic mouth of the Po. See chap. 18. 3. 

*Muller, F.H.G. iv. p. 457 frg. 3. 

'Cobet: ^aaiXicvs O. To CobeL are also due the otner 
Ionic forms in .he quotation. 
*Sylburg: .'ovko; AB. 
^ drrcx^ati'd/xei'os O, Jacoby. 

91 



DIONYSTUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

TOt? 'AdrjvaioL? to reixos to nepl ttjp o-kpottoXlv, 
TO HeXapyLKov KaXovpievov, tovtovs TrepL^aXeiv. 

XXIX. ^EfjLol pLCVTOL BoKOVGLP O-TTaVTeS OLjJLap- 

Tavecv ol TreLadevTes ev /cat to avTO edvos elvat to 
Tvpp-qvLKOv /cat to TJeXadyLKov . Trjg fxeu yap ovo- 
fxaoLas OLTToXavcraL noTe avTovs ttjs olXXtJXcxjv ovSev 
davfiao-TOV ■^v, irrel /cat d'AAa Si] TLva eOi'Tj^ to. fiev 
'EXXi^vojv, TO. 8e ^ap^dpoji^, rauro ^ enaOev, wanep 
TO TpojiKOV /cat TO 0pvyLK6v dyxov OLKovvTa oAAtJ- 
Xoiv [ttoXXoZs ye rot yeuo? ev dpL(f)Oj raOr' ivopiiGOr], 
KX-qaei StaAAdrroy, ov (f)vo€i) /cat ovx rjKtaTa tojv 
dXXodi TTov avi'wvvpLiai'; eVt/cepacr^eVrcov /cat tol ev 

2 '/raAta eOirqr -qv yap Srj j^po^'o? ot€ /cat AaTlvoi 
KOI ^OpL^pLKol /cat Av(Toi'€'^ /Cat ovx^ol d'AAot Tup- 
privoL v(f)^ *EXXr}ua>v iXeyovTO, ttjs Std /Lta/cpou roJv 
idvcov ot/co^creco? daa^T] ttolovo-t}? rot? Trpoaco ttjv 

OLKpL^eLaV TTjV T€ ' PcopLr]V aVTTjV TToXXol TCOV (jvy- 

ypa<f)€OJU Tvppr]viha ttoXiv elvai vireXa^ov. ovopi^aTajv 
fxev ovv ivaXXayT]v, eVet /cat ^ioiv, 77-et^o/xat rots' 
idveat yeveaOaL • kolvov 8e dp^cfyco pL€T€LXrj(f>€i'aL ye- 
i/ovs ov TretOopai, TroAAot? re d'AAot? /cat /xdAtora 
rat? (fxjjvals avTcbu Str^AAay/i.eVat? /cat ovhepiiav 

3 ojJLOLOTTjTa aojl,ovGaLS TeKpLaip6pi€vo<^. ''/cat^ yd/3 

WauTo O : TQUTOi' Jacoby. 

2 TO auTo enadov after e^vry deleted by Garrer. 

3 /ftti Herodotus : ^ AB. 

92 



BOOK I. 28, 4-29, 3 

lands ; and they built the wall round the citadel of 
Athens which is called the Pelargic wall.^ 

XXIX. But in my opinion all who take the 
Tyrrhenians and the Pelasnjians to be one and the 
same nation are mistaken. It is no wonder they were 
sometimes called by one another's names, since the 
same thing has happened to certain other nations 
also, both Greeks and barbarians, — for example, to the 
Trojans and Phrygians, who lived near each other 
(indeed, many have thought that those two nations 
were but one, differing in name only, not in fact). 
And the nations in Italy have been confused under 
a common name quite as often as any nations 
elsewhere. For there was a time when the Latins, 
the Umbrians, the Ausonians and many others were 
all called Tyrrhenians by the Greeks, the remoteness 
of the countries inhabited by these nations making 
their exact distinctions obscure to those who lived 
at a distance. And many of the historians have 
taken Rome itself for a Tyrrhenian city. I am 
persuaded, therefore, that these nations changed 
their name along with their place of abode, but 
can not believe that they both had a common origin, 
for this reason, among many others, that their 
languages are different and preserve not the least 
resemblance to one another. " For neither the 

1 Pelargikon was the earlier form of the word, perhaps 
meaning " Stork's Nest " ; but its close resemblance to 
Pelasgikon gave rise in time to the belief that the latter was 
the true form. The tradition that Pelasgians once dwelt 
in Athens and built this wall on the Acropolis does not 
appear to bo much older than the time of Herodotus. 
The next step was to show that even the form Pelargikon 
had reference to the Pelasgians. 

93 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

8rj ovre KporojVLrjr at,'' ^, a)s (j)r)aLV 'HpoSorog, 
' o'dSafiOLcri ^ rwv vvv cr<^£a? TrepLoiKeovrajv elolv 
OfJLoyXojaaoL ovre UXaKL-qvoi, cr^tcrt 6' ojjLoyXcoaGOL . 
SrjXovaL 8e otl, tov rjpeLKavTO yXcocror-qg ;i^apa/CT7)pa 
liera^aivovreg e? ravra ra xojpia, rovrov exovaiv 
€v (f)vXaKfj.^^ KairoL davpLOLGeLev av ns, el TIXaKia- 
vols pLev roZs nepl tov * EXXtjottovtov oIkovglv opLolav 
SidXeKTov eL)(OV ol Kporajvidraiy eTrecSr) TleXaGyol 
TjGav dpi(f)6TepoL apx^O^v, Tvpprjvols Se rot? eyycGra 
OLKOVGL pLTjSev opLoiav . el yap to Gvyyeves ttj? 
6pi0(j)(x)via£ aiTLOv VTToXrjTTTeov , ddrepov hrj ttov ttjs 
4 hLa(f)CjtjvLag • ov yap Sr^ Kara ye to avTO eyx^ipel 
vopiit,eLV TdpL(f)6Tepa. /cat yap hr) to pikv erepov 
Kal Xoyou Tvv dv ^ eL)(e yevopievov, to St] tovs TrpoGco 
rds olKT^Gets dir^ dXXiqXajv TroLrjGapievovg opLoedveZs 
fjLTjKert StaCTCo^etv tov avTOv ttj? SuaXeKTOV X^pa- 
KTTJpa Sid rds irpos tovs rreXas o/xtAta?- to he tovs 
€v TOLS avTois olKovvTas ;\;a>ptot? pL-qh^ otlovv Kara 
TTjv (f)OJvr]v dXX'qXoLS opLoXoyelv e'/c TavTOV (f)vvTas 
yevovs ovSeva Xoyov ex^t" 

XXX. TovTO) piev 807 TO) TeKpLrjpLcp xP^f^^^os 
irepovs elvai neidopiai twv Tvpp-qvcjv tovs TleXaG- 

^ Jacoby : /cpoTOirtaTats A, KpoTcovirais B : KprjaTojvirJTac 
MSS. of Herodotus. 

^ouSa/MOiCTt Ambrosch, ovSa/xols Reiske : ovB' dAAois O. 
*Tti'' av Jacoby, dv nva Reiske : nvd O. 

94 



BOOK T. 29, 3-30, 1 

Crotoiiiats," says Herodotus,' " nor the Placians 
agree in language with any of their present neigh- 
bours, although they agree with each other ; and 
it is clear that they preserve the fashion of speech 
which they brought with them into those regions." 
However, one may well marvel that, although the 
Crotoniats had a speech similar to that of the 
Placians, who lived near the Hellespont,^ since both 
were originally Pelasgians, it was not at all similar to 
that of the Tyrrhenians, their nearest neighbours. 
For if kinship is to be regarded as the reason why 
two nations speak the same language, the contrary 
must, of course, be the reason for their speaking a 
different one, since surely it is not possible to be- 
lieve that both these conditions arise from the same 
cause. For, although it might reasonably happen, 
on the one hand, that men of the same nation who 
have settled at a distance from one another would, 
as the result of associating with their neghbours, no 
longer preserve the same fashion of speech, yet it is 
not at all reasonable that men sprung from the same 
race and living in the same country should not in 
the least agree with one another in their language. 

XXX. For this reason, therefore, I am persuaded 
that the Pelasgians are a different people from the 

M. 57. Since Niebuhr first championed {Rom. Gesch. i. 
note 89, p. 39) the form of the name given by Dionysius as 
against Crestoniats (and Creston) found in Herodotus, the 
behef has steadily gained ground that the MSS. of 
Herodotus are in error. The latest editor of Herodotus, 
Legrand (1932), restores KporojvirjTai, (and KpoTwva) in the 
text. 

* Placia lay to the east of Cyzicus, at the foot of Mt. 
Olympus. It disappeared at an early date. 

95 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

yovg. ov jLtev 817 ouSe AvScov tou? Tvpprjvov? airoi- 
Kovg oljxaL yevecrdai ' ovSe yap eKeLvoi? ofJLoyXcoGGOL 
claiv, ouS' eartv €ltt€lv a>? (jxjjvfj fxev ovk€tl )(pa)vraL 
TrapaTrXrjcria, dXXa Se rtva Stacroj^oucrt rrj? ix-qrpo- 
TToXeojs ^ firji'VfJLaTa. ovre yap Oeou^ AvSolg rov? 
avrov? vo/JLLt^ovGLV ovre vopLOtg ovt eTnrrjhevpiacn 
K€XP'>]i'TaL TTapa-nXiqGiOLS , aXXa Kara, ye ravra TrXiov 

2 Avhoiv Siacfyepovaiu tj II eXaoy ojv . KivhvvevovGL 
yap TOLg dX-qdeac fjcaXXov ioLKora Xiyeiv ol'- pLr]Sa- 
1x69 ev a.<^Lyixevov, oAA' irnxo^pf-ov to eduo? aTTOcj^ai- 
vovres, i7T€ihr^ ap^oXov re irdw Kal ovSevl aAAa> 
yevei ovre ofJioyXcoGaou ovre ofioSlaLTOv oV ^ evpl- 
OK€TaL. (hvopLaodai S' i3^' 'EXXiqvojv avro rij 
Trpoo-qyopla ravrrj ovBev KcoXvei, Kal Slol rds" iv 
rals TvpaeuLV OLKTjGeLg Kal an' drSpo? Swdarov. 

3 'PojjJLaloi ixevroi dAAai? avro TTpooayopevovaiv 
ovoixaoiais' Kal yap eVt rrjs x^P^^' ^^ fl '^ore 
(xiKiqaav, 'Erpovpias TTpoaayopevoixivqs ' ErpovoKovs 
KaXovGL rovg dv9 pojTrov? ■ /cat errl rrjs e/Lt77etpta? 
rcLv irepl rd Oela CTe/Sdcj/xara Xeirovpyichv , Sta- 
(fiipovras et? avrrjv irepojv, vvv fxev Tovgkovs^ 
daacjiiGrepov, Trporepou 8' aKpt^ovvres rouvofxa 
(jooTTep "EXXr]ves Qvoctkoov^ IkoXovv avrol fievroL 
a<j>ds avrovs enl rcjjv -qyepiovajv nvos 'Paoevua^ 

* YTjs after fi-qTponoXcws deleted by Madvig. 
^oi added by Reiske. ^6v added by Cobet. 

*/ixe. TovoKOv^ Sintenis, fiem-oL Tovokovs Ritschi : fiey toi O. 
^ Tapaaiva or Tapaeva Lepsius. 

96 



BOOK I. 30, 1-3 

Tyrrhenians. And I do not believe, either, that the 
Tyrrhenians were a colony of the Lydians ; for they 
do not use the same language as the latter, nor can it 
bo alleged that, though they no longer speak a simi- 
lar tongue, they still retain some other indications 
of their mother country. For they neither worship 
the same gods as the Lydians nor make use of simi- 
lar laws or institutions, but in these very respects 
they differ more from the Lydians than from the 
Pelasgians. Indeed, those probably come nearest 
to the truth who declare that the nation migrated 
from nowhere else, but was native to the country, 
since it is found to be a very ancient nation and to 
agree with no other either in its language or in its 
manner of living. And there is no reason why the 
Greeks should not have called them by this name, 
both from their living in towers and from the name 
of one of their rulors. The Romans, however, give 
them other names : from the country they once 
inhabited, named Etruria, they call them Etruscans, 
and from their knowledge of the ceremonies relating 
to divine worship, in which they excel others, they 
now call them, rather inaccurately, Tusci,^ but for- 
merly, with the same accuracy as the Greeks, they 
called them Thyoscoi.^ Their own name for them- 
selves, however, is the same as that of one of their 

^ The prevailing view to-day is that Ttisci is for Tursci, 
turs being the same element that is seen in Tvpa-qvog. 
Etrusci may be simply a lengthened form of Tursci, with 
u and r interchanged. 

- This statement is not borne out by information we 
have from any other source. It is merely an attempt 
to find a Greek etymology for Tusci. ©vookooi. were 
sacrificing priests. 

97 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

4 TOV aVTOV eK€LVCp rpOTTOV OVOfJidt^OVaL. TToAct? 

Se auTLvas (l)KLaav ^ ol TvpprjvoL, /cat TToXirevixdrajv 
ovcTTLvas KareoTTiGavTO KOGfXovs, hvvayLiv re orroorrjv 
iKTiqoavro ^ Koi epya e'i riva fxv^iJL-qs d^ia SteTrpa- 
^avTO, TVXOLL? re otto lac? ixpijcroLvro, iv Irepco 

5 hriXco6i]a€rai Xoyco. to 8' ovv IJeXaayLKOv (f>vXov, 
ocTov fjLTj SL€(f)ddpr] T6 KOL Kara rds aTTOLKLas 
SiecTTTdcrdr] , hieyL^we Se dXiyov aTTO ttoXXov, fierd 
Tojv ^A^optylvojv TToXirevoiievov ev tovtol? VTreXei^drj 

TOtS" ;^COptOtS', OTTOV ovv XpOVCO TTjV 'PcOfJLTJV OL €K- 

yovoi avrcov ovv rot? d'AAot? ^ inoXio-avro . Kal 
rd fM€v VTTep tov TJeXauyLKov yivovs fjivOoXoyov/xeva 
TOtaSe iari. 

XXXI . Merd be ov ttoXvv xpdvov oroXos dXXos 
*EXXrjVLK6'^ etV ravra rd x^P^o. rrjs ^ IraXias Kard- 
yerai, i^rjKOGTco fidXtara eret Tvporepov tojv Tpcoc- 
Kojv, (hs avTol 'PajfialoL Xeyovaiv, ck FlaXXavriov 
TToXews 'ApKahiKrjs dvaards. rjyelro Se rrjs aTTOL- 
Kia? Evavhpos 'Eppiov XeyopLevog Kal vviJL(f)rj<; rivo? 
ApKdoLV iTTLXCopla?, 'r]P ol fx€v "EXXrjve? Oe/jLiv etvai 
XeyovoTL Kal 6€0(f)6prjT0V dTro(f)aivovGLv , ol Se rag 
'PcD/xai/cd? (jvyypdxjjavres dpxo-LoXoytas rfj Trarpico * 
yXcouGTj KapfJLevTTjV^ ovofxd^ovGLV €17) 8' dv 'EXXdSc 
^cjvfj @€GttlojS6<; rfj vvfjLcjiT] rovvofxa • rds fxev yap 
whds KaXovoL 'Poj/jialoL Kdppava,' rrjv 8e yvvaiKa 
ravTTjV opioXoyovGL haipiovioj TTvev/jLarL Kardax^Tov 

^ Portus : wKTjaav O. 

2 CKTrjoavro Garrer : ol avinravTes O, Jacoby ; ol avfinavTis 
iK(.K-rqvro Reiske. 

3 aXXoL^ O : 'AX^avols Kiessling, 
^ MeLneke : Tra-pwoj AB. 

91) 



BOOK I. 30, 4-31, 1 

leaders, Rasenna. In another book ^ I shall show 
what cities the Tyrrhenians founded, what forms 
of government they established, how great power 
they acquired, what memorable achievements they 
performed, and what fortunes attended them. As 
for the Pclasgian nation, however, those who were 
not destroyed or dispersed among the various 
colonies (for a small number remained out of a 
great many) were left behind as fellow citizens of 
the Aborigines in these parts, where in the course 
of time their posterity, together with others, built 
the city of Rome. Such are the legends told about 
the Pelasgian race. 

XXXI. Soon after, another Greek expedition landed 
in this part of Italy, having migrated from Pallan- 
tium, a town of Arcadia, about the sixtieth year 
before the Trojan war,^ as the Romans themselves say. 
This colony had for its leader Evander, who is said 
to have been the son of Hermes and a local nvmph 
of the Arcadians. The Greeks call her Themis and 
say that she was mspired, but the writers of the 
early history of Rome call her, in the native lan- 
guage, Carmenta. The nymph's name would be in 
Greek Thespiodos or " prophetic singer " ; for the 
Romans call songs carmina^ and they agree that 
this woman, possessed by di\nne inspiration, fore- 

^ Nothing of the sort is found in the extant portions of 
the Antiquities. It is hardly probable that Dionysius in- 
tended to devote a separate work to the Etruscans. 

2ra. 1243 B.C. 



^Urlichs: Kao/jLeiTcii' A. Kap^^rivov B. 
• Steph. : Kopfiiava B, dipfxlava A. 



99 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

yevoixevrjv ra fxiXXoura ovfi^aLvetv tw rrXijOeL St' 

2 (pSrjg TTpoXeyeiv. 6 Se oroXog ovrog ovk airo 
Tov KOLuov rrjg yvcLynqs eTre}i(j>dri, aAAa (jraaidaav- 
ros TOV hrijjiov to iXaTTOjOev fiepos iKovcriov ^ 
VTTe^rjXOev eTvy\ave he totg ttjv ^aaiXetav tojv 
A^opLylvcov 7Tap€LXrj(f)(jbs 0avvog, "Apeos (Lg (f)a<JLV 
aTToyovos i av-qp /Ltera tov SpaaTTjpLOV Kal crvveTO?, 
Kol avTov COS" Tihv eTTLxcjoplcov TLva 'PcofialoL Sat- 
fjLovcov Ovaiais kol d>hals yepaipovaiv. ovTog 6 
dvTjp Se^dfjievos KaTO, TroXXrjv (j^iXoTiqTa tov? Ap- 
KaSag oXiyovg oVra?, SlSojglv avTolg ttj? avTov 

3 ;^ajpas' OTTOcrqv i^ovXovTO. ol Se ApKaheg, d)s 
7] QepLLS avTOLS iTrtOeLa^ovGa €(f)pal^€v, alpovvTat 
X6(l)ov oXtyou OLTTexovra tov Te^epios, os ecrrt vvf 
€v fxiocp ixdXiGTa ttJ? ' PcxJjJiaicov TToXeojs, /cat Acara- 
OKevdt^ovTaL rrpog avTcp KcopL'qv ^pax^lav, Sval 
vavTLKolg ^ TrXr)pw[JLaGLv ev ol? d7Tave<jT7](jav ttj? 
*£'AAa8o? dnoxpiJ^crcLV, y]v ep^eXXe to TTeTrpojfievov 
avv xpouoj 6ri<jeLV oarjv ovd^ 'EXXdSa ttoXlv ovt€ 
^dp^apou /caret re ot/CT^crccos" fieyeOo? /cat /card 
hvvaGTeias d^lojcnv /cat ttjv dXX-qv drraaau evTVx^oLV, 
Xpovov re ottogov av 6 OviqTos alcbv dvT€XJ) TToXeojv 

4 fJidXiGTa TTaacov fivrj/jLouevOrjcroixevr^v . ovofia Sk 
TO) TroXiGpiaTL TOVTO) TtOevrai TlaXXduTiov inl ttj? 
€v ApKahca u(j)cx)v fjLTjTpoTToXeoj? • uvv iievTOi /7aAa- 
TLOV VTTO 'PcopLaLOiv Xey€Tai (Tvyx^o,vTos TOV xpoi'ov 
TTjv aKpL^etav Kal rrapex^i ttoXXoI? aTOTTCov iTVfjLO' 
XoyLd)i> d(f)opfjLd?- 

^Ambroseh: iKOvaiov fxipos O. 

100 



BOOK I. 31, 1-4 

told to the people in song the things that would 
come to pass. This expedition was not sent out by 
the common consent ot the nation, but, a sedition 
having arisen among the people, the faction which 
was defeated left the country of their own accord. 
It chanced that the kingdom of the Aborigines 
had been inherited at that time by Faunus, a de- 
scendant of Mars, it is said, a man of prudence as 
well as energy, whom the Romans in their sacrifices 
and songs honour as one of the gods of their country. 
This man received the Arcadians, who were but few 
in number, with great friendship and gave them as 
much of his own land as they desired. And the 
Arcadians, as Themis by inspiration kept advising 
them, chose a hill, not far from the Tiber, which is 
now near the middle of the city of Rome, and by 
this hill built a small village sufficient for the com- 
plement of the two ships in which they had come 
from Greece. Yet this village was ordained by 
fate to excel in the course of time all other cities, 
whether Greek or barbarian, not only in its size, 
but also in the majesty of its empire and in every 
other form of prosperity, and to be celebrated 
above them all as long as mortality shall endure. 
They named the town Pallantium after their mother- 
city in Arcadia ; now, however, the Romans call 
it Palatium, time having obscured the correct form, 
and this name has given occasion to many to suggest 
absurd etymologies. 



^ 8val vavTLKOis Steph. : Bvalv {Sual B) olXtlkoIs AB, 8valv 
oXtjtlkols Ca, Madvig ; Bvalv aXtevriKols Kiessliug. 

101 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

XX XII. c6? Se Tive'^ IdTopovGLv, (x)v eoTi /cat 
rioXv^LOS 6 MeyaXoTToXirris , Ittl tlvos fxeipaKtov 
UaXXavTOS avTodi reXevrrjoavros ' rovrov he ' Hpa- 
kXeovs etrat TralSa /cat AaovLvla? ^ Trjg EvdvSpov 
dvyarpo? • ;^cjjo-arTa 8' avro) top /jLrjTpoTrdropa 
rdcjiov €ttI TO) X64>cp TlaXXavriov iirl rod fxeipaKiov 
Tov roTtov ovofJidaaL. iyoj /xeVrot ovre rdcfiov 
e^eacra/xT/i^ iv 'Pcjapirj TlaXXavros ovre x^d? efxadov 
i-mreXov fxevas ovre dXXo tojp tolovtotpottojv ovhev 
rihvm'-jdiqv ISelv,^ /catVot ye ovk dixv-qarov rrj? OLKtas 
ravrt)? d(f)€ifM€vrjs ouS' d/jLoipov TL/JLcbv ai? to 8at- 
fjLOVLOv yivo<; utt' dvdpcoTTOJU yepaiperat. kol yap 
Evdvhpco Ovoias e^xadov vtto ' PcofiaLcov eTTireXov- 
fjidva? oo-err] SrjfjLOdLa Kal Kapixevrrj, Kaddncp toXs 
XoL7TOL£ rjpojo-L Kal SalfjLOOL, Kal ^wjjiovs iOeaadfJLTjv 
ISpvfxevovg, Kapfxevrrj f.ikv vtto tco KaXovfxevco 
KaTTLTCoXlq) TTapd rat? KapfxevTLGi TTuXai?, EvdvSpo) 
Se TTpos irepcp rwv Xocfycop Avevrivto XcyofJLevo) rijs 
TpiSvfjLOV TTvXrjs ov TTpooco IJoXXavrL 8e ovhev 
ol8a rovTOJV yivofxevov. ol 8' ovv ApKdSeg vtto 
TO) X6(f)(x) GVvoiKLddevres rd re dXXa SieKoafJLOVV ro 
Krio^xa ^ rols oiKodev i^o/xt/xots" xpojfjievoi Kal cepd 
Ihpvovraiy TrpoJrov fxkv rw AvKatco Tlavl Trjg Si- 
jXihos i^rjyovfiemrjs (Mp/cacrt yap Oeojv apxatoraros 
re Kal rifiicorarog 6 Fldv) x^P'-^'^ e^evpovres em- 
nfjheLov, 6 KaXovGi 'PwfjLaLOL AovTrepKoAiov , rjfjLelg 
8' dp eLTToifjLep AvKaiov. vvv /xev ovv orufiTTeTToXi- 

^ Aaov'Cvtas Gary (see p. 196, n. 2), Aawas Ambrosch : 
8vvas O. ^ tSetv B, fiad^lv R. 

' ^i€K6afjLOvv TO KTiOfia Kiessiing : bieKoofiovvro wrta/xaTa O. 

102 



BOOK T. 32, 1-4 

XXXII. But some writers, among them Polybius 
of Megalopolis, relate that the town was named 
after Pallas, a lad who died there ; they say that 
he was the son of Hercules and Lavinia, the daughter 
of Evander, and that his maternal grandfather 
raised a tomb to him on the hill and called the place 
Pallantium, after the lad. But I have never seen 
any tomb of Pallas at Rome nor have I heard of 
any drink-offerings being made in his honour nor 
been able to discover anything else of that nature, 
although this family has not been left unremembered 
or without those honours with which divine beings 
arc worshipped by men. For I have learned 
that public sacrifices are performed yearly by the 
Romans to Evander and to Carmenta in the same 
manner as to the other heroes and minor deities ; 
and I have seen two altars that were erected, one 
to Carmenta under the Capitoline hill near the Porta 
Carmentalis, and the other to Evander by another 
hill, called the Aventine, not far from the Porta 
Trigemina ; but I know of nothing of this kind 
that is done in honour of Pallas. As for the 
Arcadians, when they had joined in a single settle- 
ment at the foot of the hill, they proceeded to adorn 
their town with all the buildings to which they 
had been accustomed at home and to erect temples. 
And first they built a temple to the Lycaean Pan 
by the direction of Themis (for to the Arcadians 
Pan is the most ancient and the most honoured of 
all the gods), when they had found a suitable site 
for the purpose. This place the Romans call the 
Lupercal. but we should call it Lykaion or " Ly- 
caeum." Now, it is true, since the district about 

103 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Gixevojv TO) refievei tcjv nepL^ xojpiojv SvaeiKaoTOS 
yeyovev r) TraAaict rod tottov (f)vaL<^, rjv Se to dpxcuov 
CO? Aeyerat GTTijXaLOV vtto to) \6(f)a) fxiya, SpvjJico 
XauLCp KaT7]p€c})€?, Koi KpTjvlhes VTTO TOLS TTerpais 
iyL^vdiOi, rj re Trpooex'T]? rco Kpiqiivat ^ polttt) ttvkvol9 
5 /cat /xeyaAot? hevhpeGiv iTTLGKios- evda ^cxjfxov 
lSpvodiJL€voL TO) deo) TTju TTOLTpLOP dvGLav eTTCTeXeGau, 
T]]^ fJ-^XP*- '^^^ /<:a^' ''^^as" XP^^'*^^ 'PcojJialoL Ovovglu 
eV fJL-qvl 0€^povapLCp fierd ra? x^'-H'^P^^^^ rpoTrds, 
ovhkv Tcov Tore yevo/jLevajp fieraKivouvTe? ' 6 Se 
TpoTTOS TTJ? OvGia? €v Tol<; €TT€LTa XexOrjGeraL. eVt 
Se rfi Kopv(f)fj ToD \6(f>ov to ttj? Nlkyj^ Tefxevo? 
i.^eX6vT€s OvGLag /cat TavTTj KaTeGTiqGavTO 8te- 
TTjGLovs, a? Kal 677* ifjLov ' PcojjLOiOL edvov. 

^ TUi Kprj/jLVO) KiessiLng : toji^ Kp-q^viov O. 

^ The Lupercal was situated at the foot of the Palatine, 
probably at the south-west corner ; it is further described 
in chap. 79, 8, and the Lupercalia in 80, 1. For a dis- 
cussion of the various theories respecting the origin of the 
Lupercalia the reader is referred to Sir James Frazer's 
note on Ovid, Fasti ii. 267 (vol. ii. pp. 327 ff . = pp. 389 ff. 
in his L.C.L. edition). When once the adjective AvkoIos 
(really " of Mt. Lycaeus," in Arcadia) was taken as the 
equivalent of Lupercalis and Lycaean Pan identified with 
the god worshipped at the Lupercalia, AvKaiov and AvKaia 
would naturally be equated with Lupercal and Lupercalia, 
in spite of the fact that these words as used in Greece 
meant the shrine and games of Zeus Lycaeus. 

^ With the present passage should be compared three 
others in the Antiquitieti where Dionysius, for the benefit 
of his Greek public, indicates the season of the year in 
which a Roman date fell. Just below, in chap. 38, 3, he 
speaks of the Ides of May as being a little after the vernal 
equinox ; in chax). 88, 3, he places the Parilia (April 21) in 

104 



BOOK I. 32, 4-5 

the sacred precinct has been united with the city, 
it has become difficult to make out by conjecture 
the ancient nature of the place. Nevertheless, at 
first, we are told, there was a large cave under the 
hill overarched by a dense wood ; deep springs 
issued from beneath the rocks, and the glen ad- 
joining the cliflfs was shaded by thick and lofty 
trees. ^ In this place they raised an altar to the god 
and performed their traditional sacrifice, which the 
Romans have continued to offer up to this day in 
the month of February, after the winter solstice,^ 
without altering anything in the rites then performed. 
The manner of this sacrifice will be related later. 
Upon the summit of the hill they set apart the pre- 
cinct of Victory and instituted sacrifices to her 
also, lasting throughout the year, which the Romans 
performed even in my time. 

the beginning of spring ; and in ix. 25, 1, he says the new 
consuls assumed office near the summer solstice in the 
month of Sextilis (probably on the Calends of August). 
At first sight it might be thought that he was following an 
early Roman calendar that was a month or a little more in 
advance of the seasons. But the only calendar with which 
he can have had any personal acquaintance at Rome was 
the calendar as reformed by Julius Caesar, in effect since 
the year 46 ; and in three of the four passages he is de- 
scribing a festival as it was still celebrated in his own day. 
We are almost forced, then, to one of two conclusions, 
either that ho was content to define the season very 
roughly, or else that he was using the term " solstice " 
loosely for the middle of winter or summer and " equinox " 
for a period midway between — a usage that it would be 
hard to parallel — and oven delaying " spring " correspond- 
ingly. Yet when it came to a Greek date as far back as 
the fall of Troy he could write with the greatest precision 
(chap. 63, 1). 

105 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

XXXIII, TavTTjv Se Mp/caSe? fivdoXoyovaL IJaX' 
XavTO? ctvaL dvyarepa rod Avkolovo? • riyias Se Trap' 
dvOpcvTTcov as ex^i- vvv Adr]vds ^ovX-^aei XaBelv, 
yevofxeirqv rrjs Seov avvrpo^ov. hodrjvai yap evOvs 
OLTTO yovrjg -rqv ^AOrjvdv TlaXXavTL vtto Alos /cat 
Trap €K€Lva) recos" ctV wpav ^ d(f)LK€To Tpa(l)rjpaL. 
IhpVGavTO Se Kal A-qfjLrjrpos lepov /cat rds Svaias 
avrfj Sid yvvaiKOiv re /cat vr](f)aXLous edvGav, cos 
"EXXtjol vopLos, Sv ovSkv 6 Kad' Tj/Jids -^AAa^e 

2 XP^^^^' dnSe i^av 8e /cat TTocretScow refievog 
' iTTTTiO) Kal rriv iop-rqv ' ImTOKpdreia fxev vtt' Ap- 
KdSa>v, KojvdovdXia Se vtto 'Pajfxalojv Xeyop-eva 
KareG-njcavTO, iv fj napd 'PcopLaioi's i^ eOovs 
iXivvovGLv epyoju Ittttol /cat opet? /cat Grecj^ovraL 

3 rds K€(f>aXds dvdeGi. 77oAAa Se /cat oAAa re/xe'n^ 
/cat ^ojjJLOvs /cat f^p^rrj deojv KadwGtojGav , dyiGfiovs 
re /cat dvGias KareGnqGavro rrarpiovSj at />te;^pt 
rojv /car' e'/xe ;^poi^a)v top- aurov iyivovro rpoirov. 
ov davyLaGaipLL S' av et /cat TTapeivrai rives Sta- 
^xryovGaL rrjv rojv iTnyLVOjJievcou pLvrjjirjv vtto ^ tou 
rrdw dpxo.iov • aAA' dTToxp(^(Jt y^ at ^ vui^ en ytvo- 
fxevai reKixTjpia eluai rujv ApKaStKWV rrore vopiipLCOV • 
Xex^'Tjoerai Se 77ept avrojv IttI TrXelov iv iripois* 

' <Lpav A : ovpavovs B. ^ utto Cobet : aTro O. 

' al Ambrosch, at /cat Reiske : Kal O. 



^ Poseidon Hippios of the Greeks. 
*See note on ii. 31, 2. 

' Dionysius perhaps is thinking particularly of the 
passage in Book Vll (72, 14-18), where he points out the 

106 



BOOK I. 33 1-3 

XXXTII. The Arcadians have a legend that this 
goddess was the daughter o( Pallas, the son ot 
Lycaon, and that she received those honours from 
mankind which she now enjoys at the desire of 
Athena, with whom she had been reared. For 
they say that Athena, as soon as she was born, was 
handed over to Pallas by Zeus and that she was 
reared by him till she grew up. They built also 
a temple to Ceres, to whom by the ministry of 
women they offered sacrifices without wine, accord- 
ing to the custom of the Greeks, none of which rites 
our time has changed. Moreover, they assigned a 
precinct to the Equestrian Neptune ' and instituted 
the festival called by the Arcadians Hippocrateia 
and by the Romans Consualia,^ during which it 
is customary among the latter for the horses and 
mules to rest from work and to have their heads 
crowned with flowers. They also consecrated many 
other precincts, altars and images of the gods 
and instituted purifications and sacrifices according 
to the customs of their own country, which con- 
tinued to be performed down to my day in the same 
manner. Yet I should not be surprised if some 
of the ceremonies by reason of their great antiquity 
have been forgotten by their posterity and neglected ; 
however, those that are still practised are sufficient 
proofs that they are derived from the customs 
formerly in use among the Arcadians, of which I 
shall speak more at length elsewhere.^ The Arcadians 

close agreement even in details between a Roman and 
a Greek sacrifice. See also i. 80, 1 (the Lupercaiia) and 
i. 34, 4 ; 38, 2-3 ; 40, 3-5. 

107 



DIONYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

4 Aeyoi'rat 8c /cat ypafifJidTOJU ' EXXtjvlkojv xPV^^^ 
els ^ IraXiav rrpwroi Sia/co/xtcrat veojarl (^aveloav 
/IpAcaSes" Koi fjLOVGLKTjv TY]v hi opyavdiVy a Srj Xvpcu 
T€ Kal Tpiyojva /cat auAot ^ KaXovvrai, tCjv irporipajv 
ori pLT] (jvpiy^L 7TOLjX€viKals ovhevl aXXcp fxovGLKrjg 
Te;\;rr]/xaTt ;(pa>/^eVa)v, vofiovs re deodai /cat tt^v 
hiairav e'/c rod Orjpiojhovs eVt TrAeto-TOP' ctV rjfiepo- 
TTjra ixerayayelv re^vas re /cat iTnnqhev puara /cat 
oAAa TToAAa Ttra (h(f>eX'qixara els ro kolvov /cara- 
delvai, Kal Sia ravra ttoXXtjs eVt/xeAeta? '7-uy;)^avetv 

5 Trpos" Tojv VTTohe^afxevojv. tovto Sevrepov eOvos 
'EX^rjvLKOv jjLera FleXaayovs dcjyLKOiJLevov els ^IraXtav 
KOLVTjv €ax^ {JLerd rabv ^ "A^opiytvcov oiKrjaLv iv rco 
KpaTLcrrcp rrjs *Pa)fJLr]s Ihpvudpievov x^P^^- 

XXXIV. ''OXiyois S' vorepov eVecrt fierd rovs 
Mp/caSa? aAAo? etV ^ IraXiav a</>t/ci^etTat oroXos 
'EXXrjvLKos dyovTOS 'HpaKXeovs, os ^ I^rjptav /cat 
TO, fJ'^xpi' SvcrjJLCuv TjXiOV Trdvra x^^P^^dpievos rjKev.^ 
i^ (Lv TLves 'HpaKXea 7TapaLrr](jdp,evoL rrjs crrpa- 
reias ^ dSedrivai, rrepl ravra rd x^P^^ virepieivav 
/cat TToXil^ovrai X6(f>ov eTnrrjheiov evpovres, rpi- 
Grahicp he /xaAtcrra pir^Kei rod TJaXXavriov Stetpyo- 
fxevov , OS vvv p.ev KairircxjXlvos 6vopidt,er ai, vtto 
he rojv rore dvdpdy-nojv Zaropvios eXeyero, ojonep 
2 du e'lTTOL ris ^EXXdhi (f)ojufj Kpovios- rcov he 
V7roXei(j)devra>v ol pev ttXelovs rjaav FleXoTToi'i'ijaLOL, 

' avXol Camerarius: XvSol O. 

^ Hera twv Bb (?), Steph. : /nerd tt)v ABa ; /ixerd tt}v twv [sic) 
Jacoby, who probably meant to print /ierd tcjv 'A. rrji' oLK-qaiv. 
''^ ^K€v Kiessling : ffv O. 

108 



BOOK I. 33, 4-34, 2 

are said also to have been the first to introduce into 
Italy the use of Greek letters, which had lately 
appeared among them, and also music performed 
on such instruments as lyres, trigons ^ and flutes ; 
for their predecessors had used no musical invention 
except shepherd's pipes. They are said also to have 
established laws, to have transformed men's mode 
of life from the prevailing bestiality to a state of 
civilization, and likewise to have introduced arts 
and professions and many other things conducive 
to the public good, and for these reasons to have been 
treated with great consideration by those who had 
received them. This was the next Greek nation 
after the Pelasgians to come into Italy and to take 
up a common residence with the Aborigines, estab- 
lishing itself in the best part of Rome. 

XXXIV. A few years after the Arcadians an- 
other Greek expedition came into Italy under the 
command of Hercules, who had just returned from 
the conquest of Spain and of all the region that ex- 
tends to the setting of the sun. It was some of his 
followers who, begging Hercules to dismiss them from 
the expedition, remained in this region and built 
a town on a suitable hill, which they found at a 
distance of about three stades from Pallantium. 
This is now called the Capitoline hill, but by the 
men of that time the Saturnian hill, or, in Greek, 
the hill of Cronus. The greater part of those who 
stayed behind were Peloponnesians — people of 

1 The trigon was a triangular harp. 
* OTpareias Naber : npayfxaTeias O, Jaooby. 

109 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

0€i'€araL re kol ^Erreiol oP ef "HXtSog, oh ovkIti 
TTodos Tjv TTJ? olKahe ohov hiaTreTTopdriiJiiviqs avroZs 
TTJS TrarptSo? iv toj vpos ' HpaKXea TToXefico, ifxe' 

fJLLKTO Se TL Koi TpOJLKOV aVTols TOJV €771 AaOfX€- 

SovTO? aLXfioiXcoTOjv ef ^ IXiov yevofiei'cov ore rrj^ 

TToXeojs ' HpaKXrjs iKpdrrjcre. SoKel Be (jlol Kal rod 

oAAou arparov rrdv, el n KapLarrjpov tj rfj TrXdvrj 

dx^opievov Tjv, d(j)€(jLv rrjs orpareias alrrjadpievov 

ev ro) xoapLOJ rcpSe VTTopielvai. ro he ovopia rco 

X6(f)(x) nveg /x€v (jjGTTep ec^-qv dpxouov olovrai. elvaL, 

Kal Si' avro rovs ^E7reLOV<; ovx rJKicrra (f)LXoxojprj(TaL 

rep X6(f)cp pLi'-qpL.r] rod ev "HXlBl Kpovlou X6(f)ov, 

OS ecmv ev rfj UiGdnhL yfj norapLOv TrXrjaiov 

^AX^eiov, KOL avrov lepov rod Kpovov vopLLl,ovres 

'HXeloL Ovalacg Kal aAAat? ripLals cruviovres ye- 

paipovGLv ev cxjpLcrpievoig ;:^pdvots'. Ev^evos^ Se 

TTOLrjrrjS^ dpx^los Kal dXXoL nve? rojv ^ IraXcKaJv 

pLvdoypd(f>a}v vtt' avrcov otovrat IJioarwv Sid rr^v 

opiOLorr^ra rov irapd g(J)L(jl Kpoviov reOrjvai rep 

roTTcp rovvopia, Kal rov ^ojpLov ra> Kpovcp rovs 

^ErreLOVs IhpvGaudaL pLed^ 'HpaKXeovs, o? en Kal 

vvv SiapLevec napd rfj ptlrj rod X6(f)ov Kara rrjv 

dvohov rrjv drro rijs dyopds (jiipoVGav els ro KaiTL- 

rcjjXi.ov, rrjv re dvuiav, yjv Kal eV epuov ^Pajp-aloi 

eOvov (f)vXdrrovres rov 'EXXrjvcKov vopLov, eKeivovs 

elvai rovs KaraarrjoapLevovs. cLs S' iyd> crvpi- 

^ot O : om. Reudler, Jacoby. 

^'Ewios Sylbxirg. ^ Kiessling : 6 TTot-qr-qs O. 

'No poet of this name is known, and Sylburgwas perhaps 
right in proposing to read Ennius. Strictly speaking, 

110 



BOOK I. 34. 2-5 

Pheneus and Epeans of Elis, who no longer had any 
desire to return home, since their country had been 
laid waste in the war against Hercules. There was 
also a small Trojan element mingled with these, con- 
sisting of prisoners taken from Ilium in the reign 
of Laomedon, at the time when Hercules conquered 
the city. And I am of the opinion that all the rest 
of the army, also, who were either wearied by their 
labours or irked by their wanderings, obtained 
their dismissal from the expedition and remained 
there. As for the name of the hill, some think it 
was an ancient name, as I have said, and that conse- 
quently the Epeans were especially pleased with the 
hill through memory of the hill of Cronus in Elis. 
This is in the territory of Pisa, near the river Alpheus, 
and the Eleans, regarding it as sacred to Cronus, 
assemble together at stated times to honour it 
with sacrifices and other marks of reverence. But 
Euxenus,^ an ancient poet, and some others of the 
Italian mythographers think that the name was given 
to the place by the men from Pisa themselves, from 
its likeness to their hill of Cronus, that the Epeans 
together with Hercules erected the altar to Saturn 
which remains to this day at the foot of the hill 
near the ascent that leads from the Forum to the 
Capitol, and that it was they who instituted the 
sacrifice which the Romans still performed even in 
my time, observing the Greek ritual. But from the 

Ennius was an Italian rather than a Roman, though it 
may be questioned whether Dionysius would have made 
this distinction. In the extant fragments of Ennius there 
is no reference to Hercules' visit, to say notiiuig of the 
Epeans. 

Ill 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

jSaAAo/xeyo? evpiaKOj, Kal Trplv ' HpaKXia eXOelv 6t? 
* IraXtav Upo^ rjv 6 t ottos rod Kpovov KaXovfieuog 
VTTO TOiv eTTL^^ojpiiOv EaTopi'Los , Kal rj dAArj oe aKjrj 
crvfiTTaaa tj vvv ' IraXia KaXovfiei-T] ro) Oeco tovto) 
aveKeiTO, Uaropvia Trpos tCjv ivoiKovvTOJv 6vopial,o- 
jxevTj, (jjs eariv evpeiv ev re Ei^vXXeioLS nal Aoyt'ot? ^ 
Kal aXXoL? ^prfdr-qpioLS vrro rcov Oecjv 8eSo/xeVot? 
elp-qfjidvou, lepd re TToXXaxfj rijg x^P^^ earlv ISpV' 
jxeva TO) 9eci) Kal TToXeis nves ovrojs ojorrep r\ 
av^JLTracra rore OLKrr) ouo/jia^ofJLei'ai xcopoi re ttoXXol 
rov haifjiovos eVcot'U/Ltot Kal fidXtara ol OKorreXoi. 
Kal rd fJLereojpa ' 

XXXV. ^IraXia he dvd XP^^^'^ (hvopLdadrj err" 
dvhpos hvvdarov ovofxa ' IraXou. rovrov he (f)T]cnu 
^Aurloxo? 6 ZvpaKOVGLOS dyaOov Kal ao(j)6v yeyevrj- 
fxevov Kal rcJbv TrXrjGtoxfJ^pojv rov? /xev Ao'yoi? dfa- 
TTeldovra, rous he ^ia Ttpooayojxevov , diracrav V(f)* 
iavrw TTOirjcraaOaL rr]v yi^v ocrr] eWos" t^v rcov koX- 
TTOiv rod re NaTT-qrivov ^ Kal rov EKvXXr^rivov • ^ 
T]v hrj TTpcorrjv KXr)drjuaL ^ IraXiav errl rov ^IraXov. 
ijrel he ravr-qg Kaprepog iyevero Kal dvdpcoTTovs 
TToXXov? €lx€v VTTrjKoovs avriKa ^ rcov exo}xevwv 
eTTopeyeo-OaL Kal TToXeig VTrdyeaOai ^ TroXXds • etvai 
2 S' avrov Otucorpou ro yevog. ' EXXdvtKos he 6 

^ Reiske : Aoyois O. 

'■^Na-mjTLvov O : AaixrjTiKov Aristotle, Pol. vii. 9, 2. 

^ EKvXX-qriKov Hudson. 

* avTiKa R : avrco Kal B ; avrw, avriKa Jacoby. 

* Usener : avvaytadoL O, Jacoby. 

112 



BOOK T. 34, 5-35, 2 

best conjectures I have been able to make, I find 
that even before the arrival of Hercules in Italy 
this place was sacred to Saturn and was called by 
the people of the country the Saturnian hill, and all 
the rest of the peninsula which is now called Italy 
was consecrated to this god, being called Saturnia ' 
by the inhabitants, as may be found stated in some 
Sibylline prophecies and other oracles delivered by 
the gods. And in many parts of the country there 
are temples dedicated to this god ; certain cities bear 
the same name by which the whole peninsula was 
known at that time, and many places are called by 
the name of the god, particularly headlands and 
eminences. 

XXXV. But in the course of time the land came 
to be called Italy, after a ruler named Italus. This 
man, according to Antiochus of Syracuse,^ was both 
a wise and good prince, and persuading some of his 
neighbours by arguments and subduing the rest 
by force, he made himself master of all the land 
which lies between the Napetine and Scylacian 
bays,^ which was the first land, he says, to be called 
Italy, after Italus. And when he had possessed 
himself of this district and had many subjects, he 
immediately coveted the neighbouring peoples and 
brought many cities under his rule. He says 
further that Italus was an Oenotrian by birth. 

1 Compare Virgil's use of Saturnia tellus {Georg. ii. 173, 
Aen. viii. 329) and Saturnia arva {Aen. i. 569) for Italy. 

2 For Antiochus see p. 39, n. 2. This quotation is frg. 4 
inyin\\eT,F.H.O. i. pp. 181 f. 

3 In other words, nearly all the " toe " of Italy south of 
the latitude of the Lacinian promontory. 

113 

VOL. I. r 



DIONYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

Aea^LOS cf)rjaLV ' HpaKXea ra? Pr^pvovov ^ou? aTre- 
Xavvovra ct? "Apyo^, eVeiSr^ rt? avTto SafiaXts 
aTTOUKLprrjGas rrjs ayiX'q'; iv ^ IraXia iovn rjSrj 
(f)€vyojv Strjpe rrjv OLKrrjv kol tov fxera^v Siarr^- 
^dfjbevog TTopov TTis OaXdTTTjs €L9 EiKeXiav d(j)LKerOy 
ip6fJL€vov del Tovs imxcop^ovs KaB^ ov^ eKdarore 
yivoLTO Slwkcov tov SdjiaXtv, el mj tls avrov 
ecDpaKOJS e'lrj, rcov rfjSe dvOpwircov 'EXXdSo? fiev 
yXojTTrjS oXiya cmvievrajv , rfj Se Trarptoj (jxxjvfj 
Kara rd? jJLrjvvcreL? rod ^coov KaXovvrcov rov 8a- 
fjLoXiv ovLTOvXoVy CQGTTep Kol vvu Xeyerai , errl tov 
^cpov TTjv )(a)pav ovofidcraL irdoav oGrjv 6 SdfxaXtg 
3 SirjXOev OviTovXlav. fxeTaTTecre'LV he dvd "x^povov 
TTjv ovoixaoiav el? to vvv axrjp.a ovSev OavfiacrroVf 
inel Kal rcav * EXXtjvlkcjv TToXXd to TTapaTTXrjOLOv 
TTeTTOvdev ovofidTOjv . ttXtjv etT6 a>? AvTLoy^6<^ (f)rjGLV 
€7r' di^Spo? r]yeiJL6vo<; , o-nep low? Kal Tndavcjrepov 
IdTLVy eld^ COS" ' EXXduLKO? oleTai errl rod ravpov ttju 
ovofiacrlav TavTiqv ecr;\;ev, eKelvo ye e^ dp(})olv hrjXov, 
OTL Kara ttjv ' HpaKXeov? -qXiKLav r) /jllkpco npocrdev 
ovTOJS (LvofjidoOr]. TO. Se npo tovtcov 'EXXrives fxev 
*EoTrepiav Kal Avaoviav avrrjv eKdXovv, ol 8' eVt- 
Xwpioi Earopvlav, to? elprjTaL fjLOL Trporepov. 

XXXVI. "EuTL he TLS Kal erepos Xoyos vtto 
Twv emxojpLajp jjLvOoXoyovfJievos , oj? 7Tp6 Trjs Alos 
dpxrjs 6 Kpoi'os ev ttj yfj Tavrrj hvi-aarevaete, Kai 
6 Xeyofievo? eV eKeivov ^los drraoL haipiXrjs ottoools 

1 For Hellanicus see p. 71, n. 1. The quotation that 
follows is frg. 97 m Miiller, F.H.Q. i. p. 58. 

114 



BOOK T. 35, 2-36, 1 

But Hcllanicus of Lesbos ^ says that when Hercules 
was driving Geryon's cattle to Argos and was come 
to Italy, a calf escaped from the herd and in its 
flight wandered the whole length of the coast and 
then, swimming across the intervening strait of the 
sea, came into Sicily. Hercules, following the calf, 
inquired of the inhabitants wherever he came if 
anyone had seen it anywhere, and when the people 
of the island, who understood but little Greek and 
used their own speech when indicating the animal, 
called it vitulus (the name by which it is still known), 
he, in memory of the calf, called all the country it 
had wandered over Vitulia.^ And it is no wonder 
that the name has been changed in the course of 
time to its present form, since many Greek names, 
too. have met with a similar fate. But whether, as 
Antiochus says, the country took this name from 
a ruler, which perhaps is more probable, or, as 
Hellanicus believes, from the bull, yet this at least 
is evident from both their accounts, that in Her- 
cules' time, or a little earlier, it received this name. 
Before that it had been called Hesperia and Ausonia 
by the Greeks and Saturnia by the natives, as I have 
already stated. 

XXXVI. There is another legend related by the 
inhabitants, to the effect that before the reign of 
Jupiter Saturn was lord in this land and that the 
celebrated manner of life ^ in his reign, abounding 

* Hesychius cites the Greek word IraXos (originally 
FiraXos) for " bull," and Timaeus, Varro and Festua 
state that Italia came from this root. 

^ In Greek 6 em Kpovov jSt'o? was proverbial for th© 
Golden Age ; compare the Latin Saturnia regna. 

115 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

wpai (jiVovoLv oi) Trap" d'AAot? }xdX\ov r) Trapa acfytcn 

2 yevoiro. /cat et rt? ^ dcheXojv to fivdajSeg rov 
Xoyov ;\;6tjpa? dperj^i' i^erdl,eiv ideX-qcreLev, ef rj^ 
yevo? TO dvOpajTTOJv ttAc terra? ev(l>poavvas CKapTTco- 
aaro yevofievov evOvg, elr Ik yrjs cos 6 naXatos 
€X€L Xoyog, eiT dXXcjs ttojs, ovk dv evpoi ravnqs 
Tivd iTTLTTjSeLorepav . cos yap /xta yrj irpos irepav 
KplvecrdaL rouavr-qv ro fxeyedos, ov fiovov rfjs 
EvpcxJTTrjs dXXd /cat r;;? dXXrjS dTrdcnrjs KparLarrf 

3 /car' ifjLTjv So^av iarlv '/raAta. /caiVot yLte ov 
XiXrjOev OTt ttoXXoZs ov TTLGrd So^co Xeyecv, evdvjxov- 
jxevoLS AlyVTTTOV re /cat Al^vtjv /cat Ba^vXcova /cat 
€t S-q Tcves oAAot \(ji)poL elcTLV €vSaLfioi'€S' dAA' iyd) 
rov e/c yrfS ttXovtov ovk iv pna riOe^ai Kaprrajv 
t8ea ouS' €L(J€px^rai fi€ ^rjXos OLKijaecos, iv fj fxovov 
clcrlv dpovpai irioves, rcJov 3' dAAojv ovhkv 7} ^pa^y 
TL xp-qo ipiojv ,^^ dAA' rjTis dv eir] TToXvapKeardTT) re 
/cat Tojv iTreLudKrcuv dyadwv eVt to ttoXv eXd^L' 
OTOV SeofieiTj, TavTTjV KpaTiuT-qv elvai Xoyit^ofxai. 
rovTO Se TO 77-a/x^dpov /cat TToXvco^eXes Trap rjV' 
TLVOVv dXXrjv yrjv '/raAtav e;^etv TreidopiaL. 

XXXVII. Ov yap dpovpag pL€v dyaOd? e^^i /cat 
TToAAds", dSevSpos S' iaTLV cos (JiTO(f)6pos ' oi)S' av 
(jiVTa fjL€v LKavT} TTavTola OpdifjaaOaL, GTreLpeodai S* 
(1)S BevSpLTLS oXtyoKapiTos ' ovS^ dpLcjico fxev raura 
Trapdx^Lv Sai/jiXijs, Trpo^aTeveadai 8' dt'eTTtrT^Seto? * 
ot)S' dv TLS avTTjv (fiacrj TToXvKaprrov piev elvat /cat 



* €'. TLS B : €1 TLS aAAos R ; el tls aAAojs Sylburg, Jacoby, 
^Biiclieler: XP1°'-H-'^^ ^' 



116 



BOOK I. 36, 1-37, 1 

in the produce of every season, was enjoyed by 
none more than by them. And, indeed, if anyone, 
setting aside the fabulous part of this account, will 
examine the merit of any country from which man- 
kind received the greatest enjoyments immediately 
after their birth, whether they sprang from the 
earth, according to the ancient tradition, or came 
into being in some other manner, he will find none 
more beneficent to them than this. For, to com- 
pare one country with another of the same extent, 
Italy is, in my opinion, the best country, not only 
of Europe, but even of all the rest of the world. And 
yet I am not unaware that I shall not be believed 
by many when they reflect on Egypt, Libya, 
Babylonia and any other fertile countries there 
may be. But I, for my part, do not limit the 
wealth derived from the soil to one sort of produce, 
nor do I feel any eagerness to live where there are 
only rich arable lands and little or nothing else 
that is useful ; but I account that countrv the best 
which is the most self-sufficient and generally stands 
least in need of imported commodities. And I am 
persuaded that Italy enjoys this universal fertility 
and diversity of advantages beyond anv other land. 
XXXYII. For Italy does not, while possessing a 
great deal of good arable land, lack trees, as does 
a grain-bearing country ; nor, on the other hand, 
while suitable for growing all manner of trees, 
does it, when sown to grain, produce scanty crops, 
as does a timbered country ; nor yet, while yielding 
both grain and trees in abundance, is it unsuitable 
for the grazing of cattle ; nor can anyone say that, 
while it bears rich produce of crops and timber 

117 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TToXvSevSpov ^ /cat ttoXv^otov, cVStatrTyyLta S' didpco- 
TTOis VTrdpx^iv o-XO-pi ' dAA' ecrri Trdorj? ws elneLV 

2 TjSovfj? T€ Kal a>(/)6Aeia? eKirXecos. Troiag [xev 
yap XeiTTerai GLro(^6pov /jltj TTorajJLoZs, dXXd rots 
ovpaiLOLS vhaGiv dphoixevqs rd KaXov/ueva Ka/JL- 
TTavcjv TTehia, iv ol? iyoj /cat rpiKapTrovs ideaadpL-qv 
dpovpa? deptvov IttI x^i-piepLvcp Kal jxeroTrajpivov eirl 
depivo) GTTopov e/crpe^oi^cras" ^ ; TToias S' iXaiocfjopov 
rd MeaoaTTLUJV kol Aavviajv /cat Za^ivojv /cat 
770/\Aa>i^ dXXojv yeojpyia ; TTOuas 8' olvo(j)vrov Tvp- 
p7)VLa /cat ^AXpavTj ^ /cat rd '* 0aXepivojv ;(6upta 
davfiacrrcos cus" <f)iXdp.TreXa /cat hi iXaxLcrrov ttovov 
TrXeiGTovs dfia /cat Kpariarovs Kapirovs e^eveyKelv 

3 evTTopa ; x^P'-^ ^^ '^^ ev€pyov TroXXrjv fxkv dv 
TLS evpoi TTjv et? TTOipivas dveLfievTjv avTrj?, TToXXrjv 
8e rrjv alyivopiov, en 8e TrXelco Kal OavpLaGiiorepav 
TTjv L7T7TO(f)opp6v Tc Kal ^ovKoXlSa ' Tj ydp eAeto? /cat 
XeijJLCovia ^ordpT) SaifjLXrj? ovaa rdju re opydScov rj 
hpoaepd Kal Kardppvros drreLpog ocnr] ^ depei re /cat 
X€L/JUi)PL^ vepi€TaL Kal TTapex^i htd iravrds evdevovaas 

4 ra? dyeAa?. Trdvrojv S' elalv ol Spvpiol dav- 
fxaaicoraroL irepi t€ rd Kp7)/jLPa)Sr) ;(cu/3ta /cat rds 
vd-nas Kal rovs dyeajpyrjTOvg X6(l>ovs, i$ (Lv vXrjg ' 
TToXXrjs {xev evTTOpovGL Kal KaXrj? vavTT-qyqoipLov^ 
TToXXrjS Se rrjs els rds d'AAa? ipyaalas evOdroV' 

^Kcu 7ToXv8ev8pov added by Biicheler. 
■^ €KTp€<f)ovaas O : iK4>epovaas Meineke, Jacoby. 
2 Sylburg : dX^avol O. ^ra added by Ambrosch. 

^ oarj Sylburg : ^ ABa, rj Bb. 
*T€ Kal ;fet/ia»vi Meutzner : om. O, Jacoby. 
' vXrjs added here by Kriiger, after KoXrjs by Casaubon, 
Jacoby, 

118 



BOOK I. 37, 1-4 

and herds, it is nevertheless disagreeable for men to 
live in. Nay, on the contrary, it abounds in prac- 
tically everything that affords either pleasure or 
profit. To what grain-bearing country, indeed, 
watered, not with rivers, but with rains from heaven, 
do the plains of Campania yield, in which I have 
seen fields that produce even three crops in a year, 
summer's harvest following upon that of winter 
and autumn's upon that of summer ? To what 
olive orchards are those of the Messapians, the 
Daunians. the Sabines and many others inferior ? 
To what vineyards those of Tyrrhenia and the Alban 
and the Falernian districts, where the soil is wonder- 
fully kind to vines and with the least labour produces 
the finest grapes in the greatest abundance ? And 
besides the land that is cultivated one will find much 
that is left untilled as pasturage for sheep and goats, 
and still more extensive and more wonderful is 
the land suitable for grazing horses and cattle ; for 
not only the marsh and meadow grass, which is 
very plentiful, but the dewy and well-watered grass 
of the glades, infinite in its abimdance, furnish 
grazing for them in summer as well as in winter and 
keep them always in good condition. But most 
wonderful of all are the forests growing upon the 
rocky heights, in the glens and on the uncultivated 
hills, from which the inhabitants are abundantly 
supplied with fine timber suitable for the building 
of ships as well as for all other purposes. Nor are 

* vavTrqyqaifjLov R : ciV vavTTivVf]OLv B. 

U9 



DTONYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

KOL TOVTCDV OvSeV OVT€ hvGTTOpiOrOV ioTLV OVT€ 

TrpoGOJ TTJ? di'dpojTTLvrjg )(p€Las Kel/jievov, aAA' €V- 
Karepyaora /cat paSta Trapeivai Trdvra Slcl ttXtjOos 
Tiov TTOTafioju, ot ScappeovcTLv diracrav Trjv oLKTrjv 

Kal TTOLOVGL TOiS TC KO/JLlScL? Kal rd? dlUL€Llfj€Lg Tibv 

5 e/c yrj? (f)Vo/JL€va>v AucrtreAei?. €X€l he "q yrj Kal 
vdjJLara Beppicov vhdrojv Iv ttoXXoIs evpr^fieva 
■)(iopiois, Xovrpd TTapaax^Lu -qScara Kal I'oaovs 
IdoaGdat )(poi'LOvg dptara, Kal /xeraAAa TravToSaTrd 
Kal d-qpicxjv d'ypa? d(f)d6vovs Kal daXdrriqs (f>vcnv 
TToXvyovov a'AAa re fjLVpia, rd fxev evxprjora, rd Se 
Oavjxdoia, iravrajv Se KdXXiGTOv, depa K€Kpap,€vov 
rat? copats" cru/JL/JLeTpcj^, olov '^Ktara TrrnxaiveLV 
Kpy/jLaju vTTep^oXals r) ^ OdXTreoLv i^aLalocg Kaprrwv 
T6 ydveatu Kal ^ <^ci)ojp (jyvGLV. 

XXX VIII. Ovhev hrj davfxacrrov tjv rovs Tra- 
Xaioijs L€pdv VTioXa^elv rod Kpovov Tr]v )(d>pav rav- 
rr]v, rov fxkv 5ai/xoi^a rovrov olojxevov? elvai Trdcrqs 
euSat/xoi^t'a? Sorrjpa Kal nX-qpoj-rji^ dvBpojTTOiS, ecre 
Kpovov ^ avrov Sci KaXelv, cu? "EXXr^veg d^LOVGLV, 
6tT6 Edropvov ,^ ojs 'Pa>fJLaLOL, irdoav he TveptetAry- 
</>OTa TTjv rov KoapLov (j>voiv, oTTorepco? dv rig 
6vojj,d<jr), rrjv he )(copav ravrrjv opcovrag eKirXeoj 
Trdcnrjg evnopias Kal )(dpirog, rjg rd dvrjrov e^terat 
yevog, d^iovvrag he Kal Oeto) Kal dvrjro) yevei to 
npoG^opov etvai ^ irdvrwv xojpLOjv dpyLohitorarov , 
6p7j pLev Kal vd-nag Tlavi,^ Xetpicovag he Kal reOiqXora 

^ij Ambrosch: Km O. ^ koX Reiske : i} O. 

'/fpdi'oi' Sylburg: xpovovO. 

* Udropvov Sylburg (after Lapus), Sarovpvov Jacoby, 
Ovpavov X^BGnei: Kpovov A.B. ^ di'ett'cw Kiessling. 

120 



BOOK I. 37, 4-38, 1 

any of these materials hard to come at or at a distance 
from human need, but they are easy to handle and 
readily available, owing to the multitude of rivers 
that flow through the whole peninsula and make 
the transportation and exchange of everything the 
land produces inexpensive. Springs also of hot water 
have been discovered in many places, affording 
most pleasant baths and sovereign cures for chronic 
ailments. There are also mines of all sorts, plenty 
of wild beasts for hunting, and a great variety of 
sea fish, besides innumerable other things, some 
useful and others of a nature to excite wonder. 
But the finest thing of all is the climate, admirably 
tempered by the seasons, so that less than elsewhere 
is harm done by excessive cold or inordinate heat 
either to the grooving fruits and grains or to the 
bodies of animals. 

XXXVIII. It is no wonder, therefore, that the 
ancients looked upon this country as sacred to Saturn, 
since they esteemed this god to be the giver and 
accomplisher of all happiness to mankind, — whether 
he ought to be called Cronus, as the Greeks deem 
fitting, or Saturn, as do the Romans, — and regarded 
him as embracing the whole universe, by which- 
ever name he is called, and since they saw this 
country abounding in universal plenty and every 
charm mankind craves, and judged those places to 
be most agreeable both to divine and to human 
beings that are suited to them — for example, the 
mountains and woods to Pan, the meadows and 

« vei/xat added after JJavl by Reiske. 

121 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

)(CopLa vv/JicfyaL?, olktol? Se Kal vrjaovs TieAaytot? 8at- 

flOGL, TCJV 8' aAAcOJ^, d>? €Ka.GTCO Ti deci) Kal Sai/jLOVL 

2 OLKelov. XeyovaL Se Kal rag Ovaiag eTTireXelv 
TO) Kpovo) Tovs TTaXaiovg, axjirep iv Kapx^Q^ovi 
T€Co? Tj TToXig htejxeive Kal Trapa KeXrotg et? roSe 
Xpoi^ov yiverai Kal €V aXXoig tlgI tcov IcrTrepiajv 
idvciji', avhpo4)6vovs, ' HpaKXea Se Travcrat rov vopLOV 
TTJs dvaiag ^ovXrjdlvTa rov re ^ojfxov ISpvaaaOat 
Tov €7rl TO) UaropvLCp Kal Kardp^aodai dvfxdrojv 
dyvcbv IttI Kadapo) nvpl dyL^ofxeicov,^ Iva 8e /jLTjhev 
e'lrj rots dvOpajvoLg iiOvixiov,^ oj? Trarplcov rjXoyrjKoai 
dvGi(x)V, hiha^ai rovs eTTLXcopiOVs d—opueLXLrropLevovs 

TTjV TOV deOV fJLTJVLV OLVtI TCOV dl'd pCOTTOJV , OVS 
CrVpL7ToSLl^OVT€£ Kal TCJV X^lpaJV dKpaTelg 7rOLOVVT€9 

ippLTTTovv etV TO TOV Te^ipios peWpov, etSojAa 
TTOLOVvras dvhpeLKeXa KeKocrjJLrjpLeva tov avTOV efcet- 
voLS TpoTTov ifx^aXelv et? tov TTOTa/mov, Iva 8rj to 
TTJs oTTeia? 6 Tt hrj irore tjv iv Taig diravTCOV 
ipv^alg napafjLevov e^aipedfj tcov €lk6vcov tov 

3 TTaXaiov rrddovg^ en crcoCopLevcuv. tovto 8e Kal 
fiexpi-S ifiov €TL StereAouv 'PcofxaloL SpcovTes * 
ooeTT] ^ fiLKpov v(jT€pov TTJ? ® iapLvfjs lcrr]fi€pia5 iv 
fjurfvl Mateo rat? KaXovpiivaL? etSot?, hixoii-qviha 
povXoiievoL TavTTjv elvai ttjv rjfjiepav, iv fj Trpodv- 
GavT€s lepd Ta Kara tov? vo/jlov? ol KoXovpL^vot 
7TOVTL(/)LK€S, Upiojv ol Siac^avdaraTOL , Kai avv av- 

' dyi^o/xe'vcuv Ambrosch (from Eusebius), a4>al,ofj.4vwv 
Reiske : al,o^4v(x)v AB. 



2 evdvfiiov A : Se'o? ^ evOvfiiov B, heov? evOvfiiov Eusebius. 
> nddovs B : idovs A. * SpwvTcs A : om. B. 



122 



BOOK T. 38, 1-3 

verdant places to the nymphs, the shores and islands 
to the sea-gods, and all the other places to the god 
or genius to whom each is appropriate. It is 
said also that the ancients sacrificed human victims 
to Saturn, as was done at Carthage while that city 
stood and as is still done to this day among the 
Gauls ^ and certain other western nations, and that 
Hercules, desiring to abolish the custom of this 
sacrifice, erected the altar upon the Saturnian hill 
and performed the initial rites of sacrifice with un- 
blemished victims burning on a pure fire. And lest 
the people should feel any scruple at having neglected 
their traditional sacrifices, he taught them to appease 
the anger of the god by making effigies resembling 
the men they had been wont to bind hand and foot 
and throw into the stream of the Tiber, and dressing 
these in the same manner, to throw them into the 
river instead of the men, his purpose being that any 
superstitious dread remaining in the minds of all 
might be removed, since the semblance of the ancient 
rite would still be preserved. This the Romans 
continued to do every year even down to my 
day a little after the vernal equinox, in the month 
of May,2 on what they call the Ides (the day they 
mean to be the middle of the month) ; on this 
day, after oflfering the preliminary sacrifices ac- 
cording to the laws, the pontijices^ as the most 
important of the priests are called, and with 

^ Dionysius regularly uses the word Celts for Gaiils ; 
but it seems preferable to follow the English usage in the 
translation. 2 gee p. 105, n. 2. 



^ oair-q (oaa er-q) Ambrosch : oaovn B, om. A, Jacoby. 
om. 0, Jacoby. 



123 



DIONYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

Tot? at TO addvarov nvp Sia^uAarrovo-at napdevoL 
(jrparrjyoL re koI rcov dXXcov ttoXltcvv ov? napelvaL 
ralg lepovpyiaL<^ depas etScuAa pLop(f)aLg dvOpcLirajv 
€LKa(jp.ei'a, rpiaKovra rov dpidp,6v, drro rrjs Upas 
yecfyvpag ^dXXovcnv elg to peu/xa tov Te^epLog, 

4 ^Apyelovs avrd KoXovvTeg. dXXd yap Trepl p,ev 
Tojv dvoLoyv Kol T(x)v dXXojv Upovpyiojv, a? rj 
'PojfjLaiajv ttoXls crvvTeXel /caret re tov ' EXXyjvlkov 
Kal Tou eTTixooptov Tpoirov, ev crepco Xoycp h-qXo)- 
(70fji€v, drraLTelv he 6 napcov Kaipo? eoLKe Kal Trepl 
TTJ? 'HpaKXfEovg d(j)L^eojs els ^ IraXiav yuer' eTTLGTa- 
oeojs TrXeiovos hieXdelv Kal el tl Xoyou d^iov ehpauev 
avToOi fjLTj TTapaXiTTelv . 

XXXIX. "EcTTL Se Tcov vTrep tov Satp^ovos TOvSe 
Xeyopievojv rd pLev pLvBtKUiTepa, Ta 8' dXrjdeoTepa. 
6 puev ovv pLvOiKos TTepl TTJs TTapovdCas avTOv Xoyos 
6u8* ex^L ' cu? St) KeXevadels wtt' Evpvadeojs ' HpaKXrjs 
ovv TOLS dXXoLS ddXoLs Kal Tas Prjpvovov ^ovs e^ 
^EpvOeias els "Apyos dTreXdoaL, TeXeaas rov ddXov 
Kal TTjV oiKahe iropeiav rrotovpLevos aAA?^ re TTO/^axfj 
rrjs ^ IraXias d(f>LKero Kal rrjs A^optyivajv yrjs els 

2 TO TTpoaex^s rep TlaXXavricp x^P^^^- ^upcoy Se 
TToav ev avro) ^ovKoXiha TroXXijv Kal KaX'qv, rds 
puev ^ovs dwrJKev els vopujv,^ avros Se ^apvv6p,evos 
VTTO KOTTOV KaraKXidels eSojKev avrov vttvoj. ev he 

^vojji-qv L. Dindorf : eKvo^rjv O. 

^ According to Varro the number of these effigies, made 
of buh-ushes, was twenty-seven, equal to the number of 
the chapels, also called Argei, situated in various parts of 
the city. The number thirty given by Dionysius would 

124 



BOOK T. 38, 3-39, 2 

them the virfjiiis who guard the perpetual fire, 
the praetors, and such of the other citizens as may 
lawfully be present at the rites, throw from the 
sacred bridge into the stream of the Tiber thirty 
effigies made in the likeness of men, which they call 
Argei.^ But concerning the sacrifices and the other 
rites which the Roman people perform according to 
the manner both of the Greeks and of their own 
country I shall speak in another book.^ At present, 
it seems requisite to give a more particular account 
of the arrival of Hercules in Italy and to omit 
nothing worthy of notice that he did there. 

XXXIX. Of ^ the stories told concerning this god 
some are largely legend and some are nearer the truth. 
The legendary account of his arrival is as follows : 
Hercules, being commanded by Eurystheus, among 
other labours, to drive Geryon's cattle from Ery- 
theia ■* to Argos, performed the task, and having 
passed through many parts of Italy on his way 
home, came also to the neighbourhood of Pallantium 
in the country of the Aborigines ; and there, finding 
much excellent grass for his cattle, he let them 
graze, and being overcome with weariness, lay down 
and gave himself over to sleep. Thereupon a robber 

mean one for each curia ; but this does not seem so prob- 
able. The sacred bridge was the pons suhlicius. For 
a full discussion of the Argei see Sir James Frazer's note 
on Ovid, Fasti v. 621 (vol. iv. pp. 74 ff., condensed in his 
L.C.L. edition, pp. 425 ff.). « In vii. 72, 14-18. 

8 For chaps. 39-40 cf. Livy i. 7, 4-14. 

* Erytheia ("Red" Island) was perhaps originally the 
fabulous land of the sunset glow. Later it was usually 
placed somewhere near the Pillars of Hercules. 

125 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Tovrco XrjCTTrjg rt? emxcopLog ovofia KaKog irepi- 
TvyxdveL rat? ^ovcrlv acjivXaKTOis vejULo/jievaL? /cat 
avrcov epojra to-;^et. w? Se top ' HpaKXda Kotfio)- 
fiei'ov avTov Karefiadev, CLTrdcra? fxev ovk av qjeto 
hvvaddai XaBelv OLTreXdcragy /cat d/j.a ovbe paSiov 
ov ^ TO TTpdyixa KarefidvOavev • oXiyag Sc rivas" i$ 
avrcbv etV to dvTpov, ev cb ttXtjoCov ovtl eTvy;^ave 
rrjv hiaiTav Trotou/xevo?, d7TOKpV7TT€Tai efiTraXiv Trjg 
KaTOL <f)vaLV rot? ^ojot? Tropetas eTTLGTrcofievos eKd- 
(jT7]u /car' ovpdv. tovto he aural tcjv iX€y)(ojv 
d<f>aviorijL6v ehvvaTO napao-x^iv eVai^ria? (jyavrjoo- 
pLevrjs ^ rot? 'ixyeai ttj? ohov. dvaaTag Se /xer' 
oXlyov 6 'HpaKXrj? /cat tov dpiSpLov iTTiXe^dpievos 
Twv ^o(x)v, d>s efiaOe Tivas ^ e/cAet77ot'cra?, reco? /xev 
TjTTopeL 7TOV K€X(x>prjKaGL Kol (x)£ 7T67TXavrjpLeva^ dno 
rrjs vofirjg cfidaTevev dvd tov xwpov • ^ cos S' ov)( 
€vpiGKev inl to aTnrjXaiov d(f>iKV€LTaL rot? /jl€v 
t^eCTt 8tapra»jU,€Vo?, ovSev Se tjttov ol6pL€vos Setv ^ 
OLepevvrjGaoOai top )(djpov. tov 8e KdKov irpo rry? 

6vpag €GTd)TO£ KOL OVT^ tSetV ra? ^Oli? (f)dGKOUTO£ 

ipopLevoj ovT^ ipevvaGOat iiTiTpiTTovTos aLTov/ievo) 
TOV? re TrXrjGLOv cos Seivd TrdG)(OL vtto tov ^evov 
im^ocovTOS > dfJLTjxavcov 6 ^HpaKXrjs 6 tl xpiJGeTaL 
TO) 7Tpdyp,aTL et? povv ^dXXeTai TrpoGeXdGai tco 
UTrrjXaiaj rd? aAAa? /Sou?, co? Se apa ttjs gvv- 
vofjLov (fxjjVTJs re /cat oGpLrjg at evTOodev 7Jg6outo, 
dvTepiVKcbvTO rat? e/croa^ev /cat e'yeyoi^ei 7] (fxjjvrj 

* cv added by Usener, Cobet. 
^ (f)apr]aofi€vr]S A : (f)aivoyL€vris B. 
'rtvas Cobet : ras O. 

126 



BOOK I. 39, 2-3 

of that region, named Cacus, chanced to come upon 
the cattle feeding with none to guard them and 
longed to possess them. But seeing Hercules lying 
there asleep, he imagined he could not drive them 
all away without being discovered and at the same 
time he perceived that the task was no easy one, 
either. So he secreted a few of them in the cave 
hard by, in which he lived, dragging each of them 
thither by the tail backwards. This might have 
destroyed all evidence of his theft, as the direction 
in which the oxen had gone would be at variance with 
their tracks. Hercules, then, arising from sleep soon 
afterwards, and having counted the cattle and found 
some were missing, was for some time at a loss to 
guess where they had gone, and supposing them 
to have strayed from their pasture, he sought them 
up and down the region ; then, when he failed to 
find them, he came to the cave, and though he was 
deceived by the tracks, he felt, nevertheless, that he 
ought to search the place. But Cacus stood before 
the door, and when Hercules inquired after the cattle, 
denied that he had seen them, and when the other 
desired to search the cave, would not suffer him to 
do so. but called upon his neighbours for assistance, 
complaining of the violence offered to him by the 
stranger. And while Hercules was puzzled to know 
how he should act in the matter, he hit upon the 
expedient of driving the rest of the cattle to the cave. 
And thus, when those inside heard the lowing and 
perceived the smell of their companions outside, 
they bellowed to them in turn and thus their lowing 

*r6v -j^wpov B ; r-qv ^lijpav R. ^ helv Schinitz : €.lvai O. 

127 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avTcbv Karrjyopo? ttjs kXotttj?. 6 jJLev ovv KaKog, 
€7761817 7TepL<^avr]s iyivf.ro KaKovpyojv, rpeVerat 
77po? dXK'qi' Kal Tov? elcodoras avrco crvvaypavXelv 
dveKaXeL- ' HpaKXrjs he dXoia)v^ avrov ro) poTrdXcp 
KreLveiy Kal ra? ^ou? i^ayaycov , ineLBr] KaKovpyojv 
vttoSoxolI? evderov icx)pa to x^P^^v, iTTLKaTaGKanreL 
TCx) kXcottl ^ TO GTTTjXaLov. dyvLoas he roi 770Ta/xai 
rov (f)6vov IhpveraL ttXtiglov rod tottov Alos Evpecriov 
^ojfiov, 05 ioTL rrj? ' Paj/jLTjg irapd rff TpthvpLco ttuXtj, 
Kal dveL TO) deoj hap-aXtv eva rrj? evpeaeco? rcov ^ocov 

Xapi-CrTTJpLOV . TaVTTJV €TL Kal eh i/ji€ TTjV dvoiaV Tj 'Pcj- 

fiaLCov 7t6Xl9 (JweTeXei, vojXLfJLOLS ' EXXrjVLKolg aTraaiv 
€v avrfj XP<J->l^^^'0' KaOaTTep eKetvo? KareGnqoaro. 

XL. 01 he ^A^opiylveg Kal rcov ApKahcov ol to 
IJaXXdvTLOv KaToiKovvTes , diS tov re KdKou tov 
ddvaTov eyvcooav Kal tov ' HpaKXea ethov, tco puev 
aTjexdofievoL hid ra? dprraydg, tov he ttjv oifjLV e/c- 
TTayXovfjievoL delov tl xP^P^^ evofiLcrav opdv Kal tov 
XrjGTov fxeya evTvx'qpLOL ttjv dTraXXayrjv '^ enoiovvTO. 
ol he TTevrjTes avrcjv KXdhovs hpeipd/xevoL hd(f)viqs, tj 
770AA77 TTepl TOV TOTTOV e(f)veTO, eKeivov re Kal 
avTovs dveaTecf)ov , tjkov he ol ^aaLXel? avTwv enl 
^evia TOV ' HpaKXea KaXovvTe? . cl>? he Kal Tovvofxa 
Kal TO yevos avrov Kal ra? Trpd^etg hie^Lovrog 
€p.a9ov, ivex^^pi-^ov avrco rrjv re x^P^^ '<^ct^ a(f>ds 
avrovs €771 </>tAta. Evavhpog he TraXalrepov en ttjs 
&ejJLihos dKTjKod)? hie^LOVGT)?, on TreTTpajfjievov etrj 

^ dXoLcoi' R : dXvcDv Bb ; dXoa)w Reudler. 

^Toi kXcottI Bb, TcD KaXioTTi B.T, : TT] KoXavpoTTi A, Jacoby. 

^ Schwartz : oltto^oXtjv O, Jacoby. 

128 



BOOK T. 39. 4-40, 2 

betraved the theft. Cacus, therefore, when his 
thievery was thus brought to light, put himself upon 
his defence and began to eall out to his fellow herds- 
men. But Hercules killed him by smiting him with 
his club and drove out the cattle ; and when he saw 
that the place was well adapted to the harbouring 
of evil-doers, he demolished the cave, burying 
the robber under its ruins. Then, having purified 
himself in the river from the murder, he erected 
an altar near the place to Jupiter the Discoverer,^ 
which is now in Rome near the Porta Trigemina, 
and sacrificed a calf to the god as a thank-offering 
for the finding of his cattle. This sacrifice the city of 
Rome continued to celebrate even dow^n to my day, 
observing in it all the ceremonies of the Greeks 
just as he instituted them. 

XL. \^Tien the Aborigines and the Arcadians 
who lived at Pallantium learned of the death of 
Cacus and saw Hercules, they thought themselves 
\-er^ fortunate in being rid of the former, whom they 
detested for his robberies, and were struck with awe 
at the appearance of the latter, in whom they seemed 
to see something divine. The poorer among them, 
plucking branches of laurel which grew there in 
great plenty, crowned both him and themselves 
with it ; and their kings also came to invite Hercules 
to be their guest. But when they heard from him 
his name, his lineage and his achievements, they 
recommended both their country and themselves 
to his friendship. And Evander, who had even 
before this heard Themis relate that it was ordained 

^ Jupiter luveutor. 

129 



DTONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Tov €K Alo? Kal yiXKiJLtjvTjs yevofievov 'HpaKXea 
Sia/xeLi/javra rrjv dvrjrrji' (f)VGiv aOdvyarov evecrdaL 
8i' dpeTT]i', eTTeiSr] rdxi-O-Ta oan? rjv iirvdero, 
(f)6daaL ^ouXofievo? diravTas dvdpcoTTov? 'HpaKXea 
decov Ti/xats" Trpcorog IXaudixevos y ^ojjjlov avToa^eSiov 
VTTo GTTovhrjs ISpveraL Kal SdfxaXiv dt,vya Ovei irpos 
avTOJ, TO 6eo(f>aTov d(j)riyriadiJievog 'HpaKXel Kal 

3 Serjdels rajv lepcov Kardp^aadaL. dyaaOel? 8e 
rovg dv6pa)7Tov? tt^? (^aXo^evias ' HpaKXrjg, rov jxev 
Srjfiov iuTLdcrei VTTohex^rai dvaas rcov ^ocov TLvag 
Kal Trj9 dXXrjs Aetas" rag SeKdrag i^eXwv rovg he 
jSaCTiAetS" X^P9- "^oXXfj SajpeLrat Aiyvajv re Kal rdv 
aXXojv TTpoGOLKOJv, Tjs fJL€ya irroLOVVTo dp^eiv, napa- 
vopiovs rivds i^ avrrjs eK^aXcov dvOpcoTTovs. XeyeraL 
8e TTpos TOTjroLS, d>S Kal SerjOLV riva TTonqGairo rcov 
eTTLXOjpLOjv, eTTeiSrj irpcoroi deov avrov evopnaav, 
OTTOJS dOavdrovs avro) hLacj^vXdrrojGi rag rt/xa?, 
dvovres jxev dl,vya hd/xaXiv dvd irdv ero?, dyiOTev- 
ovreg he ttjp lepovpyiav edeuLV ' EXXr]VLKol? ' Kal wg 
Sthd^etev avrog ^ rag dvatag, tVa Sta Travrog avraj 
Kexo-piopieva dvotev, o'lKovg Suo rcov enLcfyavwv .^ 

4 elvat Se rovg fxaOovrag rore r-qv ' EXXr]viKr]v lepovp- 
yiav TJoririovg re Kal TlLvaplovg, dS^ dtv rd yevrj 
SiafielvaL fxexpi- ttoXXov rrjv eTTtfJieXeiav TroLovfieva 
rcov dvGLCov, OJS" eKeZvog Kareorrjoaro , Tloririajv fiev 
r)yovfjLevu)v rrjg lepovpyiag Kal rcov efivvpcov dirap- 
Xofievcjtjv, IlivapLCjjv 8e crnXdyxvcvv re pLerovoiag 
elpyofievcov Kal ooa d'AAa ^xprjv utt' dpi(f>olv yiveadat 

^ avros Reiske : avrovs O. Jacoby. 

^ (.Tn(fiavwv B, Reiske : ivi4>avu)v napaXa^ojv R, Jacoby. 

130 



BOOK T. 40, 2-4 

by fate that Hercules, the son of Jupiter ancl Alemena. 
changing his mortal nature, should become immortal 
by reason of his virtue, as soon as he learned who 
the stranger was, resolved to forestall all mankind 
by being the first to propitiate Hercules with divine 
honours, and he hastily erected an improvised altar 
and sacrificed upon it a calf that had not known 
the yoke, having first communicated the oracle to 
Hercules and asked him to perform the initial rites. 
And Hercules, admiring the hospitality of these 
men, entertained the common people with a feast, 
after sacrificing some of the cattle and setting apart 
the tithes of the rest of his booty ; and to their 
kings he gave a large district belonging to the 
Ligurians and to some others of their neighbours, 
the rule of which they very much desired, after he 
had first expelled some lawless people from it. It 
is furthermore reported that he asked the inhabit- 
ants, since they were the first who had regarded 
him as a god, to perpetuate the honours they had 
paid him by offering up every year a calf that had 
not known the yoke and performing the sacrifice 
with Greek rites ; and that he himself taught the 
sacrificial rites to two of the distinguished families, 
in order that their offerings might always be accept- 
able to him. Those who were then instructed in 
the Greek ceremony, they say, were the Potitii and 
the Pinarii. whose descendants continued for a long 
time to have the superintendence of these sacrifices, 
in the manner he had appointed, the Potitii presid- 
ing at the sacrifice and taking the first part of the 
burnt-offerings, while the Pinarii were excluded from 
tasting the inwards and held second rank in those 
ceremonies which had to be performed by both of 

131 



DIONYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

•7-17^ Sevrepav ri/jL-qv ixovTCov. ravr-qv Se aurot? 
TTpocrredrjvaL rrjv aTL/jLiav oifjiijLov tt^s" TrapovGias 
€V€Ka, eTreiS?) eojdev avTol? KeXevaOev 7Jk€lv euTrXay- 

5 )(i^€VfX€vajv rjSrj rajv lepajv d(f)LKOVTO. vvv fievTOi 
ovKen rots yeveui tovtols tj rrepl ra? Upovpytas 
cVtjLteAeta dm/cetrat, dAAa nalSeg eV rov hrjfxoorLov 
(Lv7]TOL SpaxjLV avrdg} St' d? Se air Las to edos 
fiereTTEGe Kal ris r) rod SalpLovo? C7Tt(/>dyeta Trepl 
rr)v dXXayrjv rcbv lepoTTOLcov eyevero, cTretSdv /card 
TOVTO yeuiopiai rod Xoyov ro pbipos, hiiqy'qGoiJLai. 

6 d Sc jSojjLtd?, e^' ov rds Se/cdra? OLTredvcrev ^ 
'HpaKXrjg, KaXeZrai jmev vtto ' PojfiaLcov Meytcrrog, 
eart Se rrj? ^ Boapias Aeyo/xeVr^? dyopds ttXt^ctlov, 
dyLGrevofievo? el Kai ns dXXos vtto rcov irrLxajpiajv ' 
opKOL re yap eV avrco Kal orvvdrJKaL rot? ^ovXo- 
fievoLS ^e^aicx)? ri SiaTrpdrreadai Kal SeKarevcrecs 
')(^piqp.drojv yivovrai crux^oX /car ey;^d? • rfj fievroL 
KarauKevfi ttoXv rrjs 86^7]g earl Karaheearepos' 
TToXXaxfj Se /cat dXXr] rrj^ ^ IraXias dvelrai refxevrj 
TO) deo) Kal ^(xjpLol Kara 77oAet? re tSpvvrat Kai 
Trap* ohovs, Kal arraviojs dv evpoi ri? '/raAia? 
XOJpov evda fJLTj rvy^dvei rifxcoiJievos 6 Oeos. 6 
fjLev ovv fivdiKO? Aoyos" vnep avrov roLocrSe irapa- 
SeSorat. 

XLI. '0 8' dX-qOearepo?, S TzoAAot rcov ev 
l(TropLa<i Gxrip-o-ri rds Trpd^eis avrov StrjyrjaafjLevajv 
exprjuavro , roioohe ' ojs crrparrjXdrrjs yevo^evos 

* avTCLS Bb : avTois Ba, avTols A. 

* Kriiger : iiredvaev O. 
*rfjs added by Kiessling. 

132 



BOOK I. 40, 4-41, 1 

them together. It is said that this disgrace was 
fixed upon them for having been late in arriving ; 
for though they had been ordered to be present 
early in the morning, they did not come till the en- 
trails had been eaten. To-day, however, the super- 
intendence of the sacrifices no longer devolves on 
these families, but slaves purchased with the public 
money perform them. For what reasons this 
custom was changed and how the god manifested 
himself concerning the change in his ministers, I 
shall relate when I come to that part of the history.^ 
The altar on which Hercules offered up the tithes is 
called by the Romans the Greatest Altar. ^ It stands 
near the place they call the Cattle Market ^ and no 
other is held in greater veneration by the inhabitants ; 
for upon this altar oaths are taken and agreements 
made by those who wish to transact any business 
unalterably and the tithes of things are frequently 
oflfered there pursuant to vows. However, in its 
construction it is much inferior to its reputation. 
In many other places also in Italy precincts are 
dedicated to this god and altars erected to him, 
both in cities and along highways ; and one could 
scarcely find any place in Italy in which the god 
is not honoured. Such, then, is the legendary 
account that has been handed down concerning him. 
XLI. But the story which comes nearer to the 
truth and which has been adopted by many who 
have narrated his deeds in the form of history 
is as follows : Hercules, who was the greatest 

^ In a portion of the work now lost, 
2 Ara maxima. 
8 Forum, boarium. 

133 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

amivTwv KpaTiaros tcov KaO^ iavrov 'HpaKX-q? Kal 
Swdfieco? ttoXXtjs -qyovyievos airaaav iTrrjXOe ttjv 
ivros ^QKeavov, KaraXvojv fiev el n? etrj rvpawlg 
^apela Kal XvTrrjpa rols ap^oiiivoi? t) ttoXls v^pl- 
l^ovaa Kal Xaj^ajjJLevT] rag TreXas rj rjyefjiovLa ^ dv- 
OpcoTTUjv dvrjiiepco ScaLTr) Kal ^evoKTOviais ddefiLTOL^ ^ 
Xpoj/JLevajv, KaOiGrdg 8e vofiLjJLOv? ^aoiXeias Kal 
U(jL>(f)povLKd TToAtreu/xara Kal ^Icov eO-q (^iXdvd pcxJira 
Kal KOLi'OTTaOrj • npog 8e rovrois "EXXrjGc re ^ap- 
^dpovs uvyKepavvvpievos Kal OaXaTrioig -QTreLpwra?, 

OL T€COS aTTLGTOVS Kal dcTVVaXXdKTOVS €LXOV O/JLiXiaS , 

iprjpLOj re yfj TroAcd? iviSpvofJievog Kal TTorapLOU? 
€KTp€7Ta>v cVi/cAu^ovra? 77eSta /cat rpi^ovs eKTepLvcov 
d^droLS opeuL Kal rdAAa jJLr^xavdiiJLevos , cus" aTracra 
yrj Kal ddXarra KOivr) rats aTrdyrajv xpelaig y€inj- 
2 ooLTo. d(f)LK€ro Se €tV ^ IraXiav ov /JLovoaroXog 
ovSe dyeXrjv ^ /Soojv eVayo/xevo? * {ovre yap 6 
Xo^po? iv rpt^cp Tols els "Apyos e^ ^ 1^7] p lag dva- 

KOflL^OfJL€VOLS,^ OVTe TOV SieXOelv €V€Ka TTjV x^P^^ 

roaavTTjg dv rj^Lcodrj tl/jltj?) aAA* €7tI SovXcoaec Kal 
dpxfj TCOV rfjSe dvB pcoTTcov urparov dyojv ttoXvv 
^ I^rjplav rjSr] Kex^ipo^p-evos ' hiarplilsai re avrodi 
TrXeioj xP^^o^ TjvayKdcrOr) rod re vavriKOV rfj 
aTTOucrta, ■^ iyevero ;)(et/xa>vos" einXa^ovTos ,^ Kal tco 

^ rj -qyefiovia Kiessling, rj rfye^ioiv Sintenis, fj fjiovax Meineke : 
■qyi^jLovia^ R, rjyefjLOveias B. 

2 Steph. : ddcfjLLcrroLs AB, Jacoby. 

* dydXrjv R ; dydXr) B. 

* €Tray6fi€vos Ab ; iTrdfiivos Aa, aTTOjx^vos B ; inoiKvos 
Kiessling. 

134 



BOOK T. 41, 1-2 

commander of his age, marched at the head of a large 
force through all the country that lies on this side 
of the Ocean, destroying any despotisms that were 
grievous and oppressive to their subjects, or common- 
wealths that outraged and injured the neighbour- 
ing states, or organized bands of men who lived in 
the manner of savages and lawlessly pnt strangers 
to death, and in their room establishing lawful 
monarchies, well-ordered governments and humane 
and sociable modes of life. Furthermore, he mingled 
barbarians with Greeks, and inhabitants of the 
inland with dwellers on the sea coast, groups which 
hitherto had been distrustful and unsocial in their 
dealings with each other ; he also built cities in 
desert places, turned the course of rivers that over- 
flowed the fields, cut roads through inaccessible 
mountains, and contrived other means by which 
every land and sea might lie open to the use of all 
mankind. And he came into Italy not alone nor 
yet bringing a herd of cattle (for neither does this 
country lie on the road of those returning from 
Spain to Argos nor would he have been deemed 
worthy of so great honour merely for passing through 
it), but at the head of a great army, after he had 
already conquered Spain, in order to subjugate and 
rule the people in this region ; and he was obliged 
to tarry there a considerable time both because of 
the absence of his fleet, due to stormy weather that 

* avaKOfj-il^ofidvois Steph.^, dvoaKeua^o^evoi? Steph.^, Jacoby: 
dvay»ca{o/MeVots AB. 

* iiTiXa^ovros Cmg, Sinteni? : e-nL^aXovroi AB, 

135 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

fir) Trdvra ra eOvrj ra Karexovra ' IraXiav irpoa- 
XwprjcraL avrco eKOvaia xcopls yap tojp dXXojv 
^ap^dpcjop TO Aiyvcov yivos ttoXv kol /JLa^Lfjiov , eVt 
ratg Trapohots raju MATxe/cut' opwi' IhpvjjLevov, oltto- 
KOjXveiv ottXols tols eiG^oXd? avrov rag et? ^ IraXiav 
€.7T€xeipriGev, evda iiiyiaros dyojv rot? "EXX-qaiv 
iyevero navrajp avrovg iTnXeLTTOUTOjv iv rfj jJidxj] 
rojv ^eXcov. StjXol be tou noXefjiov rovSe rcov 
dpxaiajv TTOLrjrojv ^to-;^uAo? iv ripop.i]Q€l Xvofxevcp. 
TTeTTolrjraL yap avrcp 6 TlpopL-qdevs ' HpaKXel rd re 
dXXa TTpoXeycvv, a>? eKaorov avro) tl (JVfji^T]G€(jdaL 
ifieXXe Kara Trjv inl r7]pv6vrjv orpareiav, /cat hr] 
Kal TTepl rod AiyvarLKOv TToXepLov cog ov paSios 6 
dyu)V ecrrai Sir^yovfJievog . ra Se 770t7]^aTa a>8' ^x^t-' 

rj^eis Se Aiyvajv elg drdp^-qrov orparov, 
€v6^ ov jidx'^S, odcf)^ olSa, Kal dovpog rrep cov 
fi€pnfj€L. TreVpcurat ydp ere Kal ^4Xr) Xl7T€lv. 

XLIl. ^E-neLhrj Se rovrovs Karadrpeipdfievog rcov 
TTapohojv iKpdrrjGev, ol fiev rcves €kov<7lol irapeSl- 
Sooav avro) to,? 77-dAet?, fidXiGra Se ocrot diro rod 
^ EXXiqvLKOv yevovg -qaau 7) hvvdpieis ovk elxov 
d^LOXP^ovs , ol Se TrXeiovs e'/c TToXdfiov Kal ttoXl- 
opKiag TTapioravro . iv Srj rourois rot? ^ f^dxj) 
Kparr]deLGL Kal rov vtto ' Pajfiatajv pLvdoXoyov/Jievov 
KaKov, hvvdarr)v rtvd Kopahfj ^dp^apov Kal dvOpo)- 
TTOJv di-rjfiepcov dpxovra, yeviodai (jyaolv avrcv Sid- 
(t>opov, ipvfJLvols ;)(ajp60iS' iTTiKaO-q/jLevov Kal 8td ravra 

^ Tols added by Heiske, 
136 



BOOK T. 41, 2-42, 2 

detained it, and because not all the nations of Italy 
willingly submitted to him. For, besides the other 
barbarians, the Ligurians. a numerous and warlike 
people seated in the passes of the Alps, endeavoured 
to prevent his entrance into Italy by force of arms, 
and in that place so great a battle was fought by 
the Greeks that all their missiles gave out in the 
course of the fighting. This war is mentioned by 
Aeschylus, among the ancient poets, in his Prometheus 
Unbound ; for there Prometheus is represented 
as foretelling to Hercules in detail how everything 
else was to befall him on his expedition against 
Geryon and in particular recounting to him the 
difficult struggle he was to have in the war with the 
Ligurians. The verses are these : 

'* And thou shalt come to Liguria's dauntless host. 
Where no fault shalt thou find, bold though thou 

art. 
With the fray : 'tis fated thy missiles all shall 

fail." 1 

XLII. After Hercules had defeated this people 
and gained the passes, some delivered up their cities 
to him of their own accord, particularly those who 
were of Greek extraction or w ho had no considerable 
forces ; but the greatest part of them were re- 
duced by war and siege. Among those who were 
conquered in battle, they say, was Cacus, who is 
celebrated in the Roman legend, an exceedingly 
barbarous chieftain reigning over a savage people, 
who had set himself to oppose Hercules ; he was 
established in the fastnesses and on that account 

^Kauck, T.0.F:\ p. 6(5, I'rg. 199. 

137 



DTONYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

TOts" TrXrjGLOXiopois ovra XvTrrjpov. 09 eneiSr) Kara- 
GTpaTOTTeSevcravTa tov '//pa/cAca efxadev iv rco 
TTpooexel TTehico, XrjGTpLKcog hiaoKevaodfi^vos im- 
Spofifj alcfyvihico ixp-qoaro KaTaKOipLOj/uLevov ^ tov 
orparov /cat ri]? Xeias ogtj €Trdrvx€v ac^uAa/croj 

3 TTepL^aXofxevos a—rjXaGev. varepov Se /cara/cAet- 
odels V7t6 t(x)v 'EXXtJvcov els TToXiopKiav , rd re 
(f)povpLa Kara Kpdros aAovr' ^ iiTelSe ^ /cat avros iv 
Tols ipvp.aoLv'^ ounjpedr]. rayv he <^povpLCx)v avrov 
KaTaoKacJ^evrcov rd rrepi^ ;(a>pta ol Gvve^eXdovres 
'HpaKXei Kara Gcfydg eKdrepoi^ TrapeXa^ov, Mp/caSes- 

T€ TLUeS ol GVV EvdvhpCO KOI 0aVVOS 6 TWP ^A^o- 

piylvcov ^aacXevg. elKdaeie S' dv tls /cat tov? 
VTTOfjietiavras avrodi tcov ' EXXiqvcjjv ^Ett€lovs /cat 
Tovg e'/c 0€veov Mp/caSa? /cat Tpwag eVt (fyvXaKjj 

4 rrjs x^P^^ KaTaX€L(f>6rjvaL. crTparrjyiKov yap §17 
/cat TOVTo Tojv '//pa/cAeou? epycuv /cat ovhevos 
TjTTOV Oavfid^ecrdai eVtTrJSetoy, to 817 tovs dvacmd- 
(jTovs e'/c TCOV KeKpaTrjpLevojv rroXecov reoj? fxev 
eTrdyeadaL /cara Tag OTpaTelag, iirel 8e TTpodvfiojg 
Tovs TToXejjLOVs GVvhieveyKaiev et? ra SopLKTrjTa 
KaTOLKiteLv /cat ^ rot? Trap' eTepcov iTTLXOpr]yr]0elGL 
SajpeloOai ttXovtols. 8ta puev Stj TavTa fieyLGTOV 
opopua /cat /cAeo? 'HpaKXeovs ev VraAia yeyeVi^rat,' 
/cat ou TTJS" Trapohov x^P^^> V (^^P-^dv ovhev Trpocrrji'. 

^ Kiessling : Kal KoifiwfjLcvov O. ' 

" Meutzner : dXomojv O. ^ Reiske : eVtjST? O. 

* fV Tois ipvfiaaiv B : dfivvofievo^ A. 

* iKOLTepoi Reiske, iralpoi Schmitz : irepoi O. 

* K-ai added by Meineke. 

' Madvig : yiyevijadai R, Jacoby, yeviodcu A. 

138 



BOOK I. 42, 2-4 

was a pest to his neighbours. He, when he heard 
that Hercules lay encamped in the plain hard by, 
equipped his followers like brigands and making a 
sudden raid while the array lay sleeping, he sur- 
rounded and drove otf as much of their booty as 
he found unguarded. Afterwards, being besieged 
by the Greeks, he not onlv saw his forts taken by 
storm, but was himself slain amid his fastnesses. And 
when his forts had been demolished, those who had 
accompanied Hercules on the expedition (these were 
some Arcadians with Evander. and Faunus, king 
of the Aborigines) took over the districts round 
about, each group for itself. And it may be con- 
jectured that those of the Greeks who remained 
there, that is, the Epeans and the Arcadians from 
Pheneus, as well as the Trojans, were left to guard 
the country. For among the various measures of 
Hercules that bespoke the true general none was 
more worthy of admiration than his practice of 
carrying along with him for a time on his expeditions 
the prisoners taken from the captured cities, and 
then, after they had cheerfully assisted him in his 
wars, settling them in the conquered regions and 
bestowing on them the riches he had gained from 
others. It was because of these deeds that Hercules 
gained the greatest name and renown in Italy, and 
not because of his passage through it, which was 
attended by nothing worthy of veneration. 

139 



DIONYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

XLIII. Aeyovcn 8e riveg avrov Kal valSag iv 
roZg XOJpLoig Tovroig, d vvv ' Poj/uLaloL KarocKovatv, 
€K Svo yvi'aLKcbv yevofxivovs KaraXnTelv • TIaXXavra 
fiev eK TTJ? Evdi'dpov dvyarpos, fj Aaov'iviav oi^ofid 
(f)aoLU elvat, AaTLi'oi> 8e €K nuog VTrep^opihos Kop-qs, 
Tjv TTarpo? els o^Tjpeiav hovros eTrqyero Kal avrrjv 
/JL€Xpi- AteV TLVog dyvrjv ydfiajv e^uAarrev, eVet 8e 
€LS ' IraXiav eirXei ipacrOelg iyKUfiova 7tol€L, Kal ^ 
ore Bt) aTTaipeiV els "Apyos e/xeAAe roj BaoiXel rayv 
A^opiyivcxjv 0ai;voj yvvacKa TTonjoaodai. SlbajOL • 8t* 
^i^ alriav rovs ttoXXovs tov Aarlvov tovtov ulov 
2 i-ojjLLleiv, ovx 'HpaKXeovs. TJdXXavra fxev ovv 
TTplv Yj^rjaaL Xeyovoiv dTToOavelv , Aarlvov he dvhpco- 
devra Trjv A^opiyivajv dpxrjv TrapaXa^eZv . tovtov 
he aTTaihos dppevcov TTathwv TeXevTTqaavTos ev ttj 
rrpos Tovs ofJLOpovs ' PotoXov? I^dxr] TrepLGTrjvaL ttjv 
dpxrjv els Alveiav tov Ayxloov Kr^hearrjv avTOV 
yevofievov. dXXd Tavra jxev ev erepoi? xpovots 
iyeveTO . 

XLIV. 'HpaKXrjs 8' enel ra re Kara t7]v ' IraXlav 
dnavTa a>? e^ovXeTO /careo-n^aaro Kal 6 vavTLKos 
avTOj GTparos acDos i^ ' I^rjplas d(f)LKeTO, dvcrag 
Tols Oeois rds heKdras tcDp' Xa(j)vpcxjv Kal TToXlxi^'rjv 
e-nojvvjjiov avrov KTiaas, evda 6 (jtoXos avTco evav- 
Xox^Zto,^ 7] Kal vvv VTTO ' Pa)jjLaLaiv olKovfievrj Neag 
IJoXeojs Kal rio/jLTTrjLas ev fieao) KelraL ^ Xifjuevas iv 
TTavTl Katpo) ^e^aiovs exovaa, ho^rjs re Kal C,tjXov 
Kal TLfJLOjv laodeojv napd ndcn toIs oIkovolv ev 

^ Koi Kiessling : rjv Ka. O. 

* evauAo;(eiTo {evavroXox^^To Aa) O : evavXox^i Co bet, Jacoby, 

140 



BOOK I. 43, 1-44, 1 

XLIII. Some say that he also left sons by two 
women in the region now inhabited by the Romans. 
One of these sons was Pallas, whom he had by the 
daughter of Evander, whose name, they say, was 
Lavinia ; the other, Latiuus, whose mother was a 
certain Hyperborean girl whom he brought with 
him as a hostage given to him by her father and 
preserved for some time untouched ; but while he 
was on his voyage to Italy, he fell in love with her 
and got her with child. And when he was preparing 
to leave for Argos, he married her to Faunus, king of 
the Aborigines ; for which reason Latinus is gener- 
ally looked upon as the son of Faunus, not of Hercules. 
Pallas, they say, died before he arrived at puberty ; 
but Latinus, upon reaching man's estate, succeeded 
to the kingdom of the Aborigines, and when he was 
killed in the battle against the neighbouring Ru- 
tulians, without leaving any male issue, the kingdom 
devolved on Aeneas, the son of Anchises, his son-in- 
law. But these things happened at other times. 

XLIV. After Hercules had settled everything in 
Italy according to his desire and his naval force 
had arrived in safety from Spain, he sacrificed to 
the gods the tithes of his booty and built a small 
town named after himself ^ in the place where his 
fleet lay at anchor (it is now occupied by the Romans, 
and lying as it does between Neapolis and Pompeii, 
has at all times secure havens) ; and having gained 
fame and glory and received divine honours from 

^ Herculaneum. 

' Biicheier : K^i^iv-q Bb, space left blank in ABa. 

141 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

2 '/raAta tvxcjov OLTTTJpev els ZiKeXiav. ol 8e Kara- 
Xei^devres vtt^ avrov (f)povpol /cat OLKTjTope? ' IraXiag 
OL Trepl Tov Earopviov 6\dov ISpvfxevoL reoj? /acv 
€7ToXiT€VovTO Kad^ iavTovs, XP^^V ^' varepov ov 
jiaKpo) hiairdv re koI vojjlovs koL Oecav Upa cruvevey- 
KOLfjievoL ra (7(j)er€pa tols ^AI3opL'yLvajv wGirep Mp/caSe? 
/cat en rrporepov UeXaayol rroXea)? re rrjs avrrjs Tot? 
^A^opiylcri KOLVOivrjCjavTes (jvve^r^ rav opLoedvels vojjll' 
l,€adaL. 'HpaKXiovs fJL€v Srj orpareias nepi /cat Tle- 
XoTTOi'VTjaLiov VTTOfJLOvrjs €v " IroXia rocravra^ elp-^aOo). 

3 Aevrepa 8' varepov ycvea fxera rr^v '//pa/cAeou<? 
aTTapoLV, eret he TTejXTTTCp /cat TTevTr]KOGTw /xaAtcrra, 
COS" auTot 'Pco/JLOLOL XeyovGL, ^aaiXev? jxev A^opiyi- 
vojv rjv Aarlvog 6 0avvov, yovog Be '//pa/cAeou?, 
TrefiTTTOV 8e /cat rptaKOGTOV eros exojv rrjv apx^j^- 

XLV. Kara 8e rov xpovov rovrov Tpcoes ol avv 
Alveia hiacj^vyovres ef ^ IXiov rrjs TToXeios aXovarjg 
Kareo^ov els Aavpevrov,^ alyiaXov A^opLyivcjv inl 
TO) TvpprjVLKii) TTeXdyet Kelfxevov, ov Trpodoj rcbv 
e/c^oAcup rov Te^epios ' Xa^ovres 8e napd rojv 
A^opLyivojv x^P^'^^ ^^^ OLK7]cnv /cat ocra rj^covVf 
TToXLt,ovraL fJLiKpov dnooxovres diro OaXdrrrjs cttI 
X6(f)cp rivl Aaovtviov ovojxa rfj iroXei dejxevoi. 
2 oXiycp 8' vorepov ^^pdvoj rr^v dp;^atay aAAa^at'Tes' 
ovofiaoLav d/jua roZs A^opiylGLV diTo rod ^aoiXeajs 
TTJs x^P^^ AarlvoL wvoixdoOrjoav • /cat /xerava- 
ardvres c/c rov Aaov'iviov KOLvfj fierd rojv inL- 

^ Reiske : ToiaDra AB. 

2 Cary (c/. Aavpevrov, v. 54. AavpevTLVwv, v. 61) : Acopevrov 
O, Jacoby (and so in i. 63, 55, 63). 

142 



BOOK T. 44, 2-45. 2 

all the inhabitants of Italy, he set sail for Sicily. 
Those who were left behind by him as a garrison to 
dwell in Italy and were settled around the Saturnian 
hill lived for some time under an independent 
government : but not long afterw ards they adapted 
their manner of life, theii laws and their religious 
ceremonies to those of the Aborigines, even as the 
Arcadians and, still earlier, the Pelasgians had done, 
and thev shared in the same government with them, 
so that in time they came to be looked upon as of 
the same nation with them. But let this suffice 
concerning the expedition of Hercules and concern- 
ing the Peloponnesians who remained behind in 
Italy. 

In the second generation after the departure of 
Hercules, and about the fifty-fifth year, according to 
the Romans' own account, the king of the Aborigines 
was Latinus, who passed for the son of Faunus, but 
was actually the son of Hercules ; he was now in the 
thirty-fifth year of his reign. 

XLV. At that time the Trojans who had fled 
with Aeneas from Troy after its capture landed at 
Laurentum, which is on the coast of the Aborigines 
facing the Twrhenian sea, not far from the mouth of 
the Tiber. And having received from the Aborigines 
some land for their habitation and everything else 
they desired, they built a town on a hill not far from 
the sea and called it Lavinium. Soon after this they 
changed their ancient name and, together with the 
Aborigines, were called Latins, after the king of that 
country. And leaving Lavinium, they joined with 
the inhabitants of those parts in building a larger 

143 



DIONYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

\iopL(jjv iJL€it,ova TTepL^d^XovTai ttoXlv, riv "AX^av 
eVoAecray, e^ 7]? opjJLcofxevot 77oAAa? fiev /cat aAAa? 
TToXetg eKTLoav rojv KXrjdevrcjv TIpLGKCov Aarlvajv, 
i^ ajv at TrAetorat eVt /cat ets" e/xe T^crai^ OLKov/JLeuai, 

3 yevcat? S* varepov e/c/catSe/ca yLter' ^ ' IXiov dXajcrtv 
iKTrdfiifjauTe? aTTOLKiav etV to FlaXXavriov re /cat 
r)]v Zaropviav, evda TJeXoTrovvquLoi re /cat M/o/caSes' 

TT^V TTpCJTTjU oIkTjUIV €7TOLrjUaVTO Kol TjV €Ti ^ t,a)7TVp 

arra jrepiXeiTTopieva rod naXaiov yeuovs, oIklI^ovgl 
rov? roTTOvs TrepiXa^ovre? reixeoL to IJaXXavnoVy 
<l)or€ Xa^elv TrdAeco? (JXll^^ rore rrpcorov. riOevrai 
8e TO) KTLGfxarL 'Pcofirjv ovofia oltto rod arecXavrog 
rrjv aTTOLKLav 'PojfJLvXov, o? rjv e/3So/xo? /cat Se/caro? 

4 an Alvetov yeyovios. ^ovXofiai Se /cat Trepl rij? 
Alveiov TTapovGtag et? ^ IraXiav, eVet rcov ovyypa- 
<j>eojv Tols /xev r^yvoiqrai, rol? 8e hLaTTecjxJjvqraL 6 
TTepl avTov Xoyo?, pbij Trapepyojs hieXOelu ras re 
Tcjv 'EXXtjvcxjv kol ra.'S * Pajfiaccov tojv fidXiara 
TnGTevopih'ojv LGropias Trapa^aXojv? e;(et 8e ra 
Trepl avTOU Aeyd/xeva cbSe. 

XLVI. ^ IXiov KparrjdevTo? vtt' AxoLicJov, etre 
Tov hovpeiov Ittttov rfj aTrdrrj, ojs 'Ofnjpco TTeTToi-qrai, 
ctre rfi TrpoSoGta rcov AvnqvopSojv €lt€ clAAcds" ttojs, 

^ ytzera O : /Ltera ttjv Jacoby. 
'•^ €TL B : Irt eV avrajv R. 
' Reiske : napaAa^cov O. 

144 



BOOK I. 45, 2-46, 1 

city, surrounded by a wall, which they called Alba ; 
and setting out thence, they built many other cities, 
the cities of the so-called Prisci Latini, of which 
the greatest part were inhabited even to my day. 
Then, sixteen generations after the taking of Troy,^ 
sending out a colony to Pallantium and Saturnia, 
where the Peloponnesians and the Arcadians had 
made their first settlement and where there were still 
left some remains of the ancient race, they settled 
these places and surrounded Pallantium with a 
wall, so that it then first received the form of a city. 
This settlement they called Rome, after Romulus, 
who was the leader of the colony and the seven- 
teenth in descent from Aeneas. But also concerning 
the arrival of Aeneas in Italy, since some historians 
have been ignorant of it and others have related it 
in a different manner, I wish to give more than a 
cursory account, having compared the histories of 
those ^^Titers, both Greek and Roman, who are the 
best accredited. The stories concerning him are as 
follows : 

XLVI. When Troy had been taken by the 
Achaeans, either by the stratagem of the wooden 
horse, as Homer represents, or by the treachery of the 

^ See chap. 74, 2, and notes. We learn just below how 
the sixteen generations were reckoned : Romulus is de- 
clared to be seventeenth in descent from Aeneas. A 
comparison of the list of the Alban kings given in chaps. 70 f . 
shows that, strictly speaking, he was only sixteenth in 
descent, counting inclusively ; but inasmuch as Ascanius' 
half-brother Silvius belonged in point of time to the 
following generation, he was evidently counted as third in 
the line of descent. 

145 

VOL. I. G 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TO fJLev dXXo TrXrjOo? iv rfj ttoXel TpcoLKov re Kal 
crvfXfjLaxi-KOV ev rat? eui'ai? ert KaraXafji^avofxevov 
€(f)OV€V€TO [vuKTog yap Srj TO heu-ov dcj)vXdKTOL9 
aurots" €7TLGTrjvaL eoiKev), Alveiag Se /cat ol avv 
avro) TTapovres ^ IXievoLV eTTLKOvpoi Tpojes e/c Aap- 
Sdvov re TToXecvs /cat ^Ocfypvviov tcjv re aAAcuP' oaot, 
TTJs Kdroj TToXeojs dXiGKO/xevr]? e^daoav atadrjacv 
Tov Seivov Xa^elvy iiTL rd Kaprepd rod Uepyd/jLov 
crvpL(f)Vy6vT€9 rrjv dKpoTToXtv ihicp Tet;^et cfipovpov- 
fjievrjv KaraXapL^dvovrai , iv fj Kal lepd rd narpcoa 
rot? TpojOLV Tjv Kal ;^p7^/xara>v d ttoXvs TrXouro?, 
oia ecKos iv ixvpco^ Kal rod orparLOJTLKOv ro Kpd- 
TLcrrov • €v6a VTropLevovres drreKpovovro rovs Treipcj- 
fievovs iTTL^alvetv ri]? aKpas Kal ro hiariiTTrov vtto 
rrjs aActjcreajs" ttXtjOos ifiTreLpLO. GrevajTTOJV virodeov- 
r€S dveXd/JL^avov'^ Kal iyevero rod KaraXrj(f>6€vro9 
TrActov TO 8ta<^uydv. rrjv jjLev Stj avriKa opjJLrjv rwv 
TToXefJLUjJv rjv elxov, dXiqv SiaxpTJcrcicrOoLi' rrjv ttoXlv, 
Kal ro fJLTj TTav i^ i^ohov KaraXrjcpdrjuaL ro darv 
Tovro ro firjxdvrjfjLa i^evpd>v Alvela^ iireaxe, 
XoyiapLOV he rov eiKora Trepl rod fieXXovros Aa/x- 
^dva>Pj cus" dpLTixcLVOv e'lrj Trpdyp-a o-cDaat ttoXlv 

1 Pflugk : direXdfiPavov AB. 

^ The tradition that Antenor proved a traitor to his 
country is late, appearing first in Lycophron's Alexandra 
(verse 340), where the scholiast explains the crj-ptic words 
as meaning that Antenor raised a signal fire to the Greeks 
waiting at Tcnedos and also released the Greek warriors 
from the wooden horse. Dictys relates (v. 8) that Antenor, 

146 



BOOK I. 46, 1-2 

Antenoridae,^ or by some other means, the greatest 
part of the Trojans and of their allies then in the 
city were surprised and slain in their beds ; for it 
seems that this calamity came upon them in the 
night, when they were not upon their guard. But 
Aeneas and his Trojan forces which he had brought 
from the cities of Dardanus and Oplirynium to the 
assistance of the people of Ilium, and as many others 
as had early notice of the calamity, while the Greeks 
were taking the lower town, fled together to the 
stronghold of Pergamus,^ and occupied the citadel, 
which w as fortified with its own wall ; here were 
deposited the holy things of the Trojans inherited 
from their fathers and their great wealth in valu- 
ables, as was to be expected in a stronghold, and 
here also the flower of their army was stationed. 
Here they awaited and repulsed the enemy who were 
endeavouring to gain a foothold on the acropohs, 
and by making secret sallies they were able, through 
their familiarity with the narrow streets, to rescue 
the multitude which was seeking to escape at the 
taking of the city ; and thus a larger number 
escaped than were taken prisoner. By hitting upon 
this plan Aeneas checked the immediate purpose of 
the enemy, which was to put all the citizens to the 
sword, and prevented them from taking the whole 
city by storm. But with respect to the future he 
reasoned very properly that it would be impossible to 

with the aid of his wife Theano, handed over the Palladium 
to Odysseus and Diomed ; and Dares (41) represents 
Antenor and Aeneas as opening the Scaean gate to the 
enemy. 

2 Pergamus was the citadel of Troy {Iliad iv. 508 ; vi. 
512). 

147 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

7^9 ra TrXeico TJSrj eKparelro, et? vovv /SaAAerat rov 
fJL€V reixovs iptjlJLOV Trapaxcoprjcroii' TOtb" TroXefxlois, 
3 ra Se crcofiara avra kol to. Upa ra rrarpcoa /cat 
Xprjp.ara oiTocra (l)6peiv SuvaiTo hiaaajGaGOai. So^av 
8e avTO), TTalSa? fiev Kal yvvalKag Kal ra yqpaia 
icxjpLara kol ottogols d'AAoi? ^paSeta? eSet (f)vyT]s 
npoe^eXdelv KeXevet rrj? TToXecos Kara ras inl rrjv 
" ISrjv (f>epov(jas oSovg, eojs ^Axonol rr^v aKpav eXelv 
TTpodviiovfievoL Slco^€Cl>s tov hiaTTiTTTovros e/c rr]s 
TToXecos ttXtjOovs ovhev TTpoe/jLrjxavaJvro, rov 8e 
arpaTLCOTLKov to fJL€V inl (f)vXaKfj rcov i^iovrcov 
era^ev, (Lg aocjyaXij? re Kal araXaiTTCopos cV rcjv 



u 



evovrojv -q "■ cpvyrj aurot? yevoiro, etpi^ro oe rouTot? 
ra Kaprepwrara KaraXa^eaOai tt]? "ISrjs' to §€ 
XoLTTOv, o St) KpdrLGTOv rjv, avTos '^x^^ vrrepLevev 
inl rod reixovs kol napetx^ ^ot? npoe^eXdovGtv 
Tjrrov ininovovs hvqpr-qpLevojv ret;(o/ia;(ta rcjv 
noXefiLCxJv ra? (f)vyds. NeonroXepiOV Se guv rots' 
dfJL(f>* ajjrov im^dvros fiipovg rivos rrjs a/cpa? 
Kal TTpoG^orjd-qGdvrojv avrolg M;!^ata>v dndvrojv 
T"^? fiev aKpas fJLeOUrai, dvoi^as 8e ra? 77i;Aa? ^ 
dnr]€i avvreraypiivovs ^xojv rov9 XoLnov? (jivydSag, 
dyofievog inl rat? KparLGrais GVvojpLGi rov re narepa 
Kal Oeovg roug narpojovs yvvalKd re Kal rcKva Kal 
Tcov dXXojv et re nXecGrov d^iov tjv Gajfxa t] xPVI^^- 
XLVII. *Ev Se rovrcp Kara Kpdros €lXrj<f)eGav 
^Axo-iol rrjv noXiv Kal nepl rag dpnayds iGnovSa- 

^ 7} added by Sintenis. 

2 TCLS TTuAa? . . . <f>vyd8as Kiessling : ras (f)vyd8as rrvXas O ; 
ras (fiTj-yddas n. Meineke, ras <f>vyaB(.Kds n. Madvig. 

148 



BOOK T. 46, 2-47, 1 

save a city the greater part of which was already in 
the possession ot the enemy, and he therefore decided 
to abandon the wall, bare of defenders, to the enemy 
and to save the inhabitants themselves as well as 
the holy objects inherited from their fathers and all 
the valuables he could carry away. Having thus 
resolved, he first sent out from the city the women 
and children together with the aged and all others 
whose condition required much time to make their 
escape, with orders to take the roads leading to 
Mount Ida, while the Achaeans, intent on capturing 
the citadel, were giving no thought to the pursuit 
of the multitude who were escaping from the city. 
Of the army, he assigned one part to escort the in- 
habitants who were departing, in order that their 
flight might be as safe and free from hardships as 
the circumstances would permit ; and they were 
ordered to take possession of the strongest parts of 
Moimt Ida. With the rest of the troops, who were 
the most valiant, he remained upon the wall of 
the citadel and, by keeping the enemy occupied in 
assaulting it, he rendered less difficult the flight of 
those who had gone on ahead. But when Neo- 
ptolemus and his men gained a foothold on part of 
the acropolis and all the Achaeans rallied to their 
support, Aeneas abandoned the place ; and opening 
the gates, he marched away with the rest of the 
fugitives in good order, carrying with him in the best 
chariots his father and the gods of his country, 
together with his wife and children and whatever 
else, either person or thing, was most precious. 

XLVII. In the meantime the Achaeans had taken 
the city by storm, and being intent on plunder, 

149 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

KOTcg TToXXriv dSeiav ooj^eoOai rolg (t)evyovGL Traprj- 
Kav. ol he dficpL rov Alveiav en Kad^ oSov evpovreg 
rov£ (KJyerepovs /cat KaO^ ev diravres yevofievoi rd 

2 oxvpcorara KaraXafJi^dvovraL rrjg " ISr]?. -^XOov S' 
d>? avTOvg ol T ev Aaphdvco rore oiKOvvre?, co? 
elSov cf)X6ya ttoXXtjv rrapd rd elojOora <f)epoiievr]v 
€^ ^ IXlov, vvKTCop KaraXiTrovres ttjv ttoXlv ep-qixov, 
\copls rj oaoL avv ^EXvfjLO) /cat Alyearcp vavriKOV 
TL orvveGKevacrpievoL ervxov Trpoe^eXrjXvOores rrjs 
TToXecos, /cat e^ ^0(f)pvvLov TroXeojs 6 Stj/jlos diras 
Kol eK Tcov aAAoji^ TpojiKOJV TToXeojv rrjg eXevdepias 
ol^ TTepiexopLevof Svvafii? re avnq hC eXaxtcrrov 

3 ;)^poi'oi' fjieyiGTr] ra)v TpcoiKOJv eyevero. ol fiev ovv 
aijv Alveia hiaocxjOevTes eK rrjs KaraXijipea)? ev rov- 
roLS VTTOjjLevovreg tols ;\;a)ptots' ov did /xa/cpou rrdXiv 
€7rt rd G<f)erepa KareXevGeadai tJXtti^ov rcov TToXe- 
fjLLOJV dTTOTrXevoavrajv y M;\;aiot he dyhpaTTohtadpievoL 
TY]v TToXiv /cat rd ovveyyvs x^P^'a /cat (f)povpia hrjoj- 
oavres napeGKevd^ovTO fiev a»? /cat rov? ev rots 

4 opeat x^^P<^(^o[jLevoL . Tre^ifjdvrojv he KTjpvKas avrcov 
rrepL hiaXvcecov /cat heofievajv fir) cr(/>a? els dvdyK-qv 
KaraarijcraL TToXe/nov, cruveXdovres eU e/c/cAryatav 
iiTL roLcrhe rroiovvrai npos avrovs rds hiaXvaeig' 
Alveiav fiev /cat rovg avv avrco rd XPVI^^'^^ (fjepov- 
ras ooa hieowaavro /caret rrjv (f>vyr)v ev ojpLorfxevoLS 
real xpovois e/c rr\s Tpojdhos dneXOelv, Trapahovras 
Mp^atot? TO (jipovpia- Ax^iovs he Trapaax^lv avrols 
rrjv do4>dXeiav ef dirdcnqs odrjs eKpdrovv yrjg /cat 

6 OaXdrrrjs aTTLOvm /caret ra? ofJioXoyLas. he^d- 
* ol added by Sintenis. 

150 



BOOK T. 47, 1-5 

gave those Avho fled abundant opportunity of making 
their escape. Aeneas and his band overtook their 
people while still on the road, and being united now 
in one body, they seized the strongest parts of Mount 
Ida. Here they were joined not only by the in- 
habitants of Dardanus, who, upon seeing a great 
and unusual fire rising from Ilium, had in the night 
left their city undefended, — all except the men with 
Elymus and Aegestus, who had got ready some ships 
and had departed even earlier, — but also by the 
whole populace of Ophrynium and by those of the 
other Trojan cities who clung to their liberty ; 
and in a very short time this force of the Trojans 
became a very large one. Accordingly, the fugitives 
who had escaped with Aeneas from the taking of the 
city and were tarrying on IMount Ida were in hopes of 
returning home soon, when the enemy should have 
sailed away ; but the Achaeans, having reduced to 
slavery the people who were left in the city and in 
the places near by and having demolished the forts, 
were preparing to subdue those also who were in 
the mountains. When, however, the Trojans sent 
heralds to treat for peace and begged them not to 
reduce them to the necessity of making war, the 
Achaeans held an assembly and made peace with 
them upon the following terms : Aeneas and his 
people were to depart from the Troad with all the 
valuables they had saved in their flight within a 
certain fixed time, after first delivering up the forts 
to the Achaeans ; and the Achaeans were to allow 
them a safe-conduct by land and sea throughout 
all their dominions when they departed in pursu- 
ance of these terms. Aeneas, having accepted these 

151 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

fievo? 8e ravra Alvetas kol vofilua? Ik tcjv ivovrcov 
KpariOTa elvai Agkolvlov fiev rov Trpeo^vTarov tojv 
TTai^cjjv e-)(ovTa rod crvfiiiaxiKov nva jxolpav, rjg 
0pvyLov Tjv TO TrXelGTov, et? ttjv AaaKvXlrLV koXov- 
/jL€vrjv yrjv, evOa iarlv rj AoKavia XlfMvrj, pierd- 
TrefjLTTTOu V7t6 TcJov iyxojptcDV yevopievov inl /SacrtAeta 
Tov edvovs OiTTOTrepLTTeL • KOL cpKYjcreu lAcTKOLULOS av- 
t69l -x^povov nva ov ttoXvv. eXOovrcjv Se oi? avrov 
UKapLavSplov re kol tcou dXXcov ' EKTopchajv d(j>eL- 
pLei'ow ^ €K rrjs 'EXXdhos vtto NeoiTToXepLov, Kard- 
yoju avrov? eTrl rrjv Trarpqjav apx^ji' ft? Tpoiav 
6 dcjiLKvelraL. /cat Trepl pLcv ^AdKaviov rouavra Ae- 
yerai • rov? he dXXov? iralBa? Alveta? napaXa^ajv 
/cat rov narepa /cat rd eSrj rcjv Oecov, eTreiSr) 
TrapeoKevdadrj ro vavruKov avrcp, 8ta7rAet rov *EX- 
XrjcTTTOvrov eTrl rrj? eyyicrra KeipLevqs x^ppovrjuov rov 
ttXovv TTOLOvpLevog, rj Trpo/cetrat piev rrj? Evpa)7T7j?, 
KaXelrau Be TlaXXrivq. edvog S' ^^X^^ avrrjv^ 

^ a^et/iieVcuv Sylburg : d(f)iyfj.€va>v ABb, a.(f>i.yfj.ivov Ba. 
^ avTTiv Sintenis : avTT] A, ev avrfj B. 



^ This was the region about DascyHum on the Propontis, 
near the Mj'^sian Olympus. The Ascanian lake actually 
lay some 50 miles to the east, being just west of Nicaea. 

2 Scamandrius was Hector's name for Astyanax {It. vi. 
402). According to the usual tradition, he was slain upon 
the capture of Troy. But the early logographers repre- 
sented him as surviving and being carried off to Greece by 
Neoptolemus. And they usually spoke also of other sons 

152 



BOOK I. 47, 5-6 

conditions, which he looked upon as the best possible 
in the circumstances, sent away Ascanius, his eldest 
son, with some of the allies, chiefly Phrygians, to the 
country of Dascyhtis,^ as it is called, in which lies 
the Ascanian lake, since he had been invited by the 
inhabitants to reign over them. But Ascanius did 
not tarry there for any great length of time ; for when 
Scamandrius and the other descendants of Hector ^ 
who had been permitted by Neoptolemus to return 
home from Greece, came to him, he went to Troy, in 
order to restore them to their ancestral kingdom. 
Regarding Ascanius, then, this is all that is told. 
As for Aeneas, after bis fleet was ready, he embarked 
with the rest of his sons and his father, taking with 
him the images of the gods, and crossing the Helles- 
pont, sailed to the nearest peninsula, which lies in 
front of Europe and is called Pallene.^ This country 

of Hector (c/. Euripides, Androm. 224). There were 
various accounts of their return to the neighbourhood of 
Troy, or eventually to Troy itself, of which we have but a 
few brief fragments preserved. Two of these are found in 
Strabo (xiii. 1, 52 f. ; xiv. 5, 29). 

^ This is certainly a strange way of describing Pallene, 
the westernmost of the three Chalcidic peninsulas, but the 
description evidently goes back to Hellanicus (see chap. 
48, 1) or even earlier ; before the Peloponnesian war this 
region was often regarded as part of Thrace. Furthermore, 
Aeneia, the town the Trojans were said to have built during 
their stay there (chap. 49, 4), was not in Pallene at all, but 
lay only a few miles south of Thessalonica, in the north- 
west corner of Chalcidice. It would seem as if Pallene 
were used loosely here for the whole eastern shore of the 
Thermaic gulf. This is not the part of Thrace that Virgil 
had in mind as the first stopping-place of the Trojans 
{Aen. iii. 13-68) ; for the tomb of Polydorus was shown at 
Aenus, at the mouth of the Hebrus. 

153 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

©paKLov avfjLfjLaxov Kpovoalov KaXovficvov aTravroiV 

TrpoOvjjLoraroi' rcov cwvapafievcDV avrols rod TToXefxov. 

XLVIII. '0 fj.€v ovv 7n(jr6Taro<; tojv Xoycov, cp 

K€Xpr]raL tojv naXaichv ovyypacfyeojv ' EXXdviKO? iv 

ToZs TpOJLKOL?, 7T€pl TTJ? Alv€LOV (f)VyT]S TOLOgSc 

eoTLV. e'lprji'TaL Se Kal dXXoLS tlgl Trepl tojv avrcjv 
ov Kara ravrd exovre? Adyot, ov? tJttov eycoye 
Tovrov TTidavovs eirat i'ojjll^o). Kpivercj Se wg 
€KaGTOs Twv OLKOvoi'Tcop ^ovXerai. Eo(j)OKXris pL^v 
6 rpaycpSoTTOios ev AaoKocovrL hpdpiari pieXXovcrr]^ 
aXiGKeodai rrjs TToXecog TreTToirjKe rov Alveiav 
dvaaKevat,6pevov et? rrjv "ISrjv, KeXevodivra vtto 
rod TTarpos AyxiGov Kara rrjv purqpLrjv a)V AcfypoSlrr) 
€7T€GKrjipe Kal OLTTO rujv veoiorl yevopL€va>u irepl rovs 
AaoKOOjvrthas or]pL€LCov rov pieXXovra oXedpov rrjg 
TToXeojs cruvr€KfJLrjpapL€vov. €^€1 8' iv avrco ra 
lapL^ela iv dyyiXov ^ rrpoowTTcp Xeyopteva cSSe • 

vvv 8* iv TTvXaiGLV Alvias 6 rrjg Oeov 
rrdpeor cV ojpLwv irarep^ e^cuv KepavvLov 
vcorov Karaordl,ovra ^vgglvov (f)dp09, 
kvkXo) ^ 8e nddav olK^rwv Tra/jLTrX-qQlav * 

^ ev dyyeXov (or i^ayyeXov) Kiessling : iv tlyyeXco B, iv dWoj R. 
^ kvkXoj IB : kvkXcI R. 

iMiiller, F.H.G. i. pp. 61 f., frg. 127. For Hellanicus 
see p. 71, n. 2. 

^ It is not certain whether KaTaard^ovra is to be taken 
here literally ("dripping") or figuratively ("letting drop"); 
the construction of the sentence is without exact parallel, 
but there are analogies for interpreting it to mean simply 
" letting his robe stream, or fall, down his back." Plutarch 
{De Virtute et Vitio, 2) took the participle in a literal sense 

154 



BOOK T. 47, 6-48, 2 

was occupied by a Thracian people called Cnisaenns, 
who were allies of the Trojan.*- and had assisted them 
during the war with greater zeal than any of the 
others. 

XLVIII. This, then, is the most credible account 
concerning the flight of Aeneas and is the one w hich 
Ilellanicus. among the ancient historians, adopts in 
his Troica.^ There are different accounts given of 
the same events by some others, which I look upon 
as less probable than this. But let every reader 
judge as he thinks proper. Sophocles, the tragic 
poet, in his drama Laocoon represents Aeneas, 
just before the taking of the city, as removing his 
household to Mount Ida in obedience to the orders 
of his father Anchises. who recalled the injunctions 
of Aphrodite and from the omens that had lately 
happened in the case of Laocoon's family conjectured 
the approaching destruction of the city. His 
iambics, which are spoken by a messenger, are as 
follows : 

" Now at the gates arrives the goddess' son, 
Aeneas, his sire upon his shoulders borne 
Aloft, while down that back by thunderbolt 
Of Zeus once smit the linen mantle streams ; ^ 
Surrounding them the crowd of household slaves. 

(" bedewing the robe down his back ") and adds the 
explanation that the body of Anchises gave off a foul exu- 
dation. Whether he had any evidence before him, other 
than this passage of Sophocles, we can only conjecture. 
We are told that Anchises was struck, or grazed, by 
Hghtning because he foolishly boasted of his intimacy with 
Aphrodite. There were various stories concerning the 
permanent disability suffered by him in consequence, but 
the early tradition represented him as lamed. 

155 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ovfji7TXdl,€TaL Se ttXtjOos ovx ogov SokcIs, 
oP rrjaS^ epajat rrj^ dTTOLKia? 0pvy(x)u. 

3 M€V€Kpdrr]<; 8e d Edvdiog Trpohovvai Totg ji)(aLOLg 
avrou d7TO(f)aLi'€L ttju ttoXli^ r-qg npog ^AXe^auSpou 
e^dpas eveKi, kol 8ta rrjv evepyeaiav ravrrju 
A)(aLOV'; avrw Gvy\ajprioaL BLaaojaaadaL tou oIkov. 
ovyKeirai Se avrco 6 Aoyo? dp^apbevco a??' ^ 'Ax^-X- 
Aecu? Ta(f)r}S roi" rpoTTov rovhe • " 'Axaiovg 8' dulr] 
et^e /cat iSoKeou tt)? arpaTirj'i r-qv K€(f)aX'qu dn- 
'qpdxBai. ofjLOJS Se rcz^o^ avTO) SaiGavTe? e-noXepieov 
^irj^ ndarj, dxpi-S " IXtog idXco AlveUoj ivhovrog. 
Alveirjs yap artros" iojv vtto AXe^dvhpov kol diro 
yepeojv ^ i^etpyofxevog dueTpeipe UpiaiJiov • ipyaad- 

4 p.evos §€ ravra els Axolioji^ iyeyovei.^^ dXXoL hi rtues 

€7TL TOV UaVGTadfJLOV TOV TpOJLKOV rvx^Li' aVTOV T-qvL- 

Kavra StaTpi^oi'Ta Xeyovoiu, ol S' et? 0pvyiav dn- 
€(7raXjjL€iov VTTO ripidpLov fierd SvvdfiecVi eVt nva 
Xpelav arpaTLOJTLKTju etal S' ot fiudcvSearepau avrov 

TTOiOVGL Tqv e^oSoU ixeTCO 8' OTTTj Ti? aVTOP TTeidei. 

XLIX. Td 8e /xera rrjv e^ohov ert TrXelco rrapexei 
TOi<; ttgXXols TTju dnopiau. ol jjLev ydp eojg ©paK-qs 
dyayovres avrov €Kel Xeyovai TeXevTrjaai tov ^iov, 
cLu ioTL Ke(f)dXajv re d FepyLQios Kal ' HyqaLTTiros 

^ 6oK€ls, Ol Reiske : So/cei aot O. 

* OLTTo O : dno t^s Reiske, Jacoby. 

* /St'r/ Schaller, rij Reiske : yv ^^• 

* Upajv deleted after yepewv by Kiessling. 

i Nauck, T.G.F:\ p. 212, irg. 344. 

" Menecrates (fourth century ?), a Lycian, wrote the 
history oi his owu country. 

156 



BOOK T. 48, 2-49, 1 

There follows a multitude beyond belief 
\^ ho long to join this Phrygian colony." ^ 

But Menecrates of Xanthus ^ says that Aeneas be- 
trayed the city to the Achaeans out of hatred for 
Alexander and that because of this service he was 
permitted by them to save his household. His 
account, which begins with the funeral of Achilles, 
runs on this wise : " The Achaeans were oppressed 
with grief and felt that the army had had its head 
lopped off. However, they celebrated his funeral 
feast and made war with all their might till Ilium 
was taken by the aid of Aeneas, who delivered it up 
to them. For Aeneas, being scorned by Alexander 
and excluded from his prerogatives, overthrew 
Priam ; and having accomplished this, he became 
one of the Achaeans." Others say that he chanced 
to be tarrying at that time at the station where the 
Trojan ships lay; and others that he had been sent 
with a force into Phrygia by Priam upon some mili- 
tary expedition. Some give a more fabulous account 
of his departure. But let the case stand according 
to each man's convictions. 

XLIX. What happened after his departure creates 
still greater difficulty for most historians. For some, 
after they have brought him as far as Thrace, say 
he died there ; of this number are Cephalon of 
Gergis ^ and Hegesippus,^ who wrote concerning 

' A fictitious author under whose name Hegesianax of 
Alexandria in the Tread published some of his own works, 
especially his Troica (Athenaeus ix. 393d). Dionysius 
cites him again in chap. 72, 1. 

* Hegesippus of Mecyberna in Chalcidice probably lived 
in the fourth or third century. 

157 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

o^ nepl naXXi^vrjs ypdipa^, dvSpes dp)(a7oi Kal 
Xoyov d^iOL. erepot Se eV GpaKr]^ dvaorriGavres 
avTOV €0)9 yipKaSia? TrapaKOfill^ovoLP , oLKijaaL 8k 
XeyovGLv iv ^Opxcfieva) re rw Mp/caSt/ca), /cat 
N-qacp Se ^ Xeyofievrj, Kalnep ^ ovarj fieaoxdovL, 
CLTTO ^ reXjidrajv Kal norafiov • rds re KaXovfievag 
KaTTvas AlveLOV re /cat Tpdoojv diroKTiGLv elvai, 
KaiTvas ^ ovo/jLaaOeiaa? cittc tov TpcoLKov Kdnvo's. 
Xeyer at 8e ravra dXXoLS re /cat l4.pLat6qj tco ^ 

2 ypdipavTL rd /lp/ca8i/ca. etcrt he /cat ol hevpo fieu 
d(f)LK€Gdai TOV Alveiav fjivQoXoyovGiv, ov fxevroi ttJv 
ye reXevTTjv avrco tov ^lov (jvfXTreaelv iv toIgSc 
rols ywpLOi?, oAA* iv '/raAta, co? dXXoL re ttoXXol 
hrjXovcn /cat AydOuXXos Mp/ca? o 7TOL7]Tr]s iv iXeyeico 
Xiyojv d)he ' 

t/cero 8' Mp/caSt97i', Nrjoco 8' iyKdTOeTO nalSag 

holds, Kcohcovr]^ Ae'/crpa /cat AvOefjioi^ris. 
avTOS 8' ^EdTTepL-qv eavTO xdova, yetVaro 8' uta 

3 Tt)? 8' et? '/raAiav Alveiov /cat Tpwajv a</»tfea>s' 
'PcofialoL re navTes ^e^atcorat /cat rd hpcopLeva vn 

1 d added by Kiessling. 

2 Kai v^acu 5c A : >cai vt^cto; B ; jcat omitted by Sauppe, 
" KaiTTCp Steph. : Kal O. 

* Biicheler, Meineke : vtto O. 
^ Ka4>vas Sylbiirg. 

* to) added by Kiessling. 

158 



BOOK 1. 49. 1-3 

Pallene, both of them ancient and reputable men. 
Others make him leave Thrace and take him to 
Arcadia, and say that he lived in the Arcadian 
Orchomenus. in a place which, though situated in- 
land, yet by reason of marshes and a river, is called 
Nesos or " Island " ; * and they add that the town 
called Capyae ^ was built by Aeneas and the Trojans 
and took its name from Capys the Trojan. This is 
the account given by various other writers and by 
Ariaethus. the author of Arcadica.^ And there are 
some who have the story that he came, indeed, to 
Arcadia and yet that his death did not occur there, 
but in Italy ; this is stated by many others and 
especially by Agathyllus of Arcadia, the poet, who 
writes thus in an elegy : 

" Then to Arcadia came and in Nesos left his two 
daughters. 
Fruit of his love for Anthemone fair and for 
lovely Codone ; 
Thence made haste to Hesperia's land and begat 
there male offspring, 
Romulus named." 

The arrival of Aeneas and the Trojans in Italy is 
attested by all the Romans and evidences of it are 
to be seen in the ceremonies observed by them both 

* The city of Orchomenus, built on a hill between two 
plains, one of which was often a lake, and with a deep 
gorge on a third side, may perhaps answer this description. 
Or Nesos may have been in the northern plain (to-day a 
Jake) near Caphyae. 

* More correctly Caphyae (Pausan. viii. 23. 2). 

3 A history of Arcadia. We know nothing more about 
Ariaethus (Araethus ?) and Agathyllus than is told here. 

159 



DIONYSTUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avTOJV €v T€ dvcTtaL? Kal eopral? /jLrjvvfjiara, Ui^vXXrjg 
re Xoyia Kal xp-qaixol UvOlkol Kal aAAa 77oAAa, 

cLv OVK av TL? CO? €V7Tp€7r€LaS €V€Ka (JVyK€Lfl€VajU 

vnepihoL. TToXXa Se Kal Trap" "EXkqGi yvajpLOfxara 
Kal (f)aP€pa ecg roSe xpovov rrepiXe l7T€t at, evda 
(LppLiGavro Kal Trap" ols hiarpi^riv drrXoLas €V€K€V 
iiTOLrjuavTO • wv iyco pivqpL-qv cb? av oto? re <L 
4- TToXXojv ovTOjv ^paxvrdrrjv TTOi-quofxaL. TrpaJrov 
fiev els QpaKTjv dcfuKopievoi Kara Tr]v x^ppovrjcjov, 
Tj KaXelrac flaXX-qPT], ojpjJLiaavro. elxov Se avrrjv 
(jjGTTep e<f)rjv ^dpf^apot KpovGalot KaXovfieuot Kai 
napecrxov avrols rag Karayujyds da(t)aXels. /xetVav- 
res §€ Tr]v )(^eijjLepLvriv oipav avrodi vecjv ^AcfypoBirrj? 
ISpvcrauro inl rchv aKpcxjr-qpiojv evog Kal ttoXlv 



^ In the " digression," as Dionysius calls it (chap. 53, 4), 
which begins at this point, he gives a confident, straight- 
forward account of the wanderings of Aeneas from Troy to 
Laviniuna, without once naming a source or hinting at 
any variations in the legend. Kiessling {De Dioiiysi Hal. 
Antiquitatum auctorihus Latinis, p. 40) argued that he was 
here following Varro as his authority, as he does silently in 
various other places, and many scholars have accepted 
his conclusions ; but unfortunately, for our knowledge of 
Varro's account, we have to depend on a few scattered 
quotations, found chiefly in Servius' commentary on the 
Aeneid. The route of Aeneas as traced by Virgil agrees 
so closely for the most part with that given by Dionysius 
as to suggest that both authors were drawing largely on 
the same source. The differences in their accounts can 
easily be explained when we bear in mind that one was a 
historian who prided himself on his chronological studios 
(chap. 74, 2) and the other a poet who gave free rein to 
his imagination. Thus, Dionysius was bound to reject the 
visit of Aeneas to Carthage if, as seems probable, he 

160 



BOOK I. 49, 3-4 

in their sacrifices and festivals, as well as in the 
Sibyl's utterances, in the Pythian oracles, and in 
many other things, which none ought to disdain 
as invented for the sake of embellishment. Among 
the Greeks, also, many distinct monuments remain 
to this day on the coasts where they landed and 
among the people with whom they tarried when 
detained by unfavourable weather. In mentioning 
these, though they are numerous, I shall be as brief 
as possible.^ They first went to Thrace and landed 
on the peninsula called Pallene. It was inhabited, as 
I have said,'- by barbarians called Crusaeans, who 
oflfered them a safe refuge. There they stayed the 
winter season and built a temple to Aphrodite on one 
of the promontories, and also a city called Aeneia, 

accepted Timaeus" date for the founding of that city 
(813; see chap. 74, 1). Chronological considerations may 
also account in part for Dionysius' silence concerning 
Cumae and Crete, though the Cumaean episode is evidently 
a late addition to the legend, perhaps due to Virgil himself ; 
we shall see (chap. 55, 4) that Dionysius connected another 
Sibyl, living in the neighbourhood of Mt. Ida, with the 
destiny of the Trojan exiles, and this is doubtless the 
original form of the legend. One very important difference 
between the stories of Dionysius and Virgil is seen in the 
length of time assigned to the voyage from Troy to 
Lavinium ; the historian allows just two years, the poet 
seven. For brief discussions of the growth of the Aeneas 
legend see Glover, Vergil, chap. iv. ; Nettleship, Virgil, 
pp. 47-50 ; Prescott, Development of Virgil's Art, pp. 153- 
168. A detailed comparison of the accounts of Dionysius 
and Virgil may be found in Worner, Die Sage von den 
Wanderungen des Aeneas bei Dionysios und Vergiliwi, and 
also in his article on Aineias in Roscher's Lexikon der 
griech. und rom. Mythologie, i. pp. 165-78. 
2 Chap. 47, end. 

161 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Atveiav eKTiaav, iv fj tovs re vtto Ka^drojv a^vvd- 
rovs TrXeiv koL ootols avrov fxeveiv /SouAofteVot? rjv, 
(1)9 €v OLKeia yfj to Xolttov iaoyiivov? , VTreXiTTOvro. 
avrrj hUfieivev €cos rrjs MaKeSovcov Swaareias rrjs 
Kara tovs BiaSoxovg tovs MAefavSpou yevojiev-qs ' 
€7Tt Se rijg Kaadvhpov ^aotXelas Kadrjpedrj, ore 
©ecraaXovLKr) ttoXls iKTL^€TO, Kal ol Alvedrai avv 
aXXoLS TToXXols €LS TTju veoKTLdTOV fxeTcpK'qoav . 

L. ^Ek he rrjs TlaXXrjvrjS dpavTes ol Tp6J€S els 
ArjXov d(f)LKVovvTaL f^aoiXevovTOs avrrjs "Aviov • Kal 
Tjv TToXXd (jr]jjL€La iv A-qXcp ttjs Alveiov re /cat 
Tpcoojv TTapovalas, eojs^ rjvdei re Kal (Lk€lto^ tj 
vrJGOs. €7T€LTa €i£ KvOrjpa vfjaov irepav, "^ npo- 
Keirai IJeXoTTOwrjOov , 7Tapayev6p.evoi lepov A(j)po- 

2 Strrys" IhpvovTaL. diro he KvOrjpojv TTOLOVjJievoi tov 
ttXovv ov rrpoaco ttjs IJeXoTTovviqcjov TeXevTTjGavTa 
ru>v eTaipajv rivd tCjv Alvelov KivaiOov irrl tcov 
aKpajT-qpiajv tlvos ddiTTovGiv, o vvv aTT eKeivov 
KivalOLOv KaXeLTaL • Kal ttjv irpos ApKdhag crvy- 
yevetav dvavecjoad/jievoL, nepl rjs iv vuTepco Xoycp 
Bi7]yT]G0iJLaL, )(p6uov re oXiyov irepl ravTa to. ;^co/3ta 
hiaTpiipavTes Kal VTToXnrofievoL Tcvag a(f)ajv avTcov 

3 els ZaKVvOov d(j)LKvovvTai . Se^ajjievcov 8' avTovs 
Kal tG)v ZaKwOlajv irpos (jaXiav hid to orvyyeveg 
{Aaphdpo) yap tw Alos Kal "HXeKTpas ttjs ArXav- 
tlSos hvo yeveaOai (jyaalv Ik BaTeias TiatSas", 
ZdKvvOov re Kal ^EpL^dovLov, d)v 6 fiev Alvelov 



1 eojs added by Sylburg. 

2 Madvig : djKiadri AB ; (LktiOtj Reiske, wkloO' Jacoby. 



162 



BOOK I. 49, 4-50, 3 

where they left all those who from fatigue were 
unable to conlinue the voyage and all who chose to 
remain there as in a country they were henceforth 
to look upon as their own. This city existed down 
to that period of the Macedonian rule which came 
into being under the successors of Alexander, but 
it was destroyed in the reign of Cassander, when 
Thessalonica was being founded ; and the in- 
habitants of Aeneia with many others removed to 
the newly-built city.^ 

L. Setting sail from Pallene, the Trojans came to 
Delos, of which Anius was king. Here there were 
many evidences of the presence of Aeneas and the 
Trojans as long as the island was inhabited and 
flourished. Then, coming to Cythera, another island, 
lying ofl" the Peloponnesus, they built a temple there 
to Aphrodite. And while they were on their voy- 
age from Cythera and not far from the Pelopon- 
nesus, one of Aeneas' companions, named Cinaethus, 
died and they buried him upon one of the promon- 
tories, which is now called Cinaethion after him. 
And having renewed their kinship with the Arcadians, 
concerning which 1 shall speak in a later chapter, ^ 
and having stayed a short time in those parts, they 
left some of their number there and came to 
Zacynthus. The Zacynthians. also, received them 
in a friendly manner on account of their kinship ; 
for Dardanus, the son of Zeus and Electra, the 
daughter of Atlas, had. as they say. by Bateia two 
sons, Zacynthus and Erichthonius of whom the 

1 But Aeneia is mentioned by Livy (xliv. 10, 7) as still 
in existence at a later time. 
«Chap. 61. 

163 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TTpoyovos rjv, ZaKVvdog Se rrjg wqcrou KTiGT-qs), 
TavTTjg re 8rj rrj? ovyyeveca? avafJuvrjcreL kol ^tAo- 
(f)po<Jvvrj Twv iTTixcxjpiojv biarpl^oi'Tes avTodi Kal 
djia arrXoia KareipyofievoL Ovovaiu ^Acj^pohirrj npog 
Tcp KaraGKevaadevTL lepo) dvGiav, -^v et? toSc 
)(p6i'ov GVvreXovGi kolvtj ZaKvvOiOL, Kal dycova 

7TOLOVGLV i(j)rj^OlS TOJU T€ dXXcxJV dyajVLGfJLOLTaJU Kal 

Spo/jLov • TO Se uLKTjTT^pLOV 6 7TpdjT0£ iX6d)v elg rov 
V€(l)v XafJL^dv€L • Xeyerai 8e Alvelov Kal \A(j)pohLTris 
6 Spo/JLO?, Kal ^oava tovtcov euTTjKev djji^oTepcov. 
4 eKelOev Se TreXdyLOv TTOLrjadiJLevoL tov ttXovv els 
/leu/caSa Kardyovrai, KaT€x6vTCDV en to \ojpiov 
AKapvdvcov. Kdv ravrrj TrdXiu lepov Acjipohir-qs 
iSpvovraL tovto, o vvv iornv iv rfj vrjcrlSi rfj /xerafu 
TOV AiopvKTov re Kal Trjg TToXecos , /caAetrat Se 
A.(f)poSLT7]£ AlveidSo'i. dpavTes Se avToOev em 
re Aktlov iXd6vT€s op/x/^ovrat tov Afx^paKiKov 
koXttov TTpos TO dKpojTTjpLoi' . KdKeldev et? A/JL- 
^paKiav d(f)iKi'OVUTaL ttoXlu, t^s" e'/SacrtAeuev "/l/Lt/Spa^ 
6 Ae^afxevov tov ^HpaKXeovs, Kal UTioAe tVo vrat 
eKaTepajdi ixvqjxela tt]^ d(/)t|ea>? • eV AktIco fxev 
A(f)poSLT7]£ Alu€LdSo£ Upov Kal TrXrjcrlov avTOV Oecvv 



' Dioryctus (literally, a place " dug through ") usually 
means the canal which made Leucas an island. But as 
Oberhummer has pointed out {Akarnanien, . . . Leukas im 
AUertum, p. 10, n. 1) the only place for the little island 
here named would seem to have been in the canal ; hence 
Dioryctus was evidently the name also of a place on the 
canal, probably on the Acarnanian side, at the end of the 
bridge mentioned by Strabo (x. 2, S). 

164 



BOOK T. 50. 3-4 

latter was the ancestor of Aeneas, and Zacynthns 
was the first settler of the island. In memory, 
therefore, of this kinship and by reason of the 
kindness of the inhabitants they stayed there some 
time, being also detained by unfavourable weather ; 
and they oflfered to Aphrodite at the temple they 
had built to her a sacrifice which the entire popula- 
tion of Zacyuthus performs to this day, and insti- 
tuted games for young men, consisting among other 
events of a foot-race in which the one who comes 
first to the temple gains the prize. This is called the 
course of Aeneas and Aphrodite, and w ooden statues 
of both are erected there. From there, after a 
voyage through the open sea, they landed at Leucas, 
which was still in the possession of the Acarnanians. 
Here again they built a temple to Aphrodite, which 
stands to-day on the little island between Dioryctus ^ 
and the city ; it is called the temple of Aphrodite 
Aeneias.- And departing thence, they sailed to 
Actium and anchored off the promontory of the 
Ambracian Gulf ; and from there they came to the 
city of Ambracia, which w as then ruled by Ambrax, 
the son of Dexamenus, the son of Herakles. Monu- 
ments of their coming are left in both places : at 
Actium, the temple of Aphrodite Aeneias. and near 
to it that of the Great Gods, both of which existed 

^ This cult-title of Aphroditehas been variously explained. 
See Farnell, Cults oj the Greek States, ii. 638 ff., and Rossbach 
iiiPauly-VVissowa,i?ea/-J5JAic.,s.u. Aineias, pp. 1018 £. Malten, 
the latest to discuss the problem {Archiv fiir Religionswissen- 
schaft, xxix. (1931), pp. 33-59), regards this goddess as the 
mother of the race of the Aeneadae, and identifies her with 
the Mater Idaea, a variant form of the Great Mother ; she 
is not to be confused with the Phoenician Astarte. 

165 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

fJLcydXajv , a /cat et? i/xe rjv ■ iv he ^Afx^paKLO. tcpov 
re rrj? avTrjs deov Kal tjocoop Alveiou ttXtjolov rod 
fiLKpov dedrpov, iv ch Kal ^oavov fxiKpov dp-xaiKOV 
Alveiov Xeyofjuevov , Kal avro ^ucrtats" iyepatpov at 
KaXovfxevai nap* avrols d/x</)t77oAot. 

LI. ^Ek he ApL^paKtas Ay^i^crqs fiev ra? vavs 
ixcov TTapa yrjv KOfMiCofievog etV Bovdpojrov Xifieva 
rrjs ^Hireipov KardyeraL, Alvecag he Kal ol aKjxaLO- 
raroL ovv avTcb rod (jrparov hiavvGavre^ -qpiepojv 
hvelv ohov els Acjhojvqv dcjuKvovvrai XpiqoopLevoi 
TO) deep Kal KaraXapi^dvovoLv avrodi TptDa? rovs 
avv 'EXevcp. dveXopievoi he XPV^H-^^'^ rrepl ttjs 
airoiKLas Kal rov deov dvadrjpaaL hajpr^udpievoL 
TpcjLKols dXXois re Kal KpaTrjpai xoAkols, wv 
TLve? en TrepieLGLV e7nypa<j)als navv apxcLLat? hrj- 
Xovpres Tovs dvadevras, IttI to vavriKOv d(f)LK- 
vovvrai rerrdpajv /xaAtcrra rjpLepojv hteXdovres ohov. 
hr]XoL ^ he Kal ttjv els Bov6 pojrov tcov Tpcjcov 
Trapovoiav X6(f)os tls, (L Tore ^ urparoTTehcp ixPV~ 
2 oauTO, Tpoia KaXovpLevos. €k he Bovdpojrov Trapd 
yrju KopaoOevres d-xpi- Xip-evos ^Ayxlcrov /xev rore 
ovopLaudevros, vvv S' daacfjearepav exovros ovopia- 
aiav, lepov Kal avrodi rrjs Aejjpohirrjs ihpvcrdpLevoL 
hiaipovGL rov * lovtov rjyepLOvas exovres rrjs vavri- 
XiaSy^ ol GvveTrXevGav avrols edeXovGLOi avvem- 
OTTOpLevoiy^ rovs (Jvv IJdrpajVL ro) Sovplcp ^ * /cat 

^ 8-rjXol . . . KaXov[icvo? B : om. R. * Kiessling : ttotc B. 
* 'AKapvdvas added after vavTiXias by Kiessling. 
*Reiske: avvcmaTToj^ivoi. O, Kiessling. 
^ Ovpicu Meineke. 

166 



BOOK T. 50. 4-51, 2 

even to my time ; and in Ambracia, a temple of 
the same goddess and a hero-shrine of Aeneas near 
the little theatre. In this shrine there was a small 
archaic statue of wood, said to be of Aeneas, that 
was honoured with sacrifices by the priestesses they 
called amphipoloi or " handmaidens." 

LI. From Ambracia Anchi?es, sailing with the 
fleet along the coast, came to Buthrotum, a seaport 
of Epirus. But Aeneas with the most vigorous men 
of his army made a march of two days and came to 
Dodona, in order to consult the oracle ; and there 
they found the Trojans who had come thither with 
Helenus. Then, after receiving responses concerning 
their colony and after dedicating to the god various 
Trojan offerings, including bronze mixing bowls, — 
some of which are still in existence and by their 
inscriptions, which are very ancient, show by whom 
they were given, — they rejoined the fleet after a 
march of about four days. The presence of the 
Trojans at Buthrotum is proved by a hill called 
Troy, where they encamped at that time. From 
Buthrotum they sailed along the coast and came 
to a place which was then called the Harbour of 
Anchises but now has a less significant name ; ^ 
there also they built a temple to Aphrodite, and 
then crossed the Ionian Gulf, having for guides on 
the voyage Patron the Th^Tian ^ and his men, who 

1 Onchesmus, opposite the northern point of Corcyra. 

2 Govpios generally means a man from Thurii in Italy. 
But Androtion is cited by Stephanus of Byzantium as 
using it for Ovpievs, a man of Thyrium (or Thyreum) 
in Acarnania. Virgil (Aen. v. 298) names Patron, an 
Acarnanian, as one of the contestants in the funeral 
games in honour of Anchises. 

167 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

aiVcoi^ ol fxev TrXeiovs, eVctS')] ctojo? o arparo^ et? 
VraAt'av d(f)LK€TO, eV olkov avdc? aveKoixiod-qcrav , 
ndrpojv 8e Tretcrdel? vtt' Alveiov kolvcxjv^Zv rrj^ 
CLTTOLKLa? Kal (7VV auTo) Ttves" Twv <j)i\(jjv VTrefieivav 
ev Tco aroXcp ^ • ov£ evLoi (pacnv iv MAoj-'tioj 
KaTOLK-qaaL ttj? ZtKeXia^. ravrrjg VTTopLvrjGei ttjs 
€V€py€(7Lag 'AKapvduL ' PcofialoL AevKaBa Kal Ava- 
KTopiov d(f)€X6fji€voL KopLvdlov? dvd ;^p6i^ov exoipL- 
aavTo Olvidhas re dTroKaraur 7)0 ai ^ovXofievoLS 
iTrdrpei/jau Kal rd? "Ex'^vdhas mjcrovg KapTTOvcrdai 
3 KOLvfi pL€T AltcoXojv eSojKav . ol 8e ctuv Alveia 
TTOLTjudp-evoi rrjv drro^aoLv ov Kad^ €v x^P^ov tt)? 
'/raAta?, aAAd rat? fiev TrXeiOTaLS vaval npos 
a/cpav ^ laTTvyias opfJLLodfiei'OL, tj Tore EaXevrlvos 
iXiyeTO, rat? Se Aoirrat? Kara to KaXovfxevov Adrj- 
vaiov, evda Kal auro? Alveia^ ervyxaueu iin^ds 
^IraXlas [rovro Se to x^P^ov eotIv dKpcxJT-qpLOV Kal 
in' avTO) depivo? dpfiog, o? 6^ eKeivov Xifxriv A(f>po- 
hiTTjs KaXetTat), TTapeTrXevoav dxpi- TropOfjiov eK Se^idg 

^ €v TCO OToXo) Steph., ev Ta> nXu) Madvig, ev rfj Z't/ceAta 
Kiessling : ev rtD atAa> AB. 

^ Kiessling, rejecting this interpretation, supplied the 
word " Acarnanians " and retained the MS. reading 
awemaTTcti/Ltevot, the meaning then being : " having for 
guides . . . some Acarnanians who accompanied them of 
their own accord, bringing along with them Patron the 
Thynan and his men." 

^ In 19G B.C. these two cities were apparently recognized 
by Rome as belonging to the Acarnanian League. The 
statement that the Romans had taken them from the 
Corinthians is utterly erroneous ; the cities had been 
founded by the Corinthians, but had long been in the 
hands 01 the Acarnanians. 

168 



BOOK I. 51, 2-3 

accompanied tliom of their own accord.^ The greater 
part of these, after the army had arrived safely in 
Italy, returned home ; but Patron with some of 
his friends, being prevailed on by Aeneas to join the 
colony, stayed with the expedition. These, accord- 
ing to some, settled at Aluntiura in Sicily. In 
memory of this service the Romans in the course 
of time bestowed Leucas and Anactorium, which 
they had taken from the Corinthians, upon the 
Acarnanians ; - and when the latter desired to 
restore the Oeniadae to their old home,^ they gave 
them leave to do so. and also to enjoy the produce 
of the Echinades jointly with the Aetolians.^ As 
for Aeneas and his companions, they did not all go 
ashore at the same place in Italy, but most of the 
ships came to anchor at the Promontory of lapygia, 
which was then called the Salentine Promontorv. and 
the others at a place named after Minerva,^ where 
Aeneas himself chanced to set foot first in Italy. 
This place is a promontorv that offers a harbour in 
the summer, which from that time has been called 
the Harbour of Venus. ^ After this they sailed along 

' Or, " restore Oeniadae to its old status." Oeniadae 
was the name of both town and people. Our only other 
sources for this incident CLivy xxxviii. 11, 9 ; Polybius 
xxi. 32, 14) merely state that in the peace terms between 
Rome and the Aetolians in 189 it was provided that the 
city and territory of Oeniadae should belong to the 
Acarnanians. 

* We have no further information concerning this 
arrangement with regard to the Echinades. Oberhummer 
{op. cit., p. 186, n. 4) suggests that tliese islands must have 
been divided up between the Aetolians and Acarnanians. 

^Castrum Minervae. The temple on this promontory 
was a well-known landmark. ^ Tortus Veneris. 

169 



DIONYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

X^^pos ^ exovres ^ IraXiav, txyt] riva kolv rovroig vtto- 
X€L7t6/jl€vol rot? roTTOLS TTJ? dcf)L^€OJS (xAAa re /cat 
(f)idXrjv x^^f^W ^^ "Hpas lepo) i7nypa(f)fi SrjXovcrav 
dpxo.ia ^ rov Scjoprjcra/jLevov rfj deep Alveiov rovvofia. 
LII. PevopLevoL Se Kara EtKeXiav, etre yvcvpirj 
XprjodpLevoL rrjSe oppLLcraadai etre /cat vtt^ dvepLOJv 
7Tovr]pa>v ^LacjdivreSy a hr^ <I)lX€1 Trepl ttjv ddXarrav 
rtjvSe yiveoOai, KardyovraL rrjs i'tJgov Trepl rd 
KaXovpieva Apenava ' evda rrepLTvyxdvoucrL rot? cruv 
^EXvpLcp /cat AlyeoTOj Trpoe^eXdovoiv eK rrj? Tpoias, 
OL rvxy)9 T€ /cat TrvevpLarog ovpiov Xa^opLevoi /cat 
dpLa OX) TToXXfj dTTOGKevfj ^apvvopLcvoL hC oXlyov 
KarrjxOrjoav el? SiKeXiav /cat coKiqaav Trepl TTorapLOV 
KaXovpLEVov KpipLLcrdv iv yfj UiKavajv, Trpo^ (fnXiav 
Xa^ovres Trap" avrojv rd ;\;coptov Std tt^v Alyiarov 
ovyyevetav yevopiivov re /cat rpa(f>€VTO£ iv Z't/ceAta 

2 Kard rotovSe n Trddog. rcjv Trpoyovcov avrov ris 
dvTjp eTn^avrjs €/c rod TpcoiKov yevovs d)v AaopLe- 
80VTL hLd<j)opos yiveraiy /cat avrov 6 ^acnXevs cV 
alrla §7y rti^t Xa^cov /cretVei /cat yevos avrov ro 
dppev aTTav, vtto Seovs pufj ri vpog avrdjv Trddrj * 
ra? 8e Ovyarepa? rrapdevovs en ovoas dTTOKrelvai 
fiev ovK evTTpeTTes evopnGe, Tpojal 8e ovvoLKovcra^ 
TTepuSelv OVK dcr(/)aAes", StSojcrt 8' avrd? epLTropoLS 

3 cu? 7Tpoaa)rdra> KeXevaag dndyetv. ravrais dTnov- 
oais cwveKTrXeZ pLeipdKiov n rcov eTTL<^ava)v Kparov- 
fievov epojri rijs erepas Kal yapiel rrjv TraLSlcrKrjv 

^ €K Sextos x^'-P°^ Hertlein : Std x^i^pos O, Jacoby. 
^ €7nypa<f)fj 8. apxaia Kiessling, ypa^g 6. apxai^q- Steph. : 
ypa4>-qv h. dpxatav AB. 

170 



BOOK I. 51. 3-52, 3 

the coast until they reached the strait, having Italy 
on the right hand, and left in these places also some 
traces of their arrival, among others a bronze patera 
in the temple of Juno, on which there is an ancient 
inscription showing the name of Aeneas as the one 
who dedicated it to the goddess. 

LII. When they were off Sicily, whether they had 
any design of landing there or were forced from their 
course by tempests, which are common around this 
sea, they landed in that part of the island which is 
called Drepana. Here they found the Trojans who 
with Elymus and Aegestus had left Troy before 
them and who, being favoured by both fortune and 
the wind, and at the same time being not over- 
burdened with baggage, had made a quick passage 
to Sicily and were settled near the river Crimisus 
in the country of the Sicanians. For the latter had 
bestowed the land upon them out of friendship 
because of their kinship to Aegestus, who had been 
born and reared in Sicily owing to the following 
circumstance. One of his ancestors, a distinguished 
man of Trojan birth, became at odds with Laomedon 
and the king seized him on some charge or other and 
put him to death, together with all his male children, 
lest he should suffer some mischief at their hands. 
But thinking it unseemly to put the man's daughters 
to death, as they were still maidens, and at the same 
time unsafe to permit them to live among the 
Trojans, he delivered them to some merchants, with 
orders to carry them as far away as possible. They 
were accompanied on the voyage by a youth of 
distinguished family, who was in love with one of 
them ; and he married the girl when she arrived in 

171 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

dxO^icroLv etV ZiKcXiav, koL yiverai avrolg iraZs eV 
EiKeXoZs hiarpi^ovGiv Alyearos ovofia • os tjOtj koL 
yXtoGoav ru)v eTTLXcopLcov eKfjiadcov, iTrethrj rous" 
yov€LS avro) TeXevrrjcrai cruvi^T), ^aaiXevovros iv 
TpoLO. llpLdfjLov KaOohov avTO) SoOrjvai hiairpaT- 
rerat, koL cruvSieveyKa? rov rrpos tovs /l;^atous' 
TToXepiOV aXi(7KOfJL4vr]9 rrj? TroAeco? axreTrAet ttoXiv ctV 
UiKeXlav Gvv ^EXvjJLCp TTOLrjGOifJLevo? TTjv (f)vyrjv iv 
rpLGL vavGLV, a? '/l;^tAAeu? e^oJi^ ore rd'^ TpcodSa? 
iXrjLC,€TO TToAetS' epixauiv v(f)dXoLg TrepnreGovGag 
dne^aXev, ivTU)(d)i> 817 rot? elpr]fievoL9 Alvela? 
dvSpdcn <j)LXo<fipoveZTaL re avTOvg Kal KaraaKevd- 
ferai aurot? 77oAet? AtyeGrav Kal "EXvfia ^ /cat 
TLva Kal pLolpav rrjS iavrov Grparids ev roig 
TToAtcr/xacTiv VTToXcLTTeraL, d)S fiev iy oj etVa^co, yvojpirj 
eKOVGLCp XPV^dfJLevog , Iva tols vtto Kafjidrcov ^apvvo- 
fjLevotg rj Kal dXXcjg daXdrrrj axdofxivois dvaTravG^is 
yivoiVTO dG(j>aXel<; Kal Karaycoyai, co? he nves 
ypdcjiOVGL^ rov vavriKOV fxcLCuOevro? avro) Sia rrjv 
efinp-qGLV, t^v iTTOLiJGavro rcov yvvaLKWv TLveg d^Qd- 
fievai rfi nXduj), top ovk€tl Swa/xevov GVfJLTrXelv 
oxXou iK Tojv KaraKeKavyievcxjv veojv dvdyKr) Kara- 
Xlttojv. 

^ eXvfxa R, iXvfiav Bb : "EpvKa Sylburg, Portus. 

^ The incident here mentioned does not seem to be 
recorded by any other extant writer. The sacking of the 
Trojan cities was described in the lost Cypria. 

* Called Segesta by the Romans. 

2 Some of the early editors proposed to read Eryx for 
Elyma here and for Elymus in the next chapter, but later 
editors have retained the readings of the MSS. Neither 

172 



BOOK I. .^2 3-4 

Sicily. And during their stay among the Sicels they 
had a son, named Aegestiis, who learned the manners 
and language of the inhabitants ; but after the 
death of his parents, Priam being then king of Troy, 
he obtained leave to return home. And having as- 
sisted Priam in the war against the Achaeans, he 
then, when the city was about to be taken, sailed 
back again to Sicily, being accompanied in his flight 
by Elymus with the three ships which Achilles had 
had with him when he plundered the Trojan cities 
and had lost when they struck on some hidden rocks. ^ 
Aeneas, meeting with the men just named, showed 
them great kindness and built cities for them, 
Aegesta - and Elyma,^ and even left some part of 
his army in these towns. It is my own surmise that 
he did this by deliberate choice, to the end that 
those who were worn out by hardships or otherwise 
irked by the sea might enjoy rest and a safe retreat. 
But some writers say that the loss of part of his fleet, 
which was set on fire by some of the women, who 
were dissatisfied with their wandering, obliged him 
to leave behind the people who belonged to the burned 
ships and for that reason could sail no longer with 
their companions. 

Elyma nor Elymus is found anjnvhere else as the name of 
a city or mountain in Sicily, though Silius Italicus {Pun. 
xiv. 46 &.) seems to state that both Acestes and Halymus 
(his names for the two Trojans) built cities named after 
themselves. There can be little doubt that Eryx, with 
the neighbouring mountain famous for its altar or temple 
of Aphrodite, was the place really meant ; and it seems 
strange that Dionysius should have failed to make the 
identification, especially as he often gives both the earlier 
and later names of a place. 

173 



DIONl^SIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Llll. TeK/jirjpLa Se rrjg el? ZiKeXov? Alvetov t€ 
Kal Tpojojv d^t'^ecu? ttoAAo. fxev kol a'AAa, Trepi^ave- 
arara 8e rrjs AlveLaSos A(f>pohiTr]s 6 ^ojfJLog iirl rfj 
Kopv(j)fj rov ^EXvpLOV ^ ISpvfievos Kal lepov Alveiov 
IhpvpLevov ev Alyecrrr), tov jiev avrov KaraoKevd- 
aavros Alveiov rfj firjrpLy to he lepov rwu vTToXei- 
<f)d€VTO}v diTO rod oroXov rfj ftrvy/xT^ tov acooavTO? 
G(f)dg dvaO-qiia TTOi-qcrapiei'OJU . to fiev 817 gvv 
^EXvfio) Kal AlyeoTcp TpojiKov ev tovtols Karepieive 
TOLS )(^ojpLOLg, Kal hieTeXeoav "EXvjjlol KaXovpievoi' 

TTpoelx^ ^ y^P K^'T'd T7]V d^LOJULV "EXvjJLOS dlTO TOV 

PaoiXiKOV yevovs cov, d(f)^ ov ty)v kXtjolv ol avfJL- 

2 TTavTes eXa^ov. ol Be ovv tw Alveia rrXeovTes oltto 
UiKeXtas bid TOV Tvpp-qviKOV rreXdyovs npcuTOv p.ev 
wpjiioavTO T-^S" VraAta? Kara Ai/xeVa tov FlaXiv- 
ovpov, OS d(f)' evos Toyv Alveiov KV^epvrjTCJV 
TeXevTTjaavTOs avTodt TavT-qs TV^elv Xeyerai ttJ? 
ovofxaoiag. eVetra vqaco TTpooeoxov, fj Toijvofia 
edevTO AevKOjoiav ^ d-no yvvaiKOS dveifjids Alveiov 

3 TTepl Tovhe tov tottov dTTodavovorjg. eKeWev he 
KardpavTes els Xifieva j^aOvv Kal koXov ev ^OrtiKoZs, 
reXeVT-qoavTOS Kal avTodt Micrqvov tcov eVi^avcav 
TLVos, dn^ eKeivov tov Xijjieva wvof-iaaav, v7]gw t€ 

UpOXVTTl Kal dKpOJTTjpicp KaLtJTTj TVXJ) ^ TTpOOOpflL' 

odfievoL Kara ravTa TidevTai Tas eTTiKX-qoeLS rot? 
roTTOiS, yvvaiKuw d-nodavovawv ^ovXoyievoi ixv-qi^ela 
TTOLTjuai ra ;(a>pta. tovtcjjv he rj fiev crvyyevqg 
Alveiov XeyeTai yeveoOai, rj he Tpo<f)6s. reXevrcov- 



1 iXvyiov O : 'EpvKos Sylburg, Portus. 
* Trpoeix^ Sylburg : TrpoaOev R, -npoade B. 



174 



BOOK T. 53, 1-3 

LITI. There are many proofs of the coming of 
Aeneas and the Trojans to Sicily, but the most 
notable are the altar of Aphrodite Aeneias erected 
on the summit of Elymus and a temple erected 
to Aeneas in Aegesta ; the former was built by 
Aeneas himself in his mother's honour, but the 
temple was an offering made by those of the ex- 
pedition who remained behind to the memory of 
their deliverer. The Trojans with Elymus and 
Aegestus, then, remained in these parts and continued 
to be called Elymians ; for Elymus was the first 
in dignity, as being of the royal family, and from 
him they all took their name. But Aeneas and his 
companions, leaving Sicily, crossed the T}Trhenian 
sea and first came to anchor in Italy in the harbour 
of Palinurus, which is said to have got this name 
from one of the pilots of Aeneas who died there. 
After that they put in at an island which they called 
Leucosia, from a woman cousin of Aeneas who died 
at that place. From there they came into a deep 
and excellent harbour of the Opicans, and when here 
also one of their number died, a prominent man 
named Misenus, they called the harbour after him. 
Then, putting in by chance at the island of Prochyta 
and at the promontory of Caieta. they named these 
places in the same manner, desiring that they should 
serve as memorials of women who died there, one 
of whom is said to have been a cousin of Aeneas 
and the other his nurse. At last they arrived at 

^ Salmasius : XcvKaoiav O. 

* KaiT^TTj Tvxrj Casaubon, Sleph.^: Kal eVt tvxt} B, koi 

(TTlTVX^l A. 

175 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

re? 8e a^tAci^owrat rrj? ' IraXtag et? Aavpevrov, 
evOa rrjs 'n\dvq<; -navuajJievoL )(dpaKa edevro, kol 
TO xajplov iv (1) KarearparonehevGavro i^ iKeivov 
Tpoia KaX^lrai, drrexeL Se ri]^ OaXdrrrjg dfKpl 
Tov? T€TTapa? araSiovs. 

4 "Eypaipa 8e ravra /cat rr)v napeK^aaiv iTTOirjad- 
fjLTjv Tov dvayKaiov )(dpLV, eVetSi^ tojv ^ (jvyypa(j>€cov 
OL ii€v ouS* iXdelv Alveiav cfyaalv els ^ IraXiav a/xa 
TpojGLU, OL 8' 'ireoov Alveiav, ov tov e^ A(f)poSLTr]g 
Kal AyxLOov yevofievov, ol 8' AoKdviov tov 
Alvelov, ol 8' dXXovs TLvdg. elal 8' ol tov l^ 
A(l)pohiTris Alveiav Xiyovai Ka-aaTijoravTa tov 
X6)(ov'^ et's" '/raAiav dvaKOfiLaOrjvaL ndXiv oLKaSe 
/cat ^aaiXevaaL rry? Tpoia?, TeXevTOJVTa 8e /cara- 
Xl7T6Lv AoKavio) tco 7rat8t ttjv ^aaiXeiav, /cat to 
aTT* eKeivov ydvos irrl irXeloTov KaTacrx^lv ttjv 
dpxrjv ■ CO? fxev iyoj 6t/ca^a> rot? '0/jLtjpov erreGiv ovk 

5 opOcbg XapL^avofxevoLs TrapaKpovodevTes . 7T€7ToirjTaL 
yap avTO) iv ^ IXidhi IJooeihajv TrpoXeyujv ttjv 
fjLeXXovaav eaeoOai irepl tov Alveiav /cat tovs i^ 
€Keivov yevrjGOjJLevov? e7n(f)dveiav cS8e ttcos" ' 

vvv 8e 817 Alveiao ^ir] TpcveGGLV dvd^ei 

Kal TToihes 7Taiha>v, tol Kev pieTOTTLGde yevcovTat. 

VTToXa^ovTes ovv tov "Ofxiqpov iv Opvyia SvvaGTev' 
ovTas elhevat tovs dvhpas, d>s Srj ov SvvaTov ov ^ iv 
'/raAt'a oLKOVVTas ^aaiXeveiv Tpajojv, ttjv dvaKopLi- 
Srjv TOV Alveiov dvenXaGav. dp\eLv Se 817 tojv 
Tpcoatv ovs eTnjyeTO Kal dXXodt 7ToXiTevojj,eva>v ovk 

^ Totv added by Pilugk. 

176 



Book i. 53, 3-5 

Laurentiim in Italy, where, coming to the end of 
their wandering, they made an entrenched camp, 
and the place where they encamped has from that 
time been called Troy. It is distant from the sea 
about four stades. 

It was necessary for me to relate these things and 
to make this digression, since some historians affirm 
that Aeneas did not even come into Italy with the 
Trojans, and some that it was another Aeneas, not 
the son of Anchises and Aphrodite, while yet others 
say that it was Ascanius, Aeneas' son, and others 
name still other persons. And there are those who 
claim that Aeneas, the son of Aphrodite, after he had 
settled his company in Italy, returned home, reigned 
over Troy, an d dying, left his kingdom to Ascanius, 
his son, whose posterity possessed it for a long time. 
According to my conjecture these writers are de- 
ceived by mistaking the sense of Homer's verses. 
For in the Iliad he represents Poseidon as foretelling 
the future splendour of Aeneas and *iis posterity 
on this wise : 

" On great Aeneas shall devolve the reign, 

And sons succeeding sons the lasting line sustain."^ 
Thus, as they supposed that Homer knew these 
men reigned in Phrygia, they invented the return of 
Aeneas, as if it were not possible for them to reign 
over Trojans while living in Italy. But it was not 
impossible for Aeneas to reign over the Trojans he 
had taken with him, even though they were settled 
^ Iliad XX. 307 f. (Pope's translation). 

2 Xoxov O : ox^ov Pflugk, oToXov Naber. 
^ov added by Steph.^ 

177 

VOL. I. H 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

aSvvarop rjv €)(^ol 5' dv rts" ttJs" aTrdr-qs /cat eVepa? 
air La? Xa^eZv. 

LIV. El hi TLvas raparret ro TToXXaxfj Xiyeadai 
re /cat SeiKWordaL rd<jiovs Alveiov, d^rj\dvov ovros 
eV TrXeloGL rov avrov reddcjidat )(ajpLOL£, ivOvjjLr^Oevreg 
ori KOLVov €(jrLV eVt ttoXXcov rovro ye ro dTTopov 
/cat ixaXicrTa raJv e7n<j)aveZ? fiev^ rds rv^aSy TrXdvnqrag 
Se rov? ^iovs e(j)(r}K6ra)i', }iadera>Gav on ^^cjpiov fxev 
ev ro he^dfievov rd crcofiara avrcov -qv, fivrj/jLela Se 
Trapd TToAAots" KareoKevaaro St' evvoiav rojv ev co^e- 
Xeiais rial 8t* avrov? yevofxevojv, /xaAicrra et rov 
yevov? avrcov n TTepirjv r) TToXeo)? rtpo? aTroKriats rj 
y^povioi nves Kal ^iXdvdpojTTOL fioval- ola 8r) /cat 

2 77ept rovSe rov rfpoja fxvdoXoyov/xeva ta/jLev. ^ IXlco 
fjLev yap ro firj TraaorvSl hiacjiBaprjvai Kard rrjv 
dXojGiv 77apacr;^ojv, rfj 8e KaXovfievrj Be^pVKca ro 
eiTLKovpLKOv StacTcu^^^'at TTapaaKevdaa? , ev 0pvyia 
he rov vlov AoKdvcov ^acrtAea KaraXincov , ev IJaX- 
X-qvT] he ttoXlv eTTwvvpiov Krioas, ev /4p/caSia he 
Ovyarepas Kr^hevcras, ev Z'l/ceAia he p.epos rrjg 
Grparids VTroXnroiievos , TzoAAot? ^ he dXXois xcDpioLS 
^iXavd pojirov? rds hiarpt^ds hojpy]GaodaL hoKcov, 
eKOVOLOV el^e Trap* avrojv rrjv evvoiav, St' 'qv rov 
fjLer^ dvBpojTTOjv ^iov e/cAtTrcov rjpcLoLS eKoorfjueLro /cat 

3 {jLvrjp^drojv KaraoKevaZs noXXaxfj- CTret <t>epe rivas 
dv alrlas e^OL ris" VTToi 



* €7n<f)av'€'is /iev Sylbiirg : ^ev i7Ti<f>ai'€'is O, Jacoby. 
^ noXXols Kiessling : eV ttoAAoZs O, Jacoby. 



178 



BOOK I. 53, 5-54, 3 

in another country. However, other reasons also 
might be given for this error. 

LIV. But if it creates a diihculty for any that tombs 
of Aeneas are both said to exist, and are actually 
shown, in many places, whereas it is impossible for 
the same person to be buried in more than one 
place, let them consider that this difficulty arises 
in the case of many other men, too, particularly 
men who have had remarkable fortunes and led 
wandering lives ; and let them know that, though 
only one place received their bodies, yet their monu- 
ments were erected among many peoples through the 
gratitude of those who had received some benefits 
from them, particularly if any of their race still 
survived or if any city had been built by them or if 
their residence among any people had been long and 
distinguished by great humanity — just such things, 
in fact, as we know are related of this hero. For he 
preserved Ilium from utter destruction at the time 
of its capture and sent away the Trojan allies safe 
to Bebrycia,^ he left his son Ascanius as king in 
Phrygia, built a city named after himself in Pallene, 
married off his daughters in Arcadia, left part of 
his army in Sicily, and during his residence in many 
other places had the reputation of conducting him- 
self with great humanity ; thus he gained the volun- 
tary affection of those people and accordingly after 
he left this mortal life he was honoured with hero- 
shrines and monuments erected to him in many 
places. What reasons, pray, could anyone assign for 

^ Bebrycia was an early name for the district about 
Lampsacus on the Hellespont. The incident here men- 
tioned is otherwise unknown. 

179 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

IMvrjfidrojv, €l fi'^re rjp^e tovtojv tcov x^piwv fJ,T]r€ 
/caraycjya? iv avTols cVotTJo-aro ixijd^ oXcxJS iyvcoGdrj 
Trpog avrojv ^ ; dAA' vrrep fxev rovrcov /cat avdc^ 
XexOijcreraL , KaOori av 6 Aoyo? e<^' eKdcrrov Katpov 
BrjXojdrjvaL dTraLrfj. 

LV. Tov Sc fjLTjKeTL TTpoGojripaj TTJg EvpcxiTT-qs 
TrXevaaL tov TpcoLKov gtoXov ol re )(^prjGiJLol alrLoi 
iyevovTO reXos Xa^ovres iv tovtols rolg \ojpLOis 

Koi TO BaLfJLOVLOV 7ToXXaXCl>S TTjU iaVTOV PovXr]GLV 

ivSeLKVv/jievov • eVetSo) yap opfio) )(pr]GdfjLei'OL ro) 
AavpevTO) GKiqvds iTTiq^avTO irepl rov alyiaXov, 

TTpaJTOV fJLeV 7TL€^OfJL€VOL? TOt? dvdpCJTTOLg VTTO Scj/jT^? 

ovK €XovTO£ vSojp TOV TOTTOV [Xeyoj Se d TTapd rcjjv 
iyXOjplcjou TTapiXapov) Xt^dSes avropiaroL vdpiaros 
rjSLGTOv eK yij? dveXdovGac a)(f)dr]Gau, i^ wv -q re 
Grparid naGa vSpevGaro koi 6 r ottos TreptppUTOs 
iyev€TO ^ y^^XP'" ^OL^drrr)? Kara^dvros drro rcZv 

2 TTTiycou TOV pev/JLaTO?. vvv fievTot ovk€tl ttXitjOovglv 
cjGTe Kol dTToppelv at Ai^aSe?, aAA* eGTLV oXlyou 
vhojp iv KolXcp ;^ajpioj gvv€gt7]k6s . XeyofjLevov vtto 
Tcov eyxojpi-cov Upov r)Xlov ' /cat ^co/jlol Svo Trap* 
avTO) SeLKvvvTat, 6 fxev Trpos dvaToXds Terpa/i./xeVo?, 
6 Se TTpog SvG€L£, TpojiKa tSpu/xaxa, e(/>' wv tov 
Alveiav fjLvOoXoyovGL TTpojTTjv dvGiav TTOL-qGaoOaL 

3 Tip Oecp ;^apto'Ti7ptoi' tojv vhdTCJV. eVeira dpcGTOV 
avTOis aipovpLevois iTrl tov SaTreSou GeXiva p,ev 

77oAAot? VTT€GTpOJTO /Cat ^V TaVTa a)G7T€p Tpa77€^a 

tcjv eSeGpidTOjv d)? Se </)aCTt rti^es", tVpta KapTTOV 
TT€TTOLr]fJLeva TTVpLvou, KadapLOTiqTOS Tals Tpo(j}als 
180 



BOOK T. 51. 3-55, 3 

his monuments in Italy if he never reigned in these 
parts or resided in them or if he was entirely unknown 
to the inliabitants ? But this point shall be again 
discussed, according as my narrative shall from time 
to time require it to be made clear. 

LV. The failure of the Trojan fleet to sail any 
farther into Europe was due both to the oracles 
which reached their fulfilment in those parts and 
to the divine power which revealed its will in many 
ways. For while their fleet lay at anchor off* Lau- 
rentum and they had set up their tents near the shore, 
in the first place, when the men were oppressed 
with thirst and there was no water in the place 
(what I say I had from the inhabitants), springs of 
the sweetest water were seen rising out of the earth 
spontaneously, of which all the army drank and the 
place was flooded as the stream ran down to the 
sea from the springs. To-day, however, the springs 
are no longer so full as to overflow, but there is 
just a little water collected in a hollow place, and 
the inhabitants say it is sacred to the Sun ; and near 
it two altars are pointed out, one facing to the east, 
the other to the west, both of them Trojan structures, 
upon which, the story goes, Aeneas offered up his 
first sacrifice to the god as a thank-off'ering for the 
water. After that, while they were taking their 
repast upon the ground, many of them strewed 
parsley under their food to serve as a table ; but 
others say that they thus used wheaten cakes, in 
order to keep their victuals clean. When all the 

^ €t ^Tyre ^p^€ . . . avriov BC (?) : Om. H. 
^ iyiveTo B : yeyok-e A, Jacoby. 

181 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

€V€Ka. irrel Be at TraparedeiGaL rpo(f>al Karavd- 
Xojvro, Tojv VTrecTTpcofievoiv avrotg creAtVcuv etre 
Irpiajv ecjiaye rig kol avOcg erepos • iv tovtco ^ rvy- 
XOiV€L TLS ELTTcvv, etre TOJV Alveiov TTaihcjjv, (hs Ao- 
yos ^X^'-' ^'^'^^ '^^'^ o/jLocrKTjvwv, " MAA' 97/xtv ye TJSr) 
/cat rj rpd7Tet,a /careSTySearat." d>s hk tovto rJKOVcraVf 
diravres dveOopv^-qaav, <x>s rd Trpwra rod fiavrev- 

4 fjiaros 'rjBr] o(J)lgl reXos e)(OL. rjv yap n d€a(f)aTOV 
avTOLS, COS" /xeV rives Xeyovatv iv AcjoScovt) yevo- 
fievoVy cx)S S' erepoL ypd(f)ovcrLv iv ^Epvdpals^ 
XcopLCp ^ rrjs " I8r)g, evda cjKei Z't^uAAa €7rt;^6opta 
vvfjL(f)rj xprjo-fjicpSog , t) avrol? e^pace nXelv iirl 
Svcrfjiwv tjXlov, eco? ^ dv el? tovto to x^P^ov eXOcx)- 
aiv iv (L KaTehovTai rd? Tpairil^as • OTav Se tovto 
fiddcocTL yevofJLevov, rjyefxova TeTpdnoSa TTonqaapLe- 
vov?, 07T0V dv KapLTj TO 1,(2) ov , ivTavda heipiaodai 

5 ttoXlv. tovto Srj to BeoTrpoTnov dvafivrjaOivTes, 
ol fJL€v ra €§7^ Tcov dedJv Alveiov KeXevoavTOS etV to 
diToheixBev ;(a>ptov' eV ttj? veojs i^i(j)epov, ol he 

^ €v TOVTO) Reiske : tovtoj B, tovto R. 

* ipvdpaig A : ipvdpd B, Jacoby. 

' X^P'V Portus : ax^oioj A B ; crxehov Sylburg, axc^ico 
Steph., aTTTjXaiu) Reiske, XPV^'^VP^V Sintenis, TreStoj Schaller, 
ix^po) Meutzner, x^P^V Jacoby. 

* ea»s O : re'cos Jacoby. 

^ Varro, according to ServiiLs' comment on the Aeneid, 
iii. 256, named Dodona as the place where Aeneas received 
the oracle about the "tables." Virgil [Aen. iii. 253-7), 
with a poet's licence, put the prophecy into the mouth of 
Celaeno, the harpy. Cf. p. 187, n. 1. 

2 The text is uncertain here ; see critical note. Most 
editors agree on Erythrae, though we do not hear elsewhere 

182 



BOOK I. 55, 3-5 

victuals that were laid before them were consumed, 
first one of them ate of the parsley, or cakes, that were 
placed underneath, and then another. Thereupon 
one of Aeneas' sons, as the story goes, or some other 
of his messmates, happened to exclaim, " Look you, 
at last we have eaten even the table." As soon as 
they heard this, they all cried out with joy that the 
first part of the oracle was now fulfilled. For a 
certain oracle had been delivered to them, as some 
say, in Dodona,^ but, according to others, in Ery- 
thrae, a place ^ on Mount Ida, where lived a Sibyl of 
that country, a prophetic nymph, who ordered them 
to sail westward till they came to a place where they 
should eat their tables ; and that, when they found 
this had happened, they should follow a four-footed 
beast as their guide, and wherever the animal grew 
wearied, there they should build a city. Calling to 
mind, then, this prophecy, some at the command of 
Aeneas brought the images of the gods out of the 
ship to the place appointed by him, others prepared 

of any Erythrae near Ida ; conjectures as to the meaning 
of the following word vary from " near " to *' oracle " and 
" cave." For the two words together Jaeoby reads " red 
land." If Erythrae is the correct reading here, it would 
seem that Dionysius confused the Sibyl of Marpessus in 
the Troad with the famous Sibyl of Erythrae in Ionia. 
With this exception, the story here related may be assumed 
to be approximately the original form of the legend, which 
would naturally represent Aeneas as receiving the oracle 
from the local Sibyl before setting out on his voyage ; 
later, when her fame became eclipsed by that of the 
Erythraean Sibyl, her role in the legend may have been 
transferred to the latter. For a recent discussion of the 
Sibyls see Buchholz in Roscher's Lexikon der griech. und 
rom. Mythologie, s.v. Sibylla. 

ia3 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

^dOpa Kal ^oj/JLovs KareGKevatou avrolg, ai 8e 
yvvaiKe? oXoXvyfj Kal ■^(^opeLais XP^H-^^^'- TrapeKO- 
fiL^ov TO. lepd, ol 8e d/JLcf)! rov Alveiav Trapa- 
GKevaGdeiorjs dvaias ^xovres rovs GTe(f>dvovs Trepl 
rov pcxjfJLOv eGT-qoav. 

LVI. ^Ev Jj Se ovroL ra? eu;(a? eTTOLijaavro, rj 
fieXXovaa KadcepovaOaL vg iyKvpLOjv ovcra /cat ov 
TTpoGOJ TOKOV Karapxofxei'ojv avrrjg rcov dvrrjpojv 
hiaoeLGafxevri Kal d7TO(f)vyovaa rovs Karexovras 
dvoj ^ edei. Alveias Se fJLaOwv on ravr-qv dpa rr^v 
rerpdiToha rjyefiova to deu(})arov avrolg eSrjAou 
TrapT] KoXovdeL ovv oAtyot? fiiKpov VTroXeLTTOfxevo?, 
SeSoLKOJ? firj V7t6 Bopv^ov rcjv hiojKovrcov dnorpa- 
TTeir] rrjg Kara Sal/jLOva oSov. Kal r) fxeu dpi<t>l 
Toijs €LKOGL Kal r€TTapag Gra^iovs drro daXdrrr)? 
SteXdovGa X6fj)ov rwd rrpoGavarpix^'- > ^.vOa vtto 
Kafidrov fjLOxO'']oaGa KaOet^erai. toj Se Au'ela 
(re'Ao? yap rd /JLavrevpLara e'^atVero ^x^lu) opojurL 
TO x^P^^^ yV^ '''^ ^^'^ ^^ KaXo) Kal BaXdrnqg npoGOJ 
Kal ouSe rauTT^s"" ivoppLLoaGOai dyadrjg, ttoXXt] Trap- 
LGTaraL djjLrjxavla, irorepa XPV "^V BcG^drcp tt^lOo- 
ixevovs avTOV KaroiKelv , evda Xvirqpov ecGael ^lou 
rpliJjovGLV ovSevog XPV^"^^^ aTToXavovre? , r) Trpo- 
Gajripoj x^PV^^^^ ^'^'- VV^ dyLeivovos fidGrevGLV. 
ravra de avroj hiavoovjJLevLO Kal rov? ^eoi)? ^xovri 
hi atria? d<f)i'a> Xiyerat <j)a>vri rt? Ik rrjs vdirrj? 
d(f>avovs 6vro<i rov (f)d€yyo/JL€vov TrpoGTreaelv /ceAeu- 
ovGa fJLevetv re avrodi Kal TToXL^eGdat Sid rax^ojv 
Kal pLT] TOJ dTTopo) rr]<; TrapouGTjs So^rj? iTnrpiijjavra^ 

^ avu) Jacoby : dvoj doAdrT-qs O ; dno OaAaTTrjs Kiessling. 

184 



BOOK I. 55, 5-56, 3 

pedestals and altars for them, and the women with 
shouts and dancing accompanied the images. And 
Aeneas with his companions, when a sacrifice had 
been made ready, stood round the altar with the 
customary garlands on their heads. 

L\ I. While these were offering up their prayers, 
the sow which was the destined victim, being big 
with young and near her time, shook herself free 
as the priests were performing the initial rites, 
and fleeing from those who hfld her, ran back into 
the country. And Aeneas, understanding that this, 
then, was the four-footed beast the oracle indicated 
as their guide, followed the sow with a few of his 
people at a small distance, fearing lest, disturbed 
by her pursuers, she might be frightened from the 
course fate had appointed for her. And the sow, 
after going about twenty-four stades from the sea, 
ran up a hill and there, spent with weariness, she 
lay down. But Aeneas, — for the oracles seemed 
now to be fulfilled, — observing tliat the place was 
not only in a poor part of the land, but also at a 
distance from the sea, and that even the latter did 
not afford a safe anchorage, found himself in great 
perplexity whether they ought in obedience to the 
oracle to settle there, where they would lead a life of 
perpetual misery \\dthout enjoying anv advantage, 
or ought to go farther in search of better land. 
While he was pondering thus and blaming the 
gods, on a sudden, they say, a voice came to him 
from the wood, — though the speaker was not to 
be seen, — commanding him to stay there and build 
a city immediately, and not, by gi^^ng way to the 
difficulty occasioned by his present opinion, just 

185 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ct fj-T) iv ev^oTCO yfj rov ^lov ISpvaeraL, ttjv fieXXov- 
adv re Koi ogov ovttoj Trapovoav evrvxidv dTTcoaaardai. 

4 elvat yap avrco TreTTpco/xevov €k ravrrj'^ Spficofiei^ov 

TTj? XvTTpds Koi oXiyrj£ TO TTpUJTOV OLKT]G€a>S TToXXtjV 

/cat dyadrjv eTTLKTijaaGdaL yrjv gvv ^(^povco • Traiorl Se 
avTOV Kal eyyovoi? dpx^v ^ pieyiar-qv kol inl irXel- 
OTOV xpovov eKpLiqKVvdrjGopievrjv vTrdp^ai. ravrrjv 
fX€v ovv iv rep rrapovri Karayojyrjv eaeadat rot? 
TpaxTL' pierd Se roaovrovs eviavrov? ocrou? dv rj 
V£ refer) x^^pov? KriGOrjaecrdai TTpds rojv ef eKeivov 
yevrjUopLevcov ttoXlv erepav evSaipiova Kal pLeydXrjV. 
pLaOovra 8e rov Alveiav Kal vopblaavra Saii-LOULOV ri 
ro ^ XPVI^^ '^V^ cf)a)vrj9 elvai Troielv c6? o 9e6s e/cc- 

5 Xevev. erepoc Se Xeyovoiv dhrjpLOVovvri rep dvhpl 
Kal TTapeLKon rd oajp^a vtto XvTT-qg Kal ovre eVt 
TO orparoTTehov ^ Kara^dvri ovre air a Trpoaevey- 
Kapievcp, avrov he d>s erv^ev avXto-Oevrt rrjv vvKra 
€KeLVT]v, eTTiGrrjvaL pLeydX-qv rtvd Kal davpLao-rrjv 
ei'vrrviov rcbv dedJv nvi, rcov rrarplajv elKaadelaav 
cifjLV rd XexOevra pLLKpcp irporepov VTrondepievr^v • 
OTTorepoj? Se rdXride<; e^ei 6eol? dv etrj yvdoptpLov. 
rfj 3' e^rjs rjpiepa rpiaKovra Xeyerac x^Lpovg rj vs 
€KreKelVy Kal roGovroLs eviavroZs VGrepov vtto rcov 
Tpwojv erepa KrLGOrjvaL ttoXls Kard rd BeG(j>arov^ 
VTTep ^S" €v ro) * OLKeicp tottoj StaAe|-o/xat. 

^ dpxrjv Kiessling : eaeadaL dpxrji' O, Jacoby. 
2 TO added by Biicheler. 

' eVi TO arpaTOTTcbov Biicheler : dm {vtto A) tov OTparoTrebov 
AB. 

* Tot added by Grasberger. 

186 



BOOK 1. 56. 3-5 

because he would be establishing his abode in a 
barren country, to reject his future good fortune, 
that was indeed all but actually present. For 
it was fated that, beginning with this sorry and, at 
first, small habitation, he should in the course of 
time acquire a spacious and fertile country, and that 
his children and posterity should possess a vast 
empire which should be prolonged for many ages. 
For the present, therefore, this settlement should be 
a refuge for the Trojans, but, after as many years 
as the sow should bring forth young ones, another 
city, large and flourishing, should be built by his pos- 
terity. It is said that Aeneas, hearing this and 
looking upon the voice as something divine, did as 
the god commanded. But others say that while 
he was dismayed and had neglected himself in his 
grief, to such a degree that he neither came into the 
camp nor took any food, but spent that night just as 
he was, a great and wonderful vision of a dream ap- 
peared to him in the likeness of one of his country's 
gods and gave him the advice just before mentioned. 
Which of these accounts is the true one the gods only 
know.^ The next day, it is said, the sow brought 
forth thirty young ones, and just that many years 
later, in accordance with the oracle, another city 
was built by the Trojans, concerning which I shall 
speak in the proper place. ^ 

1 Virgil (Aen. viii. 42-48) represents the river-god 
Tiberinus as announcing the omen of the sow and her 
voting to Aeneas and this omen is seen the very next day 
(vs. 81-85). 

2 Chap. 66. 

187 



DIONYSIUS OF HAIJCARNASSUS 

LVIl Alveia^ he rrj^ fzev v6? rov roKOV a/xa ttj 
yeivafievT] rots* rrarpcooL? ayit.ei deol? iv rev ;)(ajpt.a) 
Ta)S\ ov vvv icTTLV Tj KaXias, kol avrrjv ol AaovLULa- 
rat rot? aAAoi? a^arov (fivXarTOvre? Upav i^oiJiLL,ovGL ' 
rols Se TpcoGL {jLeraG-paroTTeSevaaL KeXevaag Ittl tov 
X6(f)Oi' ISpverac ra eSrj tojv dccov iv ro) Kpariorco kcil 
avTLKa TT€pL TTjV KaTa(TK€vr]P TOV TToXiojjiaros aTTaarj 
TTpodv/jLLO. <jL)pixy]TO iXdfjL^av€ re Karadecov eV tojv 
Trepi^ Xojpiojv oTTocra els rov TToXiGfiov avTOJ rjv XPV' 
GLfia Kal fjidXiGra ejJieXXe XvTT-qpd rot? d(j)aLpe9eL(TL 
(f)avrjG€GdaL, Gihrjpov Kal ^vXa Kal rag yeojpyiKas 

2 TTapaGKevds . Aarlvo) Se, o? "^v rore ^acrtAeu?, 
TToXeyLovvri rrpos ^dvos ofxopov tovs KaXovjjievovs 
*Por6Xovg Kal hvG-qp,epovvrL Kara rds fJidxas dyyeX- 
XeraL ra ycvo/jieva irrl to ^o^epojrarov , ojg dvd- 
araros avrov ylverai Trdaa tj irapdXios VTrepoplo) 
orparta, /cat el jjltj gvv rdx^t KcoXvGeL rd hpajpieva, 
XOVGO? ^ avTOJ ^avrjGerai 6 npog rovg aGTvyeirovas 
dycov. dKovGavTL Se ro) dvSpl Seo? elGepxerai Kal 
avTLKa rod TrapovTOS TToXepiov pieOefxevo^; iirl tovs 

3 TpcDas" iXavvei 7ToX}(fj Grpand. opdjv Se avrovs 

1 Xpvaos Cobet : oxvpos AB. Cobet, in his Variae 
Lectiones, pp. 235 f., points out several passages in Greek 
authors where xpi^^os has been similarly corrupted (among 
them Dionysius ix. 25, 1, where only Ba reads xp^f^os, 
the others xPV°'^°^)- '^he expression first appears in 
Euripides, Troades 431 ff. : 

bvaTTjvos, OVK olb' old VLV fX€V€i TTaOelv 
COS XP^*^^^ ai^Toi rd/id Kal 0pvyuiv /ca/cd 

188 



BOOK I. 57, 1-3 

LVII. Aeneas sacrificed the sow with her young 
to his household gods in the place where now stands 
the chapel, which the Lavinians look upon as sacred 
and preserve inaccessible to all but themselves. 
Then, having ordered the Trojans to remove their 
camp to the hill, he placed the images of the gods 
in the best part of it and immediately addressed 
himself to the building of the town with the greatest 
zeal. And making descents into the country round 
about, he took from there such things as were of 
use to him in building and the loss of which was 
likely to be the most grievous to the owners, such 
as iron, timber and agricultural implements. But 
Latinus, the king of the country at that time, who 
was at war with a neighbouring people called the 
Rutulians and had fought some battles with ill 
success, received an account of what had passed in 
the most alarming form, to the effect that all his 
coast was being laid waste by a foreign army and 
that, if he did not immediately put a stop to their 
depredations, the war with his neighbours would 
seem to him a joy ^ in comparison. Latinus was 
struck with fear at this news, and immediately aban- 
donino; the war in which he was then engaged, he 
marched against the Trojans with a great army. But 

^ Literally " gold." This expression seems to have 
become proverbial in comparisons between a lesser and a 
greater evil. See critical note. 



*' Wretch ! — he knows not what sufferings wait for him. 
Such that my woes and Phrygia's yet shall seem 
As gold to them." 

(Way's translation in the Loeb Classical Library.) 



189 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ojTrXLGixivovs re chs "EXXrjvas Koi ev rd^et evKoafico 
OLKaraTrXiJKrcos to heivov vnofidvovras, rrjs fiev 
avTLKa 7TapaKLvBvv€VG€aj9 y 60? ovK dv ef i(f)68ov 
avTov? €TL )(€Lp(jjadiJL€vos ,^ KaO^ T^v ^ ^crx^ Stavotav ^ 
o'lkoOev opfiojiJLevo?, dnoTpeTTeraL • orpaTOTrehevud- 
fievos S' eVt X6(J)ov rwog ro Trpayrov dvaXa^elv 

(X)€rO heiV TTJV SvvajJLLV 6/C TOV TTapOVrOS KOTTOVy OS 

TToXvs iK fxaKpas oSov /cat ovvrovov Sicu^ecos" avrols 
iyivero. avXiodpievos * Se hid vvktos avroOi yvcvpi-qv 
iTTOLeZro dpxopLevqs ecu GVfji(f>6p€aOaL rolg TroXefJLLOLS. 
iyvojKOTL Se avroj ravra Xeyei rt? imGrds Kad^ 
V77VOV i7TL)(copLo? SaLfjiajv 8€)(€G9aL Tovs " EXXiqvas rfj 
p^ctjpa GVVOLKOVS ' 7]KeLV yap avrovs fieya (hcfyeXrjfJLa 
Aarlvoj /cat kolvov ^A^opLyivwv dyadov • Alveia re 
ol TTarpcooL deal rij? avrrjs vvktos <^avevT€S irapa- 
KeXevovrac TreiOeiv Aarlvov eKovra 77apacr;^etv o(J)L(jl 
rrjv 0LK7)GLV iv a) PovXovrai xajpicp, /cat XPV^^^^^'' 
Swdfjiei 'EXXrjVLKrj GvpLfidxcp pdXXov tj Sta</>o/3a) • 
d[JL(f)or€pov£ 8e ro ivap iKwXvev dpx^i-v jLta;^?. cos 
hi TjfjLepa re iyevero /cat Ste/cocr/xTJ^r^CTav els P-dxrjv 
al Svvdfi€LS, KTipvKes rJKOv ojs rovs rjy€p.6vas e/care- 
pcoOev TO avTO d^LOVvTes, cwveXdelv oAAT^Aot? els 
Xoyovs' /cat eyeveTO tovto. 

LVIII. npcvTOS Se o Aarlvos ey/cA^^/xa ttolov- 
fievos TOV alcf)VLSL6v re /cat d/carayyeArov' iroXefiov 
rj^LOV TOV Alveiav Xeyeiv, oottls ojv /cat rt ^ovXo- 
iievos dy€L /cat (f>ep€L rd p^copta TTenovdcos re ovBev 

^ Madvig : ;^€ipcuad/xevos' O. 

2 Kad" ^v O : rjv Kiessling, Jacoby. 

* hLavoiav Reiske : Xoav ABa, bo^ap Bb. 

* Steph. : avXt,aafx€voLS AB. 

190 



BOOK I. 57, 3-58, 1 

seeing them armed like Greeks, drawn up in good 
order and resolutely awaiting the conflict, he gave 
up the idea of hazarding an immediate engagement, 
since he saw no probability now of defeating them 
at the first onset, as he had expected when he set out 
from home against them. And encamping on a hill, 
he thought he ought first to let his troops recover 
from their present fatigue, which from the length of 
the march and the eagerness of the pursuit was very 
great ; and passing the night there, he was resolving 
to engage the enemy at break of day. But when he 
had reached this decision, a certain divinity of the 
place appeared to him in his sleep and bade him 
receive the Greeks into his land to dwell with his 
own subjects, adding that their coming was a great 
advantage to him and a benefit to all the Aborigines 
alike. And the same night Aeneas' household gods 
appeared to him and admonished him to persuade 
Latinus to grant them of his own accord a settle- 
ment in the part of the country they desired and 
to treat the Greek forces rather as allies than as 
enemies. Thus the dream hindered both of them 
from beginning an engagement. And as soon as 
it was day and the armies were drawn up in order 
of battle, heralds came to each of the commanders 
from the other with the same request, that they 
should meet for a parley ; and so it came to 
pass. 

LVIII. And first Latinus complained of the sudden 
war which they had made upon his subjects without 
any previous declaration and demanded that Aeneas 
tell him who he was and what he meant by plunder- 
ing the country without any provocation, since he 

191 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Seiuov TTporepo? koL ovk dyvoojv on rov ap)^ovra 
TToXefiou TTOLS 6 TTpoTTaBojv dfjLvv€TaL ' 7TapaG)(6v T€ 
dv avTco TTOLV, €t TLVO? iSeLTo pberpLov, TTpos (jaXiav 
Koi Trap" iKOVTCJV evptcTKeaOaL tojv eyx^ojpicjv , TrapeX- 
Ocov TTjv dndvTcov dvdpdjTroiv SLKaicocrLV alcr-^iov tj 
koXXlov rj^cojae ^lav 7TpoG<jiipajv rd avrd XapL^dvetv . 

2 Toiavra Se avrov hLaXe)(Bivros dneKplvaro Alveias ' 
*' 'HpLel? ycvo? fjLev Tpcoeg idf^eVj TToXeoj? Se ov TTJg 
d<f)ave(jrdT7]S eV "EXXiqaiv iy€v6jjLeda • tjv d(j>aipe- 
Oivres vn M;^ataji^ Se/caeret TToXe/jLcp ;^etp60^etcrav, 
oA-^rat TTepiepxofjLevoi TToXecog re /cat )(Ojpas €V f) to 
XoLTTOv oLKiJGOfxev diTopLa, Oeotg 8e KeXevovcn ir^ido- 
fievoL Sevp^ d^iypieda kol rjpuv cu? rd 9€Gcf)ara 
XeycL XLpLrjv rrjs nXavr}'; rjSe rj yrj p.ov)-] AetTrerat. 
TTOpL^ofjieda 8e eV rrj? ;^copa? Sv tj/jllv Bel hvorvxe- 
GTepov pLoXXov 7) ev7Tp€TT€GTepou, CO? rjKLGTa ^ reco? 

3 ye "^ i^ovXopieda. dfietifiopieda Se avrd TToXXalg /cat 
dya^ats" epyojv dixoL^al? irapexovres vpuv /cat crctj- 
/jLara /cat ipvxd'S ev 7Tp6? rd Betvd 77e7Tat8euftcVas" 
XprJGdaL oTToaa ^ovXeaOe, ttjv vperipav yijv (j)vXdT' 
Torres' dhfjcoTov, ttjv Se rchv TToXepLiojv TTpodvpLOjg 
mryKaraKTwpievoL. t/cerat §e v/jlcou yivopieOa firj 
TTpds opy^v rd TreTTpaypieva XapL^dvetv , ivdvpi-qOivra^ 
(jj£ OV Gvv v^pec, dXX utt' dvdyKTjs ravTa ^lacrOevTes 
192 



BOOK r. 58. 1-3 

could not be ignorant that every one who is attacked 
in war defends himself against the aggressor ; 
and he complained that when Aeneas might have 
obtained amicably and with the consent of the 
inhabitants whatever he could reasonably desire, 
he had chosen to take it by force, contrary to the 
universal sense of justice and with greater dishonour 
than credit to himself. After he had spoken thus 
Aeneas answered : " We are natives of Troy, not the 
least famous city among the Greeks ; but since this 
has been captured and taken from us by the Achaeans 
after a ten-years' war, we have been wanderers, 
roving about for want both of a city and a country 
where we may henceforth live, and are come hither in 
obedience to the commands of the gods ; and this 
land alone, as the oracles tell us, is left for us as the 
haven of our wandering. We are indeed taking 
from the country the things we need, with greater 
regard to our unfortunate situation than to pro- 
priety, — a course which until recently we by no 
means wished to pursue. But we will make com- 
pensation for them with many good services in 
return, offering you our bodies and our minds, well 
disciplined against dangers, to employ as you think 
proper in keeping your country free from the ravages 
of enemies and in heartily assisting you to conquer 
their lands. We humbly entreat you not to resent 
what we have done, realizing, as you must, that we 
did it, not out of wantonness, but constrained by 



^ iJKiaTa O : 1781(7x0 Jacoby. 

* -. cojs ye Schmitz : vecocrrl O, Jacoby. 



193 



DTONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

4 €7TOLOV[JL€V " CLTTaV §€ (TUyyVCO/XOV ^ TO OLKOVCTLOV. Kal 

Set Vfidg iJLr]Sev evavriov ^ovXeucrat nepl rjixcov 
XeZpas TTpoexofJievojv, el 8e [jltJ, deovg Kal SalfMOvag 
ol Kar€)(ov(JL rrjvSe ttjv yrjv TrapaiTovfievoL orvyyvo)- 
p-ovas "qplv yeveadaL /cat Sv r^vayKaap.evoL Spajp^ev 
7r€ipaa6p.eda TToXepLOV ap^ovra^ vp.ds dp^vveadac. 
ov yap dv vvv rrpwrov "^ ovhe pieyiurov iroXepLov 

5 Tovoe a77oAai;crai/xev." co? Se ravra 6 Aarlvog 
TjKovoev d7T€KpLvaTO Trpos avTov • " i4AA' eyojye 
evvoidv re npo? dirav ro 'EXXiqvLKOv yevo? e^o) 
Kal avp.cf)opais dvBpixjrrojv dvayKaiais Trdvv axOopLac, 
awt,€odai re vp.dg irepl tvoAAoi; dv TTOLTjGaipirjV , el 
pLOL Sr^Aot yevoLude olkt]G€Ojs SeopLevoL TjKeLV ev 
aTToxpcooT] re yrj<; pLoipa Kal irpos (j^iXiav rwv 
hoO-qoopLevcov piede^ovres, aAA' ov ttjv epir^v hvva- 
cjrecav d(f)aLprjG6pLevoi TTpo? ^lav. etS' eTTaXrjOeveTaL 
vpuv oS' o Xoyos TTLcrreLS tovtcjov d^LO) Sovvat Kal 
Aa^etv, at (jyvXd^ovutv r^puv dhoXov^ rds o/xoAoy ta?." 

LIX. Alveiov Se eTraiveoavros Ta Xeyopteva yi- 
vovrai avv6i]Kai roZs edveaiv ecf)* ^ opKtwv roLalSe' 
M^optyiva? ^tei^ Tpojcrl Sovvai ;^c6/)av ocrrjv tj^lovv 
dpL(f)l Tovs rerrapaKovra arahlovs iravraxov iropevo- 
pievois OLTTO rod X6(f)ov ' Tpcjas Se M^optytcrt rod r 

^ Kiessling : ovyyvwiirj ABb, avyyvwinqs Ra. 

2 Sylburg : irpwrov O. * €<^' Kiessling : i;<^' O. 



^ In Thucydides iii. 40, 1, we find the expression ^vyyvw^iov 
8' ioTL TO aKovoLov. But Jacobv points out that the two 
passages are otherwise very different in their tenor, and 
hence concludes that Dionysius was not imitating the 

194 



BOOK I. 58, 4-59, 1 

necessity; and everything that is involuntary deserves 
forgiveness.^ And you ought not to take any hostile 
resolution concerning us as we stretch forth our hands 
to you ; but if you do so, we will first beg the gods 
and divinities who possess this land to forgive us 
even for what we do under the constraint of necessity 
and will then endeavour to defend ourselves against 
you who are the aggressors in the war ; for this will 
not be the first nor the greatest war that we have 
experienced." When Latinus heard this he answered 
him : " Nay, but I cherish a kindly feeling towards 
the whole Greek race and am greatly grieved by 
the inevitable calamities of mankind. And I should 
be very solicitous for your safety if it were clear to 
me that you have come here in search of a habitation 
and that, contented with a suitable share of the land 
and enjoying in a spirit of friendship what shall 
be given you, you will not endeavour to deprive me 
of the sovereignty by force ; and if the assurances 
you give me are real, I desire to give and receive 
pledges which will preserve our compact inviolate." 
LIX. Aeneas having accepted this proposal, a 
treaty was made between the two nations and con- 
firmed by oaths to this eflfect : the Aborigines were 
to grant to the Trojans as much land as they desired, 
that is, the space of about forty stades in every 
direction from the hill ; the Trojans, on their part, 

older historian. He believes, rather, that the source of 
both was a verse of some poet, probably ^vyyvwfioi^ dor' 
«.,- d-TTav TOLKovaiov. The same sentiment, though not ex- 
pressed in exactly the same words, is met with in Thuc. iv. 
98, 6, Plato, Fhaedrus 233c, and Aristotle, Eth. Nicom. 
iii. 1, 1. 

195 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ev X^P^^ TToXefiov cwXKa^eodai /cat ottov av dXXrj 
TTapaKaXcjvTaL cwGrpaTeveiv Koivfj Se dfjL(j)OTepov? 
TO. KpaTLcrra vnep oAAtJAcdv TTpdrreiv /cat x^^P^^ '^^^ 

2 yvajpLTj. (jvvd€{ji€VOL Se ravra /cat t€kvcov ofirjpeiatg 
rds TTLcrreLS ^e^aLcocravTe? KOtvfj orparevovGLV errl 
rds TToAets" ra)v 'PoroXojv • St' oAtyou he rd/cet 
TTavra xeipiDGapievoi Traprjaav irrl to TToXiafxa to 
TpojLKOv rjfXLTeXeg eV 6V ^ /cat /xta TTpodvpLia Travre? 

3 xpcofievoL t€l)(lI,ovglv avTO. ovofxa Se roi /crtcr/xaTt 
y4tVetas' Tt^crat AaovtvLov , (hs fJi€v avTol 'PwiialoL 
XeyovGiVy dno ttJs" /lartVou OvyaTpos, f) Aaovivlav ^ 
elval (f)aGL Tovvofia ' wg 8* aAAot rtt'e? tojp' 'EXAt]- 
VLKCou jjLvOoypdcfxjDV eXe^av, drro ttj? 14.vlov ^ tov 
A-qXiojv^ /Sao-tAeoj? 9vyaTp6s, AaovLvlas /cat rrJo-Se 
6v o 1X01,0 iievqs, rj<^ ^ dnoOavovGr]? vogco rrepl tov 
OLKLGpLov TTJ? TToXeois 7Tp(I)Tr]<; KoL iv (5 CKapie 
XOjpLO) Ta(j)eLGr)? iJLVT]iJLa yeveGOai T-qv ttoXlv. gvjjl- 
TrXevGai 8' avTTjv tol? TpojGL XeyeTai SoOelGav vno 
TOV TTOTpo? Alveia he-qdevTL fxavTLKrjv ovGav /cat 

4 GO(j)riv. Aeyerat §€ /card tov TToXiG/Jiov tov Aa- 
OVLVLOV GrjiJL€La Tols TpcoGL yeveodat TOidhe ' irvpog 
auTO/xdroj? dva^OivTOS e/c rrj? vdnr^g Xukov fxev 

KOpLL^OVTa TO) GTOfiaTL TTJS ^T^pd? vXrj<; €7TL^dXX€LV 

eTTL TO TTvp, deTov 8e TTpoGTTeTOfxevov dvappL7Til,eiv 

^ T^yxtreAe? It' ov Sintenis : ly/ntTcAeo-Toi' ABa,77/itTe'AeaTovo;'Bb. 

^ Cary (after Sylburg) : Xavvav Ba, Xawav A, XavivLav Bb. 
Three lines below, and in 64, 1 B has Aaoutv/a?, in 60, 1 Bb 
has XaovLviav ; elsewhere B agrees with the other MSS. 
in reading XaOva or Xavva (Swaj in 32, I ). Aavva is not a 
Greek name, and Dionysius can hardly have written such 
an inaccurate form. 

196 



BOOK I. 59, 1-4 

were to assist the Aborigines in the war they were 
then engaged in and also to join them with their 
forces upon every other occasion when summoned ; 
and, mutually, both nations were to aid each other 
to the utmost of their power, both with their arms 
and with their counsel. After they had concluded 
this treaty and had given pledges by handing over 
children as hostages, they marched with joint forces 
against the cities of the Rutulians ; and having soon 
subdued all opposition there, they came to the town 
of the Trojans, which was still but half-finished, 
and all working with a common zeal, they fortified 
the town with a wall. This town Aeneas called 
Lavinium, after the daughter of Latinus, according 
to the Romans' own account ; for her name, they 
say, was Lavinia. But according to some of the 
Greek mythographers he named it after the daughter 
of Anius, the king of the Delians, who was also 
called Lavinia ; for as she was the first to die of 
illness at the time of the building of the city and 
was buried in the place where she died, the city was 
made her memorial. She is said to have embarked 
with the Trojans after having been given by her 
father to Aeneas at his desire as a prophetess and 
a wise woman. While La\anium was building, 
the following omens are said to have appeared to 
the Trojans. When a fire broke out spontaneously 
in the forest, a wolf, they say, brought some dry 
wood in his mouth and threw it upon the fire, and 
an eagle, flying thither, fanned the flame with the 

^ TTiS ^Aviov Steph. : omviov ABa, a^Xiviov Bb. 

* brjXiwv B : 6-qXov A. * t^s added by Steph. 

197 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

rfj KLvrjoei rajv Trrepvycov ttjv ^Aoya* rouroi? Se 
rdvavTia fir))(ava}ix€vr]v oXcoTreKa tt^v ovpav Sid- 
^po^ov e/c Tov TTorapLov (fyepovaav i7nppa7Tit,€iv to 
Kaco/JLEVOV TrZp, Koi Tore fiev rov^ dvaTTTOvra? 
€7TLKpaT€LV, TOTe 5e Trjv aTrocT^ecraL ^ovXoixevrjv 
reAo? 8e VLKrjaac rovs Svo, Kal ttjv irepav ot;^ecr^ai 
5 iJ.7]Sei' en TToielv Swafiev-qv. tSovra Se tov Alvclav 

€L7T€LV CO? i7TL(f)avrj9 fJi€P €UTai KOI Oav/jLaaTTj Kal 
yv(jjG€aJS i^TL TrXeLdTOV rj^ovaa rj OLTTOLKLa, e7TL(j)dovos 
8e ToZs Txe'Aas" av^o/JLevrj Kal XuTrr^pd, Kparrjaei 8' 
ofjLOJS Tcjjv dvTLTTparrovTOJV KpeiTTOva rrjv Ik tov 
Oelov TV)(r)v Xa^ovaa tov rrap* dvOpojircov evavTico- 
oojievov (f)d6vov. TavTa fiev Stj ovra> 7T€pi(f)avrj 
liTjVvyLaTa Aeyerat yeveaOai tcov avix^rjao/jLevcov Tjj 
TToXei, Kal CGTLV avTOJV ijLvr]fjL€La eV ttj Aaov'ivLaTwv 
dyopa -vdXKea etScoAa rojv l^ojcav €k ttoXXov irdw 
■)(jj6vov hiaT-qpovixeva. 

LX. ^E7T€L^rj 8e KaTeoKevdud-q rot? Tpcoalu rj 
ttoXls, iTndvfJLia rrdvr as lux^v laxvpd ^ tov Trap' 
d^X-qXajv dTToXavcrai XPV^^I^^^y '^^' ^'^ jSacrtAet? au- 

TCtJV TTpCOTOl dpXOVGL flL^aVT€S TOV T€ iniXOJpLOV Kal 

TOV eir-^XvSos yevovg ttjv d^lwaiv iirl cruvaXXayais 
ydfxov, SovTOS AaTLVOv ttjv dvyarepa Aaovtvlav Al- 
2 veto. yvvalKa. €7T€LTa Kal ol aAAot ttjv avTr)v tols 
^aoiXevoiv imdvfiLav XaftovTe? Kal St' oXiyov Trdvv 
Xpovov (TVV€veyKdyLevoL edrj Kal vopLovs Kal deojv lepd, 
KTjh^ias re ^ avvdifiavTes aAAT^Aot? /cat KOivajviais 
TToXejjLwv ^ dvaKepaaBevTes , ol * ovpLTravTes kolvtj ^ 

^ Laxev laxvpa Bb : laxvpa Ba, icrx^i A. 

2 re added by Kiessling. 

' TToXifjuov Bb : TToXiojv Ba, noXecus A, 

193 



BOOK I. 59, 4-60, 2 

motion of his wings. But working in opposition 
to these, a fox. after wetting his tail in the river, 
endeavoured to beat out the ilamcs ; and now those 
that were kindhng it would prevail, and now the 
fox that was trying to put it out. But at last the 
two former got the upper hand, and the other went 
away, unable to do anything further. Aeneas, on 
observing this, said that the colony would become 
illustrious and an object of wonder and would gain 
the greatest renown, but that as it increased it 
would be envied by its neighbours and prove griev- 
ous to them ; nevertheless, it would overcome its 
adversaries, the good fortune that it had received 
from Heaven being more powerful than the envy 
of men that would oppose it. These very clear 
indications are said to have been given of what was 
to happen to the city ; of which there are monu- 
ments now standing in the forum of the Lavinians, 
in the form of bronze images of the animals, which 
have been preserved for a very long time. 

LX. After the Trojans' city was built all were 
extremely desirous of enjoying the mutual benefit 
of their new alliance. And their kings setting the 
example, united the excellence of the two races, 
the native and the foreign, by ties of marriage. 
Latinus giving his daughter Lavinia to Aeneas. 
Thereupon the rest also conceived the same desire 
as their kings ; and combining in a very brief 
time their customs, laws and religious ceremonies, 
forming ties through intermarriages and becoming 
mingled together in the wars they jointly waged, 

* 01 Sintenis : tc oi O. * koiv^ Sintenis : koX R, cm. B. 

199 



DIONYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

ovofiacTLq. rrpoaayope-uovTes iavrovs oltto rod ^a- 
criAeo;? rcov ^A^opLylvoji' Aarlvovg, ovroj ^e^aicjjs 
efiewav iirl rots cruyKeLfJievois war ouSet? avrovg 
en xpoi-'os a??' dXX-qXcov ^LeGTrjcre. 

Ta fJLev Srj cruveXdovra edm-j Kal KoivojodyLeva 
Tovs ^iovs, i^ (Lv TO 'PcofxaLajv yivos cop^T^rat, 
TTplv rjv vvv €)(ovaLV OLKLcrOrjvaL ttoXlv, ravrd iariv • 
A^opiylves p-ev Trpcorov, ot UiKeXovg i^avearrjcrav 
e/c Tovrcov Tajv ^^P^^^y "EXXrjve? 6vr€S to dp)(aLOV 
€/c IJeXoTTOwrjOov tojv gvv Olvwrpoj puerevey- 
KapL€vojv rr]v oiK-qcrLV ck rrj? KaXovpLevrjg vvv 
ApKaBla?, ws iycD TreldopiaL • eTretd^ ol pL€r- 
avaardvreg e/c rrj? rore pL€v AlpLOvla?, vvv 8e 
OerTaXlag KoXovpLevr]?, IJeXaayoi' rpiroi Se ot 
(jvv EvdvSpcp TTapayevrjdevres 6tV ^ IraXlav Ik 
TJaXXavTLOV TToAeco? • pierd 8e tovtovs rwv gvv 
'HpaKXel arparevopLevcov TleXoTrovv-qaicov ^ETreioi 
re KOL 0€vedTaL, ol? Kal TpojiKov tl ipLpiepLLKTai' 
reXevraloi be ol Stacrco^eVre? gvv Alveia Tpwe? i^ 
^ IXlov re Kal Aaphdvov Kal rcov dXXojv TpwiKCJV 
TToXeojv. 

LXI. "Otl he Kal to tojv Tpojojv edvos 'EXXtjvl- 

KOV ev TOL9 pidXiGTa TjV eK IJeXoTTOWlJGOV TTork 

wppnqpLevov, eiprjTat pLev Kal dXXotg tlgI rrdXai, 
Xe\drjGeTai he Kal Tipos ipLOV St* oAtyojv. €^et he 
6 Xoyos rrepl avTCjv coSe * 'ArXa? yiverai ^aGiXevg 
TTpdjTog ev rfj KaXovpievrj vvv ApKahta, oJKet he nepl 
TO XeyopLevov QavpidGtov ^ opos. tovtco dvyarepes 
riGav €77X0, at vvv ev ovpavco KaTTjGTepLGd at Xeyo- 

* Giareanus ; KavKdoiov ; KavKwvLov Jacoby. 
200 



BOOK I. 60, 2-61, 1 

and all calling themselves by the common name of 
Latins, after the king of the Aborigines, they ad- 
hered so firmly to their pact that no lapse of time 
has yet severed them from one another. 

The nations, therefore, which came together and 
shared in a common life and from which the Roman 
people derived their origin before the city they now 
inhabit was built, are these : first, the Aborigines, 
who drove the Sicels out of these parts and were 
originally Greeks from the Peloponnesus, the same 
who with Oenotrus removed from the country now 
called Arcadia, according to my opinion ; then, 
the Pelasgians, who came from Haemonia, as it 
was then called, but now Thessaly ; third, those 
who came into Italy with Evander from the city of 
Pallantium ; after them the Epeans and Pheneats, 
who were part of the Peloponnesian army com- 
manded by Hercules, with whom a Trojan element 
also was commingled ; and, last of all, the Trojans 
who had escaped with Aeneas from Ilium, Dardanus 
and the other Trojan cities. 

LXI. That the Trojans, too, were a nation as 
truly Greek as any and formerly came from the Pelo- 
ponnesus has long since been asserted by some 
authors and shall be briefly related by me also. The 
account concerning them is as follows. Atlas was the 
first king of the country now called Arcadia, and 
he lived near the mountain called Thaumasius.^ He 
had seven daughters, who are said to be numbered 

^ This mountain is mentioned by Pausanias (viii. 36, 2) 
and by Stephanus of Byzantium. Cauconius, suggested by 
Jacoby, appears to be purely a conjectural name. 

201 



DTONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

fi€i'aL TJXeidSe? iTriKXrjGLV, ojv fxiav jxev "HXiKrpav 
Zevg ya[i€L /cat yewa Tral^a? i^ avrrjg " laaov /cat 

2 Adphavov . " I0.G0? fikv ovv rjiBeo? fievet, AdpSavo? 
Be dyerai yvvaiKa Xpvcrrjv FldXkavTOS Ovyarepa, 
i^ rj^ avTix) yivovrai TratSes" '/Sato? /cat zJet/xas". 
OVTOL ^ reojs fxev ev ^ApKahia TrapaXa^ovres Tqv 
"ArXavTOs hvvaGTeiav i^aalXevov, eVetra /cara- 
KXvcTfiov yevofievov fxeyaXov Trepl ty]v ApKahiav 
rd fJLev TTeSia i^eXifivcoOr] /cat 7to/\Xov ;\;poi'OU 
yeajpyeZodai dhvvara rjv, ol Se dvdpwTTOL (a>Kovv 
yap dvd rd opr) yXiGXpo)? TTopit^opievoL ra? Tpo(f)ds) 
(jv}jL(j)povrjGavT€s CO? ov^x^ LKavrj ^ooKeiv ecrrat Trdvras 
Tj rreptovcra yrj vipLOvrai cr(f)d? avT0V9 ^t'XfJ ' '^^^ 
avTwv ol IjL€v €v /IpKaSia VTTOfidvovGi /SacrtAea 
KaTaGTrjadfjievoL ^ AeifJLavra rdv AapSdvov, ol he 
XoLTTol dTravLGTavrai FleXoTTOi'V'qGov gtoXo) fxeydXco. 

3 rroLOvpLevoL Se rov ttXovv irapd rr)v EvpajTrrjV etV rdv 
MeXava KaXovfievov d(f)LKi'ovvraL koXttov /cat Tvy)(a- 

I'OVGLV ev VTqGOi TLVL TTjS ©pd-KT]^ OppLLGdjJieVOL, 7]V 

ovK e)(a) ecTTelv e'ire tjv olKovjxevrj /cat irporepov eur 
ep-qpLos ^ ■ 27 rWevrat Tovvofia GiJvOerov e/c re dvSpos 
/cat roTTOv, SapiodpaK-qv ' to piev yap x^P^^^ '^V^ 
©pd-K-q^, 6 he OLKLGTTj^ EdpLOJv, vlds 'EppLOv /cat 

4 ivpi(f)r)? KvXX-qvlhog 'P-qvrj^ 6vopLat,opiev'qs. eKei Se 
Xpdvov ov TToXvv hiarpLi/javreg, (hs ovk evpLaprj? rjv 
6 jSfo? avrolg yfj re XvTrpa /cat OaXdrrrj aypia 
pLaxopiei'OLS, oXiyovg rtm? ev rfj vrjaco XeiTTopLevoL 
dTTavLGravTai TrdXiv ol TrXelovg etV ttjv ^Giav 



^ OVTOL Kiessling : ol (ol B) to AB, 01 tco Bb. 
^ Reiske : aTrjadfjLevot. O. 



202 



BOOK I. 61. 1-4 

now among the ronstellations under the name of 
the Pleiades ; Zeus married one of these, Electra, 
and had bv her two sons, lasus and Dardanus. lasus 
remained unmarried, but Dardanus married Chryse, 
the daughter of Pallas, by whom he had two sons, 
Idaeus and Deimas ; and these, succeeding Atlas in 
the kingdom, reigned for some time in Arcadia. 
Afterwards, a great deluge occurring throughout 
Arcadia, the plains were overflowed and for a long 
time could not be tilled ; and the inhabitants, 
living upon the mountains and eking out a sorry 
livelihood, decided that the land remaining would 
not be sufficient for the support of them all, and so 
divided themselves into two groups, one of which 
remained in Arcadia, after making Deimas, the 
son of Dardanus, their king, while the other left 
the Peloponnesus on board a large fleet. And 
sailing along the coast of Europe, they came to 
a gulf called Melas and chanced to land on a certain 
island of Thrace, as to which I am unable to say 
whether it was previously inhabited or not. They 
called the island Samothrace. a name compounded of 
the name of a man and the name of a place. For 
it belongs to Thrace and its first settler was Samon, 
the son of Hermes and a nymph of Cyllene, named 
Rhene. Here they remained but a short time, 
since the life proved to be no easy one for them, 
forced to contend, as they were, with both a poor 
soil and a boisterous sea ; but leaving some few of 
their people in the island, the greater part of them 
removed once more and went to Asia under Dardanus 

' epTjfws Kiessling : iprun] ^v B, ip'^firj R. 

203 



DIONYSTUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

e-^ovres r)y€[Ji6va ttjs anoLKias Adphavov " lacrog 
yap iv rfj vt^cto) Kepavvo) TrAr^yet? reXevra ArjpL-qrpos 
evvTj^ ^ opiyvcxijxevos ^ ' TTOnqadix^voi re rr^v oltto- 
^acTiV iv TO) KaXovfJLevcp vvv ' EXXr^urrovrcp irepl ttjv 
varepov KXrjdelcrai' oiKit,ovrai Opvyiav, "^ Ihalos fiev 
6 AapSdvov fjiepog rrj? Grparids e;^cov iv rolg opeaiv, 
a vvv '/Sata o.tt' iKeivov Xiyerai, ev6a [irjrpl Oecov 
lepov ISpvcrdpLevos opyia /cat reAerds" KarearricraTO, 
at /cat els roSe XP^^'^^ Sia/JLevovcnv iv dTrdorr) 
0pvyia' Adphavos S' iv rfj KaXovfxivrj vvv Tpwdhi 
TToXiv ofJLcovvfjLov ai^TOJ KaraGKEvdaa? , Sovrog avTO) 
ra ;)(a>pia TevKpov ^aaiXiajs, d<^' ov TevKpls to 
dpxalov Tj yrj iXiyero • tovtov 3e d'AAot re 77oAAot 
/cat 0av6hrjp.os 6 ttjv ^Attlktjv ypdihas apxaioXoylav 
iK rrjs l4.TTLKrjg fieroLKrJGaL (jyaaiv etV t^v Aalav 
hrjixov EvTTeraiecjs ^ dpxovra /cat rroXXd mapixovraL 
rod Xoyov reKfi-qpia. KparT](TavTa 8e ;^6tjpas' orvxyrj? 
re KOI dyadrjs /cat ov ttoXv to iTTLXcopiov ixovo-qs 
yevos dap.ivojs rov AdpSavov tSetv /cat to ovv avro) 
vapayevofjievov ^EXXiqviKov, rcjov re Trpos rovs ^Sap- 
^dpovs rroXefJLCov avixfiax^oLS eVe/ca /cat tVa 7) yrj pLT) 
Tj ep-qpLOS. 

^ CUV7JJ Bb : €vvr]v ABa. 

2 After dptyva>/x€vo9 B has (hs ol €x^l, deleted by Bb, R have 
ws ol €xetv. Kiessling read d)s o Xoyos ^x^l, Grasberger ^vvfjv 
opLyviofxevos aiaxweiv. 

^ Sv7T€Taiico? Sylburg : e^uTreTOtc'cus B, t^uTTTaiecDS' A. But 
the form EvTr^rmevs is questionable, even as a noun ; else- 
where the word for an inhabitant of the deme Sv-rTCTrj (also 
spelled Sv7T€T€a or SvireraLa) is EvTriraiJov. The norma) con- 
struction with Sijfiov would be Sv7T€Tai6vcjv (cf. Srjfiov Tpcucov 

204 



BOOK I. 61, 4-5 

as leader of their colony (for lasus had died in the 
island, being struck with a thunderbolt for desiring 
to have intercourse with Demeter), and disembark- 
ing in the strait now called the Hellespont, they 
settled in the region which was afterwards called 
Phrygia. Idaeus, the son of Dardanus, with part 
of the company occupied the mountains which are 
now called after him the Idaean mountains, and there 
built a temple to the Mother of the Gods and in- 
stituted mysteries and ceremonies which are ob- 
served to this day throughout all Phrygia. And 
Dardanus built a city named after himself in the 
region now called the Troad ; the land was given 
to him by Teucer, the king, after whom the country 
was anciently called Teucris. Many authors, and 
particularly Phanodemus, who wrote about the 
ancient lore of Attica,^ say that Teucer had come 
into Asia from Attica, where he had been chief of 
the deme called Xypete, and of this tale they offer 
many proofs. They add that, having possessed 
himself of a large and fertile country with but a 
small native population, he was glad to see Dardanus 
and the Greeks who came with him, both because 
he hoped for their assistance in his wars against the 
barbarians and because he desired that the land 
should not remain unoccupied. 

^ His work was an Atthis {cf. p. 27, n. 1). Miiller, Frag. 
Hist. Graec. i. 367, 8). 



in the parallel passage in Strabo xiii. 1, 78) ; other possible 
readings are Sv-rrcraiovos, if this form can be used as an 
adjective, and Sv-neTaias. 

205 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

LXII. ^ArraLreL 8e o Xoyog /cat rov Alveiav c^ 
wv €(j)V hLTiy-qGauOat ' ^pax^ia Sr] kol tovto SrjXwGei 
crqixavcj. Adphavos cVetS?) Xpvcnrjv Tr]v UdXXavros 
Ovyaripa, i^ rjs ol Trporepoi TToihes iyevovro avraj, 
reXevrrjaai cruveTrecre, Bdreiav yafxel ttjv TevKpov 
Ovyarepa ' kol yiverat ttols avro) ^Epi-)(^86vLos, o? 
aTTavTwv dvdpcoTTCxjv €vhaipLov€<JTaTos Aeyerat ye- 
vdordat rrj? re rrarpwa? kol rrjg vtto rep jJLrjrpoTrd- 
2 TopL yevofieuTjs KXrjpovofJLTjGas dp)(fjS' ^Epf)(6oviov 
he KOL KaXXtpporj? ^ rrjs EKapidvhpov yiverai TpcoSj 
d(/>' ov rrjv eTTOJVvpiiav to edvos €)(€L ' Tpcoos 8e Kal 
M/caAAaptSos" rrjg Evfx-qhov? ^ AcrodpaKOs rjv rov- 
Tov 8e Kal KXvToScjpag rrj? AaofieSovros Kdirvs' 
Kdrrvog 8e Kal vvpL(j)r]g Na'CdSog * lepofjLvqpLrjs^ 
Ayx^-'^'^S ' Ay^LGOV 8e Kal Acjipohirris Alveias. 
ws fieu St] Kal TO TpcoiKov yevos ' EXXt^ulkov dp- 
XrjOev rjv 8eS?}Aa>Tat /xot. 

LXIII. riepl Se Twv ;^pdvctjv €i> ols iKTiadif] to 
AaovtvLOV dXXoL fjL€v d'AAco? XeyovGLV • epLol pbdvTOi 
SoKovdiv OL hevrepo) jxerd ttjv e^oSov ttju €k Tpouag 
€T€L (f)epoPT€? avTTjv^ ctVoTa jLtdAAoP' Xeyetv. " IXlo^ 
fjLev yap edXoj reXevrajvros rjBr] rov eapo?,^ eVra/cat- 
ScKa TTporepov rjfiepaLg rrjg Oepivrjs TpoTrrjg, oySorj 
(f)dLvoPTOS firjvos ©apyqXiCQVOs, ojs AdrjvaloL rovs 

^ Jacoby : KaXXip6r)s O. ^ Kiessling : elpofievrjs AB. 

^ €T€L <f>€povT€S avTTjv O : €7n(f)4povTes iviairrco Madvig. 
* eapos Camerarius : dipovs O, Jacoby. 

1 This would be 1181 B.C. according to Dionysius, since 
Eratosthenes, whose chronology he follows (chap. 74, 2), 
placed the faU of Troy in 1183. 

206 



BOOK I. 62, 1-63, 1 

LXII. But the subject requires that I relate also 
how Aeneas was descended : this, too, I shall do 
briefly. Dardanus, after the death of Chryse, the 
daughter of Pallas, by whom he had his first sons, 
married Bateia, the daughter of Teucer, and by her 
had Erichthonius. who is said to have been the most 
fortunate of all men, since he inherited both the 
kingdom of his father and that of his maternal 
grandfather. Of Erichthonius and Callirrhoe, the 
daughter of Scamander, was born Tros, from whom 
the nation has received its name ; of Tros and Acal- 
laris, the daughter of Eumedes, Assaracus ; of Assa- 
racus and Clytodora, the daughter of Laomedon, 
Capys ; of Capys and a Naiad nymph, Hiero- 
mneme, Anchises ; of Anchises and Aphrodite, 
Aeneas. Thus I have shown that the Trojan race, 
too, was originally Greek. 

LXIII. Concerning the time when Lavinium was 
built there are various reports, but to me the most 
probable seems to be that which places it in the 
second year after the departure of the Trojans from 
Troy.^ For Ilium was taken at the end of the spring, 
seventeen days before the summer solstice, and the 
eighth from the end of the month Tharselion,^ 
according to the calendar of the Athenians ; and 

2 The Athenians divided their months into three periods 
of ten days each (nine in the last period in the shorter 
months), in the first two of which they counted the days 
forwards, as we do, while in the third they reckoned 
backwards from the end of the month. The eighth 
from the end of the month, reckoning inckisively, would be 
the 23rd (or 22nd). Their year seems to have begun with 
the new moon immediately following the summer solstice. 

207 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Xpoi^ovs dyovGL, TTepLTTOL he Tjuav at rov iviavTov 
CKelvov iKTrX-qpovoai fiera ttjv rpoTrrjv €lko(jlv i^/Ltc- 
pai. iv Srj rals krtTa koX TpidKOvra rat? oltto rrj^ 
dXwcrecog hiayevopievaLS rd re nepl Tr]v ttoXlp OLOfiaL 
hLoiKrjGaadai rovs Mp^atou? kol rds Trpeu^eias ctti- 
hi^aadai rds Trapd rcbv d<j)€GTrjK6r(jjv kol rd opKia 

2 TTOLTJcracrdaL irpos avrovs ' rep 8' €^^9 eVet, Trpcjrcp 
he fJLerd ttjv dXojGLV, vtto ttjv fxeroTTcopLvrfv Idrjfjiepiav 
dpavres ol Tpdjes eK rrj^ yrjg TTepaLovvrai rov 

EXXrjGTTOVTOV KOL KaTa)(^devTe9 el? rrjv QpdKrjv 
avTov hiarpi^ovGi rr]v x^'-P^^P^^^ wpav hexopuevol 
re rovs eTTLcrvviovras eK rfjg (f>vyrjg kol Trapa- 
aKevat,6pLevoi rd elg rov aTTOTrXovv. eK he rrjg 
©paKTjg dvaardvres eapo? dp)(opLei'ov reXovai rov 
fjiera^v ttXovv dxpi UtKeXtas ' eVet he oppnGapevois 
avrolg ro eros rovro reXevra, kol hiarpi^ovGL rov 
hevrepov x^ip^ajva rd? 77dAets' ovvoLKi^ovres rots' 

3 EXvpLOi? ev UiKeXia. irXotp^cov he yevopievajv 
dpavres arro rrj? vrjuov rtepdoi ro Tvppr]viKOV 
rriXayos koX reXevrojvre? et? Aavpevrov d(f)LKvovvrai 
rov ^Af^opiyivcov alytaXov peaovcj-qs Oepelag. Xa- 
^ovres he ro ;\;a»ptoy olKil^ovcnv ev avrw Aaovtviov 
rov hevrepov dno rrjg dXcLaeoj? eKTrXrjpcooavres 
ivtavrov. kol nepl p,ev rovrcjv co? exco ho^rjs 
hehijXajraL pLOi. 

LXIV. Alvela? he KaraoKevdcrag lepols re kol 
roL? dXXoLg KoopLois aTTOXpcovraj? rr]v ttoXlv, ojv rd 
TrXelara en /cat etV ep.e rjv, rw fiev e^fjs eVtauro), 

1 Cf. Livy i. 2. From this point onward parallel pas- 
sages in Livy will be thus indicated by a note attached 

208 



BOOK I. 63, 1-64, 1 

there still remained twenty days after the solstice 
to complete that year. During the thirty-seven 
days that followed the taking of the city I imagine 
the Achaeans were employed in regulating the affairs 
of the city, in receiving embassies from those who 
had withdrawn themselves, and in concluding a 
treaty with them. In the following year, which was 
the first after the taking of the city, the Trojans 
set sail about the autumnal equinox, crossed the 
Hellespont, and landing in Thrace, passed the winter 
season there, during which they received the fugi- 
tives who kept flocking to them and made the neces- 
sary preparations for their voyage. And leaving 
Thrace in the beginning of spring, they sailed as far 
as Sicily ; when they had landed there that year 
came to an end, and they passed the second winter 
in assisting the Elymians to found their cities in 
Sicily. But as soon as conditions were favourable 
for na\dgation they set sail from the island, and 
crossing the Tyrrhenian sea, arrived at last at 
Laurentum on the coast of the Aborigines in the 
middle of the summer. And having received the 
ground from them, they founded Lavinium, thus 
bringing to an end the second year from the taking 
of Troy. With regard to these matters, then, I have 
thus shown my opinion. 

LXIV. But ^ when Aeneas had sufficiently adorned 
the city with temples and other public buildings, of 
which the greatest part remained even to my day, 

to the initial word of a chapter or series of chapters in 
Dionysius. 

209 

VOL. T. T 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

rpiTco he arro rrj? e^oSov, Tpcocov i^aGiXevcre 
jJLOvwv ' TO) he rerdpra) reXevrrjoavros Aarlvov 
KOL TTjv eKeivov ^auiXeiav TrapaXafx^dveL rrjg re 
Krjheias olKeionqri rrjs Trpog avrov, eTTiKXrjpov rrjs 
AaovLvias yevofievT]? jxerd tov Aarivov Odvarov, /cat 
Tov TTpo? Tovg doTvyeLrovas noXefiov ttjs crrpaTT]- 

2 ytas eveKa. dTrecjTiqaav ydp avdus aTTo rod Aarl- 
vov *P6roXoL Xa^ovres rjyefJLOva tojv avropLoXcov 
TLvd rrjg Aarlvov yvvacKos Apidra? ^ dveipiov ovopLa 
Tvpprjvov.^ 6 he din)p ovros errl rep ydpLCO rrj£ 
AaovLvlas rov K'qheo'rrjv puepi^opievoSy on TrapeXOojv 
TO crvyyeve? odvelois ^ iKijhevore, rrjg re M/xara? 
napo^vvovorj? Kal dAXa>v nvcJov crvXXapL^avovrwv , 
dyojv rrjv hvvapnv rjg auro? "^PX^ Trpoarlderat rolg 

^ 'PoroXoL^. TToXepLov S* CK ra)v iyKXrjpLdrcov rovrwv 
yevopLevov Kal pid)(rjg laxvpo-s AarZvos re diro- 
6vT](TK6L Kal Tvpprjvos Kal rcov dXXa)v GV)(yoly 
KparovoL 8' opLOj? ol ovv Alvela. €k he rovrov 
TTjv VTTo ra> KTjhearfj yevop-ev-qv dp)(r]v ALvela<; 
TrapaXapb^dvei. rpla he ^aoiXevoa? errj puerd rr)v 
Aarlvov reXevrrjv rep rerdprcp Qv-quKei Kara TToXe- 

4 pLOv. *P6roXol re ydp e/c rcov TToXeojv arparevovcnv 

^^AfiOLTas Cobet, 'A/jLar-qs Steph. : afxiras O, Jacoby (and 
so just below). 

2 Tvpprjvov O (and similarly below) : Tvpvov Sj' Iburg, Cobet. 
' odveiois B : odvelovs R. 



^ It is perhaps wiser to follow the MSS. in the spelling of 
this name than to emend to Turnus. Granted that Tvpvos 
might easily have been changed to Tvpp-qvos by a scribe, 
5'et it is just as conceivable that Greek writers, seeing in 

210 



BOOK I. 64, 1-4 

the next year, which was the third after his de- 
parture from Troy, he reigned over the Trojans only. 
But in the fourth year. Latinus having died, he 
succeeded to his kingdom also, not only in considera- 
tion of his relationship to him by marriage, Lavinia 
being the heiress after the death of Latinus, but also 
because of his being commander in the war against 
the neighbouring tribes. For the Rutulians had 
again revolted from Latinus, choosing for their 
leader one of the deserters, named Tyrrhenus,^ who 
was a nephew of Amata,^ the wife of Latinus. This 
man, blaming Latinus in the matter of Lavinia's 
marriage, because he had ignored his kinsmen and 
allied his family with outsiders, and being goaded on 
by Amata and encouraged by others, had gone over to 
the Rutulians with the forces he commanded. War 
arose out of these complaints and in a sharp battle 
that ensued Latinus, Tyrrhenus and many others 
were slain ; nevertheless, Aeneas and his people 
gained the victory. Thereupon Aeneas succeeded to 
the kingdom of his father-in-law ; but when he had 
reigned three years after the death of Latinus, in 
the fourth he lost his life in battle. For the Rutulians 
marched out in full force from their cities against 

Turnus nothing but a modified form of TjTrhenus, may 
have preferred to use the normal form ; we have already 
met with a Tyrrhenus as the eponymous founder of the 
Tyrrhenian race (chaps. 27 f.). Yet for Turnus Herdonius 
(iv. 45, 47 f.) Dionysius evidently used the spelling Tvpvos 
(corrupted to TvpSos in the MSS.). 

2 In the case of this name we may emend to Amata 
with little hesitation, since the form Amita (" paternal 
aunt ") is not appropriate as a proper name and is unlike 
any Greek name. 

211 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

airavres iir^ avrov, kol uvv avrolg ^acnXevs Tvpprj- 
vwv MeaivrLos Setcra? Tr€pl rrj? avrov ;)^c6pa? • rjSrj 
yap IttI fJLeya -xajpovaav ttjv ^EXXr^vLKrjv opcbv 
SvvafJLLV TJxOero. P^olXV^ ^^ yevofxevrjg Kaprepd? ov 
TTpoaco rod Aaov'Cviov /cat iroXkajv eKarepojOev drro- 
XojjLevojv ra jiev Grparevfiara vvKros iireXdovGris 
SieXvOrjy ro Se Alvelov acofxa (j)avep6v ovSafjifj yevo- 
fievov ol pL€V etV deov? pLeracrrrjvat ecKaCov, ol 8' iv 
ra> TTorafJLO), Trap" ov rj jJil-xr} iyevero, hiacjidaprfvai. 

5 Kal avro) Kara(jK€vdt,ovcrLV ol AarZvoi r)pa)OV iiTL- 
ypacf)fj roiahe Koopiovfjievov' ^^ IJarpog deov 
)(6 ov Lov, 09 TTorapLov No pLLK Lov p€vpLa 
8 1 677 6 1." €L(jI 8* OL XeyovGLV eV AyxLcrr) Kara- 
aKevaaOrjvai avro vtt* Alvelov, eviavrcb irporepov 
rov TToXefjLOV rovrov reXevr'qaavrL. ecrn Se ;)^ct)/xa- 
nov ov fieya /cat 776pt avro SevSpa GroL)(r]S6v 
776</>u/coTa ^eas" a^ta. 

LXV. Alvelov 8' 6^ dvOpojTTOJV pueraaravros 
i^hopLcp pLaXtara eret pLerd rr)v ^ IXlov dXajacv 
EvpvXecov TTapiXa^e rr]v Aarlvcov rjyepLOvlav 6 
pierovopLaGdeis AaKavios iv rfj <f>vyfj. rjcrav 8e 
r€LX'r}P^^? ol Tpdje? iv ra> XP^^^ rovrco, Kal rolg 
pL€V TToXepiloLs del TTpocrrjeL hvvapas, at 8e rcjv 
Aarlvcov dSvvaroi rjuav rols iv rep Aaov'Cvlcp rroXi- 

2 opKOvpiivoLS iTTLKOvpelv. ro piev h-q npcorov els 
(f)LXlav re Kal crvvO-qKas pLerpla? npovKaXovvro rovs 
TToXepLiovs ol TTepl rov AaKavcov • ojs 8' ovhev 
TTpocrelxov avroZs, iTTLrpeneLV iKeivois r}vayKat,ovro 
KaraXvaacrdaL rov noXepiov i(f)^ oh dv avroi 

212 



BOOK I. 61, 4-65, 2 

him, and with them Mezentius, king of the Tyr- 
rhenians, who thought his own country in danger ; 
for he was troubled at seeing the Greek power al- 
ready making rapid headway. A severe battle 
took place not far from Lavinium and many were 
slain on both sides, but when night came on the 
armies separated ; and when the body of Aeneas 
was nowhere to be seen, some concluded that it had 
been translated to the gods and others that it had 
perished in the river beside which the battle was 
fought. And the Latins built a hero-shrine to him 
with this inscription : " To the father and god of 
this place,^ who presides over the waters of the river 
Numicius." But there are some who say the shrine 
was erected by Aeneas in honour of Anchises, who 
died in the year before this war. It is a small 
mound, round which have been set out in regular 
rows trees that are well worth seeing. 

LXV. Aeneas having departed this life about the 
seventh year after the taking of Troy, Euryleon, who 
in the flight had been renamed Ascanius, succeeded 
to the rule over the Latins. At this time the 
Trojans were undergoing a siege ; the forces of 
the enemy were increasing daily, and the Latins 
were unable to assist those who were shut up in 
Lavinium. Ascanius and his men, therefore, first 
invited the enemy to a friendly and reasonable 
accommodation, but when no heed was paid to 
them, they were forced to allow their enemies to 
put an end to the war upon their own terms. When, 

1 Dionysius evidently uses x^ovlos here to translate the 
Latin term indiges. Livy (i. 2, 6) does not specifically cite 
the inscription, but says lovem Indigitem appellant. 

213 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

BLKaiaxTi. rod hk ^aGiXeojs rcou Tvpprjvojv rd 
T€ aAAa ca? SeSouAoj/xeVot? dcfyoprjra iTnTacrcrovrog 
Kal Tov oli'OP OGOV av tj Aarivojv yrj (f>eprj Tvppr]- 
t'ois' OLTTayeLV dva Trdv eros, ovk dvacrx^'Tov rjyrjGa- 
fievoL TO TTpdypia rrj? fiev dpLireXov tov Kapnov tepov 
iijjiqcfiLaavTO rod Alos elvai yvcofirjv dyopevcravros 
^AoKavLOV, avrol 8c aXXrjXoLS TrapaKeXevadfievoL 
7rpo6vfjLOL£ dycjuviarals yeveodai Kal deovs alr-qad- 
fievoi crvXXa^ecrOaL rod KcvSvvevfxaros iirjXdov Ik 

3 rrjs noXeojs <j)vXA^avr€S vvKra daeXrjvov. €v9vs 
Se npoG^aXovre? roj -^dpaKi rojv TToXepLiajv, og 
dyyvrdroj rrjs TToXecjs eKetro Kal rjv Trporeixtdfjia 
rrjs dXXr)s hwdfiecjos ev ipvpj-o) re KareaKevaGfievos 
Xojpio) Kal rrjv KparLGrr]v leorrira Tvpp-qvwv e^c^v, 
"^S rjyeiro Meaevrlou Trals AavGos ovo/xa, ovSei'os 
TTpo'CSofievou rrjv ecjyoSov alpovcriv evrrercjs ro dxu- 
piopia. iv CO Se ro p^cuptov rovro rjXtGKero, (f)dj£ re 
aKatpov opojvres ol iv rols TTeSlois iarparoneSev- 
Kores Kal ^orjv rcjv d7ToXXvpiiva>v d/couovres" ecbevyov 

4 e/cA 17701 re? rovs TreSiPOV? roTTovs irrl rd oprj. iv 
Se TOUT CO TToXXrj iyevero rapax^ Kal Oopv^og, ola 
iv vuKrl KLVovfievrj? Grpands, cos avriKa fxdXa rcbv 

TToXepLLCOV G(f)LGLV imdrjGOpieVCOV 01) GVV KOGpiCp oi)8e 

Kara riXr) rrjv eXaGcv TTOLovfjLevoLs ^ ' ol be AarZvoi, 
irTethri ro re (l>povpiov i^ e(f}6Sov KareLX'q(f)eGav /cat 
ro dXXo crrpdrev/jia ep,adov rerapayp^evov , eVcVeivro 
avrois Kreivovres Kal hicoKOvres. rcov S' oijx ottcos 

^ <^r-qvy tXaaiv (^TToiovixivoi^y Meutzner, iXavvovaw Kayser: 
eAaffii A. iXajoLv Ba, e'Aaaetv Bb. 

214 



BOOK I. 65, 2-^1 

however, the king of the Tyrrhenians, among other 
intolerable conditions that he imposed upon them, 
as upon a people already become his slaves, com- 
manded them to bring to the Tyrrhenians every 
year all the wine the country of the Latins produced, 
they looked upon this as a thing beyond all endurance, 
and following the advice of Ascanius, voted that the 
fruit of the \nne should be sacred to Jupiter. Then, 
exhorting one another to prove their zeal and valour 
and praying the gods to assist them in their danger- 
ous enterprise, they fixed upon a moonless night 
and sallied out of the city. And they immediately 
attacked that part of the enemy's rampart which 
lay nearest to the city and which, being designed 
as an advanced post to cover the rest of their forces, 
had been constructed in a strong position and was 
defended by the choicest youth of the Tvrrhenians, 
under the command of Lausus, the son of Mezentius ; 
and their attack being unforeseen, they easily made 
themselves masters of the stronghold. While they 
were employed in taking this post, those of the 
enemy who were encamped on the plains, seeing an 
unusual light and hearing the cries of the men who 
were perishing, left the level country and were fleeing 
to the mountains. During this time there was great 
confusion and tumult, as was but natural with an 
army mo\'ing at night ; for they expected the enemy 
would every moment fall upon them while they were 
withdrawing in disorder and with ranks broken. 
The Latins, after they had taken the fort by storm 
and learned that the rest of the army was in disorder, 
pressed after them, killing and pursuing. And not 

215 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Tt? TTpos oAktjv TpaTTeaOai €7re;)^6tp7]0-€v, aAA* ouSe 
IxaOeZv ev ols rjaav KaKolg ^ rjSvvaro • vtto 3e dopv- 
^ov Kal dfJLri)(avLa5 ol fjL€v /caret KprjfjLvcov cfiepojJLevoL 
SL€(f)d€LpovTO, ol S' €LS (fxipayyag dve^oSovg ifiTTL- 
TTTOvres r]\L(jKovro, ol Be 7tX€lgtol dyvoT^Gavres 
oAAt^Aou? dvd TO GKoros oaa TToXefiLovg hUdeaav, 
Kal 6 TrXelcrros avrwv <f>96pos dXXiqXoKTOvos eyivero. 
5 AleaevTLOS he avv oAtyot? X6(f)ov rivd KaraXa^cov, 
iTTeihr} rod TratSo? rov jxopov eTTvOero Kal ouos 
avTOj GTparos hii^dapro ev olcp re xcvplo) Kara- 
K€KXeiK(jjg iavTOv r}v, dts cov rravros^ iv dTTopla^ 
y^prj}JLaros , eTrefJUpe KrjpvKas eU ro Aaovtviov irepl 
(j)iXia? hiaXe^ofJLevoVi, "AaKavlov Se rots" /lartVots" 
raiXL€V€(jOaL rrjv rv)(rjv avp^jjovXevovro? dSeLav evpo- 
fxevos dTTTjXdev vttogttovSos /xe6'' 6arj£ elx^ Swdixew? 
Kal Tov drro rovSe ^(^povov drravra hiaXvadpievos rrjv 
e)(dpav 77-po? rov£ Aarivovs ^e^atos (f)iXog rjv. 

LXVI. TpLaKOGTCo 8e varepov erei fierd ttju 
KTLOiv TOV AaoVLVLOv ttoXlv irepav olkl^€l Kara ro 
y€p6[JL€vov Alveia deu<jiaTOv AoKavios 6 Alvelov Kal 
/Ltcrayct tovs t eV Aaovtviov ^ Kal rojv aAAcov Aari- 
vcjv oaoLS rjv ^ovXopievois dfieivov oiKeiv els ttjv 
veoKTLGTov, ovofJLa rfj TToXei depLevos "AX^av. ecrri 
8' 7] "AX^a Kad^ 'E/{XdSa yXcoaaav AevKTJ, aa^rj- 
viGpLov 8' eveKa dtopi^erai Trap* erepav ttoXlv 
opLOJwpLov eTTLKXijaeL TO ax'qP'Oi eTTLKaTrjyopovGrj,^ 

^ ols -qaav KaKo'is Bb : ols rjv KaKols Ba, ols KaKols "^v A. 

^ CU9 wv TTavTos Cappa, navTos Kiessling, ws ojv Jacoby : cis O. 

^ ev dnopia Steph. : ev aTTopco AB. 

* ttoXlv . . . /laouiVtou Bmg : om. ABa. 

* €7nKaTr]yopovojj L. Dindorf : dTTiKa-rj-yop-jaei AB. 

216 



BOOK T. 63, 4-66. 1 

only did none of the enemy attempt to turn and 
resist, but it was not even possible for them to 
know in what evil plight they were, and in their 
confusion and helplessness some were falling over 
precipices and perishing, while others wore becoming 
entangled in blind ravines and were being taken 
prisoner ; but most of them, failing to recognize their 
comrades in the dark, treated them as enemies, and 
the greatest part of their loss was due to their slaying 
of one another. Mezentius with a few of his men 
seized a hill, but when he learned of the fate of his 
son and of the numbers he had lost and discovered the 
nature of the place in which he had shut himself up, 
realizing that he was lacking in everything needful, 
he sent heralds to Lavinium to treat for peace. And 
since Ascanius advised the Latins to husband their 
good fortune. Mezentius obtained permission to re- 
tire under a truce with the forces he had left ; and 
from that time, laying aside all his enmity with the 
Latins, he was their constant friend. 

LXVI. In the thirtieth year^ after the founding 
of Lavinium Ascanius, the son of Aeneas, in pur- 
suance of the oracle given to his father, built an- 
other city and transferred both the inhabitants of 
Lavinium and the other Latins who were desirous 
of a better habitation to this newly-built city, which 
he called Alba. Alba means in the Greek tongue 
Leuke or " White " ; but for the sake of clearness 
it is distinguished from another city of the same name 
by the addition of an epithet descriptive of its shape, 

^ Cf. Livy i. 3, 3-4. According to Dionysius' reckoning 
(see p. 20G, n. 1), Alba was founded in 1151 B.C. 

217 



DIONYSTUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Kai ioTLV (LoTTep ovvBerov rjS-q rovvofxa i^ diJi(j)OLV 

2 "AXpa Xoyya, rovro 8' ecttl AevKT) jiaKpa.. vvv 
fji€v oui' eprjfiog €gtlv inl yap 'OariXtov TvXXov 
'PajpLaicov ^aoiXeajs crrao-ta^etv So^acra 77^0? tt^v 
OLTToiKLav 7T€pl Trjs ^PXV^ OLVjjpedrj • TO S^ iv avrfj 
TToXirevopLevov ttXtjOo? tj KaOeXovaa rrjv pL-qTpoTToXiV 
VTTehe^aro 'PcojJir]. dXXa ravra p.ev ev roZs Ikvov- 
/xei'ots" ;^por'ots" eyevero, rjvcKa he ajKit^ero Trpos opei 
/cat Xlfivrj KareGKevdcrOr] to fieaov e7T€-)(ovoa dpL(j)olv, 
/cat Tfv WGTrep rely^iq ttjs TToXecog ravTa SvadXojTOV 
avTTjv TTOLOvvTa. TO TC ydp 6po<; ev rot? Trdvu 
6)(vp6v re /cat vijj-qXov eoTLV rj re Xifimrj ^aOeia /cat 
fieydX-q, kol avT-^v 8ta /cAtcrtaSojv dvoiyofieuajv vtto- 
Se)(eTaL to Trehiov TafiievojJLevcov ottogov ^ovXovTai 

3 TOJv dvdpajTTojv to vhcop. VTroKeiTai Se r^ TrdAet 
Trehia OavpLaGTa puev Ihelv, irXovGLa Be /cat olvov^ 
/cat KapTTov? ^ e^eveyKelv TravTohaTiovs /cat ouSev 
ii'SeeGTepov^ Trjg dXXrjg '/raAtas', pidXiOTa he tov 
KaXovfievov AXf3av6v olvov rjSvv /cat KaXov, e^oj 
TOV 0aXepLiov Xeyop^evov tcjv yovv d'AAo^v aTrdvTOJV 
SLa(f)opa)TaTOv . 

LXVII. ^Ev he TTJ KTLGeL TTJ? TToXeojs davpLa 
fieyiGTOV Aeyerat yeveGdai. KaTaGKevaGdevTog rots' 
eSecrt tcjv decbu, ov£ Alveias €/c ttjs Tpojdhog rjvey- 
/caro /cat KadihpvGev ev tco AaovCvicp, vaov \ojpiov 
e)^ovTOs d^aTOv /cat tojv IhpvpidTajv e/c tov Aaov'Cviov 
pieTaKop.LGOeiTojv " et? tovtov tov pLV^ov, vtto ttjv 

^ Kol o'a-ovs Kal Kapnovs Jacoby : Kai oivovs A13a, kcu Kap- 
■nov's Bmg. 

218 



BOOK I. 66, 1-67, 1 

and its name is now, as it were, a compound, made 
up of the two terms, Alba Longa, that is Leuke 
Mahra or "■ Long White (town)." This city is now 
uninhabited, since in the time of Tulhis Hostilius, 
king of the Romans, Alba seemed to be contending 
with her colony for the sovereignty and hence 
was destroyed ; but Rome, though she razed her 
mother-city to the ground, nevertheless welcomed 
its citizens into her midst. But these events belong 
to a later time. To return to its founding. Alba was 
built near a mountain and a lake, occupying the 
space between the two, which served the city in 
place of walls and rendered it difficult to be taken. 
For the mountain is extremely strong and high and 
the lake is deep and large ; and its waters are re- 
ceived by the plain when the sluices are opened, the 
inhabitants having it in their power to husband the 
supply as much as they wish. Lying below the city 
are plains marvellous to behold and rich in pro- 
ducing wines and fruits of all sorts in no degree 
inferior to the rest of Italy, and particularly what 
they call the Alban w ine, which is sweet and excellent 
and, with the exception of the Falernian, certainly 
superior to all others. 

LXVII. While the city was building, a most 
remarkable prodigy is said to have occurred. A 
temple with an inner sanctuary had been built for the 
images of the gods which Aeneas had brought with 
him from the Troad and set up in Lavinium, and the 
statues had been removed from Lavinium to this 



^ eV rov veui {vaov B) after fieraKOfMiaOdi'Tcov deleted by 
Schmitz. 

219 



DTONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

€7Tiov(jav vuKra KeKXeiGyLevcav re d>5 fidXiGTa tcjv 
dvpcjjv Kal ovhev Tradourcov ovre rrepL^oXcjv ovre 
opo(f)a>v Sta^eij/favra ra ^perrj rrjv urdcnv eirl rcov 

2 dpxo.lojv €vpe6rjvaL KelpLeiu ^ddpcxjp • jxeraKopii- 
(jOevra 8e avOcg Ik rod Aaov'Cviov avv LKereLais Kal 
dvGLais dpeGT-qpLOLS elg ro avro ;;^a>ptov opLoiojs 
aveXOeZv. rov? Se dvOpcjirovs reoj? pikv aTTopelv 
6 TL \pri<jovraL rots TrpdypLauLV ovre St;^a rwu 
TTarpojojv dewu OLKelv d^iovvras ovre inl rrjv 
€KX€L(t>delaav oLK-qaiv ay^t? dvaarpecjieiv, reXev- 
Twvras Se ypwfxrjv evpecrdai, t] efxeXXev aTTO-x^poivroys 
TTpos dfjLcfyorepa e^etv rd fiev eSr] Kara xojpav 
idaai fieveLV, at'Spa? 8e rov? iTnixeXiqGoixivovs 
avrcov e/c rrjg "AX^as et? to Aaovti^Lou avdi? 
inoLKOVS jxerayayelv . Kal eyivovro ol Tre^^^eVres" 
e^aKooiOL fjLeXeScovol rojv lepcov avrols [lerava- 
Grdureg i(j)€Grioig • rjyefjLcov 8' eV avrols erd)(Qi] 

3 Alyeuros. rov? Se 6eov? rovrovs 'Paj/-tatot p,€V 
Uevdrag KaXovaiv • ol S' i^eppLrjvevovres elg rrjV 
'EXXdSa yXcjGCjav rovvofxa ol fiev Ilarpcpov? aTTo- 
<f)aLi'0VGLV, ol 8e PevedXiov? , ecGL 8' oi Kr-qGcov^y 
dXXoL 8e Mvx^ovs, ol 8e 'EpKeiov^. eoiKC 8e 
Tovrojv €KaGros dno ^ rtp-o? roji' GVfJL^e^rjKorofV 
auTOt? 7T0L€iGdaL ri^v eTTLKXrjGiv KLvhvvevovGL re 

4 Trdvres djjLOJGyeTTOJS to avro Xeyeiv? GX'qp-aros 8e 
Kal pLopcjirjs avrcjjv irept TipLatog fxev 6 Gvyypa(f)evg 
(Lbe aTrocfiaaeL • ^ K-qpvKeta ^ Gtbiqpd Kal ;^aA«:a 

* Schwartz: Kard O, Jacoby. 

* KLv8w€V0vm . . . Xey^iv B : KivBwevovai re ov to auTO TTdvTi.s 
OficoayeTTcos to avTO Xeyeiv R. 

2 Schwartz: aTror^atWrai O, Jacoby. 

* Kr]pvK€ia ABa : KT]pvKia Bb, Jacoby. 
220 



BOOK I. 67, 1-4 

sanctuary ; but during the following night, although 
the doors were most carefully closed and the walls of 
the enclosure and the roof of the temple suffered no 
injury, the statues changed their station and were 
found upon their old pedestals. And after being 
brought back again from Lavinium with supplica- 
tions and propitiatory sacrifices they returned in like 
manner to the same place. Upon this the people 
were for some time in doubt what they should do, 
being unwilling either to live apart from their an- 
cestral gods or to return again to their deserted 
habitation. But at last they hit upon an expedient 
which promised to meet satisfactorily both these 
difficulties. This was to let the images remain where 
they were and to conduct men back from Alba to 
Lavinium to live there and take care of them. Those 
who were sent to Lavinium to have charge of their 
rites were six hundred in number ; they removed 
thither with their entire households, and Aegestus 
was appointed their chief. As for these gods, the 
Romans call them Penates. Some who translate 
the name into the Greek language render it Patrooi, 
others Genethlioi, some Ktesioi, others Mychioi, and 
still others Herkeioi.^ Each of these seems to be 
giving them their name from some one of their 
attributes, and it is probable that they are all ex- 
pressing more or less the same idea. Concerning 
their figure and appearance, Timaeus, the historian, 
makes the statement that the holy objects preserved 

^ These Greek terms, all adjectives in form, mean the 
gods, respectively, (a) of the race, (fe) of the family, 
(c) of house and property, (d) of the inner house, (e) of 
ths front court. 

221 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Kal KepafJLOv TpojLKOv etvat ra ev toZ<^ ahvroLS 
Tols iv Aaov'CvLco KeLfxeva lepd, TrvdeaQai he avros 
ravra Trapa tcov i7n)((jijpLaju. iyco Be ocra fiev 
opdv airaGLv ov depn? ovre ^ Trapa tojv opwvrcou 
aKov€LV ovT€ avaypd(j)€LV ^ olojxai helv, vefxecraj Se 
Kal TOLS d'AAot?, OGOL TrXeio) tcov cruyxojpovfJLevcov 
VTTO vofJLOv tprirelv yj yivwGKeiv d^Lovaiv. 

LXVIII. y4 8e avros re Ihoiv eTTLO-rapLaL Kal 
Seo? ovSev dvoKOjXveL pie irepl avrcov ypd(f)eLV 
TOidSe ecrrt' vecos ev 'PcopLrj heiKwrai rrjs dyopd? 
ov 7Tp6cra> Kara rrjv enl Kapiva? ^ <^epovaav cttl- 
TopLov oSov V7Tepo)(fj GKOTeLvog ISpvpievos ov pieyas. 
Xeyerai Se Kara rrjv e7TL)(a)pLOU yXaJTTav OveXla ^ 
TO ■)(Ojpiov. ev he rovroj Kelvrai rojv TpanKcov 
Oeoiv etKoves, as aTracnv opdv depag,^ e7TLypa(f)r)v 
exovaac hiqXovGav rovs Tlevdras .^ elal he veaviai 

^ ovT€ O : ouSe Sauppe. 

^ ovT€ dvaypd(l)€iv Reiske : ov8' dv €Tnypd(})eiv O. 

^ Kapivas Stepli. : Kaipidvas AB. 

* OveXia Gary, OveXiai Casaubon, vtt' OveXias Nibby, vn' 
'EXaias Jacoby : utt' eXaioJS A, vireXaLais B. 

^ defiis B : Sefias A. 

* Tovs Uevdras O : Seovs Uevdras Sauppe. After Uevdras 
the MSS. have the sentence Bokovol ydp fxoi rod 6 fx-qvco ypdfj.- 
fiaros €vpr)fi€vov rw 8 St^Aow ti)v e/ceiVou hvvapLiv ol TTaXaioi (" for 
in my opinion, the letter 6 being not yet discovered, 
the ancients expressed its force by the letter 8"), which 
Ambrosch deleted as the comment of an early scribe. He 
argues that the text of Dionysius originally read eiVdvej 
aTTaaiv opdv, AIE MAFNIU {Dis Magnis) iinypa(l>riv exovaai, 
h-qXovaav tovs Ilevdras, that the Latin words became cor- 
rupted into AEMAE (so in A) and AEMIE, and that the 
second form, taken for a variant of ^e'/zts, inspired the 
scribe's remark. Inserted later in the text, depus called for 
the addition of as. But Ambrosch admits that this would 

222 



BOOK I. 67, 4-68, 2 

in the sanctuary at Laviniuni are iron an<1 hronze 
caducci or " heralds' wands,'' and a Trojan earthen- 
ware vessel ; this, he says, he himself learned from 
the inhabitants.' For my part, I believe that in the 
case of those things which it is not lawful for all to 
see I ought neither to hear about them from those who 
do see them nor to describe them ; and I am indig- 
nant with every one else, too, who presumes to inquire 
into or to know more than what is permitted by law. 
LXVIIl. But the things which I myself know by 
having seen them and concerning which no scruple 
forbids me to write are as follows. They show you 
in Rome a temple ^ built not far from the Forum in 
the short street that leads to the Carinae ; it is a 
small shrine, and is darkened by the height of the 
adjacent buildings. The place is called in the native 
speech Velia. In this temple there are images of 
the Trojan gods which it is lawful for all to see, 
with an inscription showing them to be the Penates. 

^ Miiller, Frag. Hist. Graec. i. 197, 20. For Timaeus see 
p. 19, n. 2. 

'The aedes deum Penatium in Velia (Livy xlv. 16, 5 ; 
Mon. Ancyr. iv, 7 ; Varro, de Ling. Lat. v. 54). The 
statues really represented the Dioscuri, but had long been 
identified with the Penates. Serv'ius (on Aen. iii. 12), 
citing Varro, says that on the base of the statues was the 
inscription magnis diis ; but there was probably more 
to the inscription, including penatibvs. 

be the only instance in Dionysius of the citing of the 
Latin words of an inscription ; he usually gives merely the 
purport. Sauppe's hiovs /Tevaraj (i.e., Dis Penatibws put 
into the accusative, following h-qXovaav) might have been 
taken by a scribe, ignorant of Latin, as early C4reek for 
d^ovs FJevaTas. But SrjXovaav is hardly the verb to introduce 
the exact words of an inscription. 

223 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Svo KadyjfjievoL Sopara SietA-j^^dre?, rrjs TraAata? 
€pya re^vrj?. ttoXXol Se /cat d'AAa eV lepol? dpxa^oLS 
etocoAa Tcuf OecJov tovtcuv ideaadfjieOa, Kal ev d-naai 
veai'LGKOL Svo (TrparLOjTLKa. G-)(rjiiara e^opres (j>ai- 
vovrai. opdv fiev St) ravra €^€Otlv, oiKOveLU Se 
Kal 'ypd(f)€Lv virep avrojv, d KaXXiarparos re 6 
Trepl Ua/jLodpaKYj^ ovvra^dpievos loropel Kal Zd- 
Tvpo^ 6 Tov? dp-)(aL0V5 pivOovs cruvayaycov Kal 
aAAod Gvxyoiy TraAatdraro? Se (x)v 'qpLel? tcrpiev 

3 TTOLTjTrjs ^ApKTLVOs. XeyovGL yovv c5Se • XpVdYjV 
TTji' UdXXavros dvyarepa y-qpLapLevrfv AapSdvco 
(f)epi'd? eTTevlyKaod at Scoped? Adqvdg rd re TlaX- 
AaSta Kal rd lepd rd>v pLeydXojv Beojv StSaxOeLGau 
avrchv rds reXerds. eTreSri Se rr^v eVo/x^ptav 
(j>evyovres ApKdhes TJeXoirovvrjOOV pLev e^eXtTTOu, 
iv Se rfj QpaKia vrjocp rovs ^iovs ISpvcravro, 
KarauKevduai rov Adphavov evravda rcov Oecjv 
rovrojv lepdv dpprjrovs rols aAAot? iroiovvra rds 
lSlous avrd)i' ovopLaoias Kal rds reXerds avrols rds 
Kal els ToSe XP^^^^ yivopievas vtto EapioOpaKOjv 

4 eiTLreXeZv. (Ls Se pLerrjye rov Xeoj rrjv TrXela) 
pioipav els rrju Mcrtav rd jLtev lepd ra)v Oecov Kal 
rds reAera? rots' VTTopLeivaoiv ev rfj vrjGcp KaraXi- 
TTelVy rd Se TTaAAaSta Kal rds rcov ^ 6ea)v elKovas 
KaraoKevauduevov dyayeoOai pier avrov. Sta/xat'- 

^ Tcbv added by Reiske. 

^ Miiller, Frag. Hist. Graec. iv. 355 f., 10. Domitiua 
Callistratus seems to have been a Roman freedmaa. 

224 



BOOK r. 68, 2-1 

They are two seated youths holding spears, and 
are pieces of ancient workmanship. We have seen 
many other statues also of these gods in ancient 
temples and in all of them are represented two youths 
in military garb. These it is permitted to see, and it 
is also permitted to hear and to write about them 
what Callistratus,^ the author of the history of 
Samothrace, relates, and also Satyrus, who collected 
the ancient legends, and many others, too, among 
whom the poet Arctinus is the earliest we know of. 
At any rate, the following is the account they give. 
Chryse, the daughter of Pallas, when she was married 
to Dardanus, brought for her dowry the gifts of 
Athena, that is, the Palladia and the sacred symbols 
of the Great Gods, in whose mysteries she had been 
instructed. When the Arcadians, fleeing from the 
deluge,-^ left the Peloponnesus and established their 
abode in the Thracian island,-^ Dardanus built there a 
temple to these gods, whose particular names he kept 
secret from all others, and performed the mysteries 
in their honour which are observed to this day by the 
Samothracians. Then, when he was conducting the 
greater part of the people into Asia, he left the sacred 
rites and mysteries of the gods with those who 
remained in the island, but packed up and carried 
with him the Palladia and the images of the gods. 
And upon consulting the oracle concerning the place 

Satyrus is unknown, but was probably not the same as 
the biographer of that name. Arctinus was regarded in 
later times as the author of two of the poems in the Epic 
Cycle, the Aetkiopis and the Iliou Persis ; but classical 
writers cited the poems anonymously. 

2 See chap. 61, 2. ^ Samothrace. 

225 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Tev6}JL€vov he nepl rrjs OLKrjcrecxj? to. re dXXa fiaOeiv 
KOL TTepl rwv lepajv tt^S" (j)vXaKrJ£ rovbe top xp-qGiiov 
Xa^elv ' 

El? ttoXlv t]v KritrjoOa^ 9eoZs ae^as a(f)9Lrov alei 
Oeivai. KOL (^vXaKois re oe^eiv dvolais re xopols re. 
ecrr'^ av yap rdSe oepLvd Kad^ Vfierep'qv^ )(d6i'a fitfjivr^ 
hojpa Alos KovprjS dXoxcp uedev, rj Se ttoXl? ool 
earac dTTopdiqros rov del \p6vov rjpLara Travra. 

LXIX. AdpSavov jjLev ii> rfj KriadeLGj) re V(f)^ 
iavTOV KOL ovopLaaias opLoias rv)(ovGr) TToXei rd eh-q 
KaraXLTreiv , ^ IXiov 8' eV vorepcp XP^^^ crviotKLoOev- 
Tos iKei ^ pLerevexOrjvai Trpos rcou iyyovcov avrov 
rd lepd. TTOLrjGaoOai he rods '/Aiets" pewv re /cat 
dhvrov avroLS eVt rrjg aKpas Kal (f)vXdrr€iv 8t* 
CTTt/xeAeia? ocrrjs ^ ihvvavro TrXeiGriq? deoTrepLTrrd re 
'qyovpievovs elvai Kal crcurrypta? Kvpia rfj TroAet. 

2 aXiGKopieviqs he rrjs Kdrco TroXeojs rov Alveiav 
Kaprepov ttj? aKpas yevopievov, dpavra eV rcDi/ 
dhvTCxjv rd re lepd rcov pLeydXojv Oecbv Kal onep 
ert TrepLrjv IJaXXdhLOi' [Odrepov yap 'OSucrcrea Kal 
AiopLrih-qv vvKros <^aoLV els " IXlov d(f)iKO[jLevovs 
kXcttji Xa^elv) olx^oOai re Kopiiaavra ^ Ik rrjs 

3 77dAea>S' Kal eXOelv dyovra els 'IraXlav. l4.pKrLi'os 
he (fiTjow VTTO A LOS hoOrjpat Aaphdvcp TJaXXdhiou eu 
Kal elvat rovro ev ' IXlcp reojs r) ttoXls 'qXioKero 
KeKpvpLpievov iv d^drcp • et/coVa 8' eKeivov Kare- 

^ Kiossling: /cri'^et AB. ^ Reiske : tin U. 

' Cobet : u/uerepav O. 

* iK€L O : €/c€iae Reudler, Jacoby. 

226 



BOOK T. 68, 4-69. 3 

where he should settle, among other things that he 
learned he received this answer relating to the custody 
of the holy objects : 

** In the town thou buildest worship undying found 
To gods ancestral ; guard them, sacrifice. 
Adore with choirs. For whilst these holy things 
In thy land remain, Zeus' daughter's gifts of old 
Bestowed upon thv spouse, secure from harm 
Thy city shall abide forevermore." 

LXIX. Dardanus, accordingly, left the statues in 
the city which he founded and named after himself, 
but when Ilium was settled later, they were removed 
thither by his descendants ; and the people of 
Ilium built a temple and a sanctuary for them upon 
the citadel and preserved them with all possible 
care, looking upon them as sent from Heaven and 
as pledges of the city's safety. And while the 
lower town was being captured. Aeneas, possessing 
himself of the citadel, took out of the sanctuary the 
images of the Great Gods and the Palladium which 
still remained (for Odysseus and Diomed, they say, 
when they came into Ilium by night, had stolen 
the other away), and carrying them with him out 
of the city, brought them into Italy. Arctinus, 
however, says that only one Palladium was given 
by Zeus to Dardanus and that this remained in 
Ihum, hidden in the sanctuar\% till the city was being 
taken ; but that from this a copy was made, differing 



* 6oT]s Jacoby, ws Cobet : tJ A. ^ B. 

• Tov Alveiav after Ko^iiaavra deleted 



by Grimm . 

227 



DIONYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

(jK€vaa/xeurjv co? fxiqhkv rrjs dpx^TVTTOv Sta(/)epetv 
dTTOLTi-]? Tcov eTTL^ovXevcTovTcov ^ €U€Kev iv (f)aP€pcp 
redrji'aL /cat avrrjv ^Axoaovs im^ovXevdavras Xa^eZv. 

4 rd fxev ovv els ^ IraXiav vtt" Alveiov /co/xtcr^eWa 
lepd roLs elprjjjievoLg avSpoLGt TreLdojxevos 'ypd(f)cx> tcov 
T€ fMcydXoji' dedJv elKova? elvai, ovs UafxodpaK€9 
'EXXrjvcjv fJLdXtara opytdi^ovcn, Kal to fjLvdevofjLevov ^ 
UaXXd^Lov, 6 (f>aaL Tag Upas ^vXaTTeiv TrapBevous 
iv vaa» K€LfjL€Vov 'EaTias, evda /cat to dddvaTov 
BLaordol^eTaL irvp- vrrep Jju iv vcTTepcp Xex^'^joeTaL 
Xoytp. etT) S' dv /cat Trapd raura rot? ^e^-qXois 
Tj/JLLV dSr]Xa €T€pa. /cat Trepl fiev tcov TpojLKcov 
Upwv TOoavTa elp-qadco. 

LXX. Ma/cai'toy Se oySocp /cat TpiaKocTTO) eret 
TTis ^aaiXeias TeXevr^aavTog napeXa^e ttjv rjye- 
jjioviav UlXovlos dSeXcf)6s cov AuKaviov, jLtera tov 
Alveiov ddvaTov yevofxevos e/c AaovLvias ttjs AaTLVov 
dvyaTpos, 6v <f)a(JLv eV rot? dpeoiv vtto tcjv vopLeajv 

2 eKTpacjirjvaL. tov yap AoKaviov TrapaXa^ovTOS ttjv 
^aaiXeiav Trepiher^s r) Aaov'Cvia yevopievr] fjL-q tl 
Secvou V7T* avTov rrdOr] /caret to Trjg fi-qTpvidg 
oVo/Lta, iyKVpLOji' ovaa SlSojolv iavTTjv Tvpprjvo) ^ tlvl 
ovo(f)op^LCOv i7TLjxeXr]Tfi ^aGiXiKUJV , ov jjSeL AaTivcp 
yevopievov ev tols /xaAtora TrpoGijyopou. 6 S' etV 

^ Schwartz : iTn^ovXevovrtov O, Jacoby. 
2 Kiessling : fxe^ivdevfxevov O. 

' Tvpprjvo) Steph., Tvppco Gelenius, Portus : Tvpavuuji ABa, 
avpp-qvuj Bb. 

228 



BOOK T. 69, 3-70, 2 

in no respect from the original, and exposed to 
public view, on purpose to deceive those who might 
be planning to steal it, and that the Achaeans, 
having formed such a plan, took the copy away. I 
say, therefore, upon the authority of the men above- 
mentioned, that the holy objects brought into Italy 
by Aeneas were the images of the Great Gods, to 
whom the Samothracians, of all the Greeks, pay 
the greatest worship, and the Palladium, famous in 
legend, which they say is kept by the holy \argins 
in the temple of Vesta, where the perpetual fire is 
also preserved ; but concerning these matters 1 
shall speak hereafter. ^ And there may also be other 
objects besides these which are kept secret from us 
who are not initiated. But let this suffice concerning 
the holy objects of the Trojans. 

LXX. Upon ^ the death of Ascanius in the thirty- 
eighth year of his reign, Silvius, his brother, succeeded 
to the rule. He was born of Lavinia, the daughter 
of Latinus, after the death of Aeneas, and they say 
that he was brought up on the mountains by the 
herdsmen. For when Ascanius took over the rule, 
Lavinia, becoming alarmed lest her relationship as 
step-mother might draw upon her some severity 
from him, and being then with child, entrusted her- 
self to a certain Tyrrhenus,^ who had charge of the 
royal herds of swine and whom she knew to have been 
on very intimate terms with Latinus. He, carrying 

1 ii. 66. ^FoT chaps. 70-71 cf. Livy i. 3, 6-10. 

^ The name appears as Tyrrheus or Tyrrhus in Virgil 
{Aen. vii. 485), the only other author who mentions such 
an individual. Tj^rrh(e)us, like Turnus, is apparently a 
modified form of Tyrrhenus ; cf. p. 211, n. 1. 

229 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

vXa? ipTjixovs ayaywv avTrjv ws raJv iTTLTVXovcrajv 
rwa, (puXarro/jLevos 6(f)6rjvaL rot? elSodLv 6Tpe(f)€V 
€v rfj vdrrrj KaraorKevdaa? o'lktjglv ov TroAAots" 
yvwpLfiov, KOi TO TTatSLOv yevofxevov ^ dvaip^lrai t€ 
KOL Tpe<j)eL EiXovLOv ovofidaag oltto rrjs vXrjs, cocrTiep 

3 dv el TLS £'AAaSt yXcocrorr] Xe^eiev ^YXalov. XP^'^^^ 
Se TTpo'CovTos COS" TToXXriv tpfjTTjGLv €yv(x> rrj? yvvaiKOS 
VTTo Twv Aarivcov yivopLeviqv koL hC alrias ovra 
TTapd TO) TTXrfieL tov "AoKduLOV, 609 dvrjp-qKora rrjv 
TTaLSlcrKrjv, (l)pdl,€L tco StJ^lo) to TrpdypLa koL ttjv 
dvdpojTTOv dy€L ixerd rod Traihds eV rrj? vdir-qs, 
rvxj] p^ev Srj roiavrr] ;\;p7]<7a/xevos" o UlXovCos ttjv 
elprjpiivrjv eG^ev ovopLaoiav kol to e^ eKeivov yivos 
aTTav, TTJV Se ^ ^aaiXetav irapeXa^ev , eTreiSrj tov 
dS€X(f)6v avTov TeXevTYJaaL ovveTreaev, dpL^iXoyov 
yevopi€vqv Trpds eva tov irpeG^evaavTa tojv Mcr/ca- 
vlov TTaihayv "lovXov d^LOVVTa ttjv iraTpcpav dp^r^v 

4 hiahe^aGdai. ttjv he hcK-qv e7TeiljTJ(j)LGev 6 hrjp,05 
ctAAots" re v7Ta)(6els Xoyois kol ovx rjKiGTa otl 
pLTjTpos rjv 6 ElXovCo'^ eTTLKXripov TTJs dpx'^?'^ ^lovXo) 
Se dvTL TrJ9 ^aGiXeias lepd tl? e^ovGia TrpoGeTedrj 

KOL TLpLTj TO) TC dKLvhvVCp TTpOVXOVGa TTJS p^OVapXldS * 

/cat ttJ paGTcovT) tov piov, ■^v ert Kal el? ifie to ef 
avTov yevos eKapirovTo, '/ouAtot^ KXrjdevTeg dir' 
eKeivov. eyeveTO 3e pLeycGTog dpLa Kal XapiTrpoTaTos 
oIkojv ovtos (Lv rjp.eLS 'iGp^ev, dvhpas Te Sta^opcora- 

^ oi) TToXXoLS . . . y€v6fjL€vov BC : cm. A, -fjs ro (.yKVfu.oi^ovfj.ei'ov 
aTTOKirqadorjs CmgD. 

2 8c added by Gelenius. 

' T^S apx^S Reiske : rij dpxfj O. 

230 



BOOK I. 70, 2-4 

her into the lonely woods as if she were an ordinary 
woman, and taking care that she was not seen by 
anyone who knew her, supported her in a house 
he built in the forest, which was known to but 
few. And when the child was born, he took it up 
and reared it, naming it, from the wood, Silvius, 
or, as one might say in Greek, Hylaios, But in the 
course of time, finding that the Latins made great 
search for the woman and that the people accused 
Ascanius of having put her to death, he acquainted 
them with the whole matter and brought the woman 
and her son out of the forest. From this experience 
Silvius got his name, as I have related, and so did all 
his posterity. And he became king after the death of 
his brother, though not without a contest with one 
of the sons of Ascanius, — lulus, the eldest, — who 
claimed the succession to his father's rule ; the 
issue was decided by vote of the people, who were in- 
fluenced chiefly by this consideration, among others, 
that Silvius' mother was heiress to the kingdom. 
Upon lulus was conferred, instead of the sovereigntv, 
a certain sacred authority and honour preferable 
to the royal dignity both for security and ease of 
life, and this prerogative ^ was enjoyed even to my 
day by his posterity, who were called Julii after him. 
This house became the greatest and at the same 
time the most illustrious of any we know of, and 

^ The reference is probably to the office of pcnitifex 
maximum, held by both Julius Caesar and Augustus. 



* fiovapx^as B : f^ov•apxlKfjs R. 
^ Geleiiius : louAoi U. 



231 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

rovs rjyeiJLOvcjDV rjveyKev, of? ro evyeve? at dperal /jlt) 
dTTLcrreiadaLTTapeaxoi' " vrrep cop ivdXXcp Sr^XajOtjcreTaL 
Xoycp rd TTpoorrjKovra. 

LXXI. EiXovtov 8' ivos heovra rpiaKovra krrj 
KaraaxdvTos rrjv dp-)(rju Alveia^ vlos avrov StaSe^a- 
fxevos rrjv hvvaGTelav ivl TrXeico rptdKovra irojv 
e^acrlXevaeu. fierd he tovtov ev kol TTevrTjKovra 
Aarlvos Tjp^ev errj • "AX^as Be pLerd tovtov evo? 
Seovra rerrapa/coi'Ta eTrj ' pLeTd 8e 'AX^av KdrreTO? 
e^ irrl toZ? eiKOcnv • evretra Kdrrv? Svelv heovTa 
TpiaKOVTa. pLeTa Se KaTTVv KaXireTos d^pf- TpioKai- 

2 Se/ca eTcJov KaTeax^ Tr]i> dpxrjv. e^rjs Be Ti^epivos 
OKTaeTTJ xP^^ov e^aolXevGev. TeXevTrjaai 8' ovtos 
ev pidxj] vapd TTOTapLw yevopLevrj XeyeTai • irapeve- 
xO^i-? Be VTTO Tov pevpiaTO? eTTcovvpiov eavTcp /care- 
XiTTe TOV TTOTapLOv AX^ovXav^ KaXovpLevov irpoTepov. 
Ti^epivov Be BidBoxos AypLTnrag ev /cat rerrapa- 

3 KOVTa e^adiXevaev eTTj. ^era Be AypLTnrav AXXcL- 
Blos TvpawLKov Tt xPVf^^ ^"^^ Oeol? dTrexOdpuevov 
evd? BeovTa e'lKocriv • (p 7Tepi<^povovvTL Td BaipLovLa 
KareaKevaorTo Kepavvojv re ftt/xT^/iara /cat ktvttol 
jSpoj-'rat? eiJi(j)epels, oh BeBcTTeadaL tovs dvOpconovs 
COS" 6e6? r]^LOV. opL^pcov Be /cat Kepavvcov €L£ tov 
OLKOV avTOV KaTaoKTufjdvTOjv TTJ? re XlpLurj?, nap* 
T^v oIkojv eTvyxcLve, TrXrjpLpLvpav ovk elcudvlav Xa^ov- 
(TTjg KaTaKXvadels TravotKLOS aTroAAurat. /cat vvv 
€TL BiaXapiTTOvcrr]? ttjs XlpLVT]? ev pLepei tlvl, orav 
VTrovoGT-qcrrj to vdpia /cat GTadepos 6 ^v96s yevqraL, 
232 



BOOK I. 70, 4-71, 3 

produced the most distinguished commanders, whose 
virtues were so many proofs of their nohihty. But 
concerning them I shall say what is requisite in 
another place. ^ 

LXXI. Silvius, after holding the sovereignty 
twenty-nine years, was succeeded by Aeneas, his 
pon, who reigned thirty-one years. After him, 
Latinus reigned fifty-one, then Alba thirty-nine ; 
after Alba, Capetus reigned twenty-six, then Capys 
twenty-eight, and after Capys, Calpetus held the 
rule for thirteen years. Then Tiberinus reigned for 
a period of eight years. This king, it is said, was 
slain in a battle that was fought near a river, and 
being carried away by the stream, gave his name 
to the river, which had previously been called the 
Albula. Tiberinus' successor, Agrippa, reigned forty- 
one years. After Agrippa, Allodius, a tyrannical 
creature and odious to the gods, reigned nine- 
teen years. Contemptuous of the divine powers, he 
had contrived imitations of lightning and sounds 
resembling thunder-claps, with which he proposed 
to terrify people as if he were a god. But rain 
and lightning descended upon his house, and 
the lake beside which it stood rose to an unusual 
height, so that he was overwhelmed and destroyed 
with his whole household. And even now when 
the lake is clear in a certain part, which happens 
whenever the flow of water subsides and the depths 

^ This promise is not fulfilled in the extant portions of 
the history. 



Steph. : aAjSuAai' Bb, aAjSav ABa. 

233 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TracTToiSaju ipeLTTca /cat aAAa OLKT^aecxJS '^X^ (l>aLV€Tat. 

4 *Aov€VTLvo? Se TTapa rovrov ttjv hwaur^iav SiaSe^d- 
lievoSy d(^' ov rcJov irrra X6(J)cov ri? iTTcoWfjLO? iyevero 
Tibv GUfiTTeTToXLOTfievajv rfj 'Pcofjirj, TpiaKovra Kal 
€7TTa err] rrjv dp)(r]v Kareo)(^ev. IJpoKas he ixerd 
rovrov err] elKoui /cat rpta. eVetra M/.ioAtos' ov 
uvv Slkt] rrjv ^acnXeiav Karao^cjv Nefieropi Trpoa- 
riKOVoav, os rjv avrco irpea^vrepos dhe\(f)6sy hvo 

5 /cat rerrapoLKOvra err) Swaarevei. M/xoAtou Se 
dvaipeOevros vtto 'PcofivXov /cat 'Pcopiov ^ rcov €/c 
ttJ? tepas" Kopris yevofievojv, to? avriKa XexO'^aerai, 
fierd rov eKeivov ddvarov oLTroXafJi^dveL rrjv Kara 
vofiov Svi'aarecav Nefxerojp 6 rcov veavtaKcov pLrfrpo- 
TTarcop. rco 8' e^rjs erei rrjg Nefieropos dpxrJ9, 
hevrepcp he /cat rpiaKoarw /cat rerpaKoatoaraJ fxera 
rrjv * IXlov dXcouiv, drroLKLav arelXavre? AX^avol 
*PcofjLvXov Kal 'Pcofiov rrjv rjyepioviav avrrjg e^ov- 
rcov Krll^ovoL 'Pwiirjv erovg evearcoros irpcorov rrjs 
e^hofJLT)? oXvjJLTTidhos, T]v evLKa GrdSiov AaLKXrjs 
MeoGijvLO^y dpxpvros Ad'qvrjGt Xdponos eros rrjs 
heKaertas irpajrov. 

LXXII. AfjL(f)La^r)r'^aea)9 he ttoAAt^s" ovcrqs Kal 
nepl rov ^poi-'ov rrj? Krioeco'S Kal nepl rcJov oiKLdrajv 
rrj£ TToXeojs ovhe avro? ojjj.r]v hetv cjarrep ofioXoyov- 

^ pffiov A (a spelling found in several later passages, now 
in A, now in B). 



1 Kirby F. Smith has pointed out {Am. Jour. Philol. 
xvi., 1895, p. 205) that the Alban Lake is fed entirely from 
the bottom by gushing springs, so that vafia here has its 

234 



BOOK I. 71, 3-72, 1 

are undisturbed,' th<i ruins of porticoes and other 
traces of a dwelling appear. Aventinus, after whom 
was named one of the seven hills that are joined to 
make the city of Rome, succeeded him in the sover- 
eignty and reigned thirty-seven years, and after him 
Proca twenty-three years. Then Amulius, having 
unjustly possessed himself of the kingdom which 
belonged to Numitor, his elder brother, reigned forty- 
two years. But when Amulius had been slain by 
Romulus and Remus, the sons of the holy maiden, as 
shall presently be related, Numitor, the maternal 
grandfather of the youths, after his brother's death 
resumed the sovereignty which by law belonged 
to him. In the next year of Numitor's reign, which 
was the four hundred and thirty-second after the 
taking of Troy, the Albans sent out a colony, under 
the leadership of Romulus and Remus, and founded 
Rome, in the beginning of the first year of the seventh 
Olympiad, when Daicles of Messene was victor in the 
foot race, and at Athens Charops was in the first year 
of his ten-year term as archon.- 

LXXII. But as there is great dispute concerning 
both the time of the building of the city and the 
founders of it, I have thought it incumbent on me 
also not to give merely a cursory account of these 

ordinary meaning of " spring " or " running water," and 
aradepos is used with particular appropriateness of the 
depths of this lake. 

^ 751 B.C. According to the common tradition the 
archonship, which was at first held for hfe, was in 752 
Umited to a ten-year term, and fijially, ca. 683, to a single 
year. See Grote, History of Greece, Part ii., chap. x. 
(beginning) ; von Schoeffer in Pauly-Wissowa, Eeal- 
Encyclopddie, s.v. Archontes, cols. 569 f. 

235 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

fjL€va TTpo? aTTOLvrajv i^ eTnhpoiirjs eTTeXdelv. Kecfxi' 
Xojv fiev yap 6 rcpyidiog ovyypacpev? TraXato? ttolw 
Sevrepa yevea /xera rov ^ IXiaKov ttoAc/xov eKriudai 
Xiyei T-qv ttoXlv vtto tcjv e| ^IXiov hiaGOjOevrajv crvv 
Alveiq-y oIki(jt7]v Se avrrjs d7ro(f)aLV€L rov rjyqGdfjLevov 
TTJ? dnoLKia? ^Pojfxov, rovrov 8* etvat ra>v Alveiov 
TTalScov €va' rerrapa? Se ^T^crtv Alvela yeveodai 
TratSa?, AoKavtov, EvpvXeovra, 'Poj/jlvXov, 'PcofMov. 
eip-qrai Se /cat Ar^fiayopa Kal AyaOvXXo) Kal aAAot? 
crvx^olg 6 re "x^povo? Kal 6 rrj? diroiKLag rjyeiJicbv 6 

2 auTos". 6 Se ra? lepeias ra? ev "Apyei Kal rd Kad* 
iKaorrt-jV npaxOevra cruvayaycbv Alveiav ^tjgIv ek 
MoXorrwv elg ^iTaXiav iXdovra fxer^ ^OSvacrecos ^ 
OLKiGTrjv yeveoBai rrjs iroXecoSy ovofxdoraL S' avrrju 
diTo fJLLag Tcov '/AtaScuy 'Pcofx-qg. ravrrjv 8e Aeyet 
rat? a'AAats" Tpajdoi TTapaKeXevaafievrjv kolvtj /xer' 
avrajv i/JLTrprjaaL rd GKd(f)'q ^apwofxev-qv rfj nXavrj. 
ofJLoXoyet 3' avro) Kal AafJLaaTrjg 6 Eiyevs Kal a'AAoi 

3 TLvis ApLcrroreX-qs 8e o (jaXoGO^os Axat-ojv TLvas 

^ ohvaaiois R : ohvaaia B, Jacoby. 



1 See p. 157, n. 3. 

2 'Pcofjios was the name invented by the Greeks for the 
founder of Rome before they had heard of any Romulus or 
Remus ; later they used it as the equivalent of Remus. It 
seems best to translate it as Romus (or Romos), except 
where we are clearly dealing with the Roman legend of 
the twin brothers. See recent discussions of the growth of 
the legend by Carter in Roscher's Lexikon der griech. u. rom. 
Mythologie, s.v. Romulus, cols. 167-83 ; Rosenberg in Pauly- 
Wissowa, Real-Enc, s.v. Romulus, cols. 1074-92 ; De Sanctis, 
Storia del Romania i. pp. 206-17. 

236 



BOOK I. 72. 1-3 

things, as if they were universally agreed on. For 
Cephalon of Gergis,^ a very ancient writer, says that 
the city was built in the second generation after the 
Trojan war by those who had escaped from Troy with 
Aeneas, and he names as the founder of it Romus,"^ 
who was the leader of the colony and one of Aeneas' 
sons ; he adds that Aeneas had four sons, Ascanius, 
Euryleon, Romulus and Romus. And Demagoras,^ 
Agathyllus and many others agree with him as regards 
both the time and the leader of the colony. But the 
author of the history of the priestesses at Argos * 
and of what happened in the days of each of them 
says that Aeneas came into Italy from the land of the 
Molossians with Odysseus ^ and became the founder 
of the city, which he named after Rome, one of the 
Trojan women. He says that this woman, growing 
weary with wandering, stirred up the other Trojan 
women and together with them set fire to the ships. 
And Damastes of Sigeum ^ and some others agree 
with him. But Aristotle, the philosopher, relates ^ 

^ Demagoras of Samos apparently wrote a work on 
Trojan or Samothracian antiquities. Agathyllus has 
already been cited in chap. 49, 2. 

* The author of this work was Hellanicus (see p. 71, n. 1). 
The present quotation is frag. 53 (end) in Miiller, Frag. 
Hist. Graec. i. 52. 

^A variant reading is "after Odysseus." See critical 
note. 

• Damastes {ca. 400) wrote the genealogies of the Greek 
leaders before Troy ; also a description of the earth and its 
peoples, to accompany his map of the world. 

' Probably in his lyistitida Barbarica. Miiller, Fraj. 
Hist. Graec. ii. 178, 242. 

237 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

larop^L Tcuv oltto Tpoias di'aKOfiLcrafxeiwv TrepiTrXeov- 
TQ? MaXdav, CTretra ;^;ei/i.a>v< /5tata» KaraXiq4>0ivras 
reojs fiev vtto rcov TTvev/jLarcov (fiepof^ievovs TroXXaxfj 
Tov TTeXdyovs TrXavdadai, reXexjra)VTas S' iXOelv els 

TOV TOTTOV TOVTOV TT^? ' OtTLKTJS , OS KoXeLTai AaTlVlOV^ 

4 iirl TO) TvpprjVLKcp neXdyei Kelfievos- dafxevovs Se 
rrjv yfjv ISovras di'eXKVGai. re rag va£J? avrodi /cat 
^larpLipaL rrjv )(eL/JLepLvr]v a>pav TrapaoKevat^ofxevovs 
eapos dp)(Ofxevov TrXelv. epLTrprjoOeiGiJjv he avrols 
VTTO vuKra rcov vewv ovk €)(ovras ottojs Troiijaourai 
TTjv aTTapoLV, d^ovX'qroj dvdyKTj rovs ^lovs iv w 
Kar7^)(6rjoav ■)^ojpico ISpvaaadai. avfi^rjuaL Be av- 
rols rovro bid yvvalKas alxp-O-Xajrovs , as ervy^ov 
dyovres ef 'IXiov. ravras be KaraKavoai rd TrXoia 
(fio^ovfievas rrjv oLKabe rcov ^Ay^aiwv dirapoiv, cos 

6 els SovXelav dcja^opievas. KaXXias be 6 rds Aya- 
doKXeovs rrpd^eis dvaypdipas 'Pcofxr]v rivd Tpcodba 
rcbv d(f)LKvovfievcov dfjua rols dXXois Tpcoalv els 
^IraXiav yqpLaodai Aarlvco rep ^aaiXel rcov M^o- 
piyivcxjv KOL yewTJaai rpels^ rralbas, 'Pcofiov /cat 
'Pco/jLvXov /cat ^ Tr)Xeyovov ^ . . . OLKcaavras be 
TToXiv, drro rrjs fJirjrpos avrij OeoBat rovvofia. 
Eevayopas be 6 (jvyypa(f)evs ^Obvooetos Kal KlpK-qs 

^ Aariviov O : Adriov Steph., /laouiViov Kiessling. 

* Tptf? B : hvo R. 
^ KQt B : om. R. 

* T-qX^yovov added (from Syncellus) by Ritschl, who in- 
dicated the loss of other words following this. 

238 



BOOK I. 72. 3-5 

that some of the Achaeans, while they were doubling 
Cape Malea on their return from Troy, were overtaken 
by a violent storm, and being for some time driven 
out of their course by the winds, wandered over 
many parts of the sea, till at last they came to this 
place in the land of the Opicans which is called 
Latinium,^ lying on the Tyrrhenian sea. And being 
pleased with the sight of land, they hauled up their 
ships, stayed there the winter season, and were pre- 
paring to sail at the beginning of spring ; but when 
their ships were set on fire in the night and they 
were unable to sail away, they were compelled 
against their will to fix their abode in the place 
where they had landed. This fate, he says, was 
brought upon them by the captive women they were 
carrying with them from Troy, who burned the 
ships, fearing that the Achaeans in returning home 
would carry them into slavery. Callias,^ who wrote 
of the deeds of Agathocles, says that Rome, one 
of the Trojan women who came into Italy with the 
other Trojans, married Latinus, the king of the 
Aborigines, by whom she had three sons, Romus, 
Romulus and Telegonus, . . . and having built a 
city, gave it the name of their motlier. Xenagoras, 
the historian,^ writes that Odysseus and Circe had 

1 Probably originally an adjective (like the later AarLvr)), 
"the Latin land." Some have wished to read Latium or 
Lavinium. 

^ Callias wrote the history of Agathocles in 22 books. 
His account was so biased in favour of that tyrant that 
he was accused of having been heavily bribed by him. 

'Xenagoras (date uncertain) wrote a historical work 
called Xpovoi and a book about islands. Miiller, Frag. 
Hist. Grace, iv. 527, 6. 

239 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

vlov? yeveodai rpels, 'Pw/jlou, 'Avreiav} 'Ap^eiav^' 
OLKLoavras Se rpets" TToXec? a<j) eavTwu d^oOai rols 

G KTLGfjLaaL rag ovoyLauias . Alovvgio'^ he 6 XaA/ciSei)? 
OLKLGTrju fxev OLTTOcpaLveL rrj? TToXeojg 'PaJfJLov • rovrov 
Se Ae'yei Kara /xev rivas AuKavLov , Kara 64 rti^a? 
'Hfjiadicovos elvat natSa. elac Se riues ol ttju 
' Pojixiiv iKTiadai Xeyovcnv vtto 'PajfjLov rod IrakoVf 
fiTjrpos §€ AevKapta? ^ ttjs Aarivov Ovyarpos 

LXXIII. "Ey^ajv Se ttoWovs Kal dXXovg rwv 
' EXXrjVLKOJU TTapex^crdai Gvyypacjieajv , ol hta^opovs 
d7TO(:f)aLVOu(Ti rou? oiKiOTa? rrjs TroAeco?, Iva [jLTj 
Sofa; ^ fiaKp-qyopelv eVt rovs 'PcofJuaLOJU iXevcrofxac 
(jvyypa(f)€LS. TraXatog fiev ovv ovre ovyypacfievg 
oure Xoyoypd(l)os eorl 'Pa>fiala)v ovBe els ' €k 
TTaXaioiV pievTOL Xoyojv iv lepals heXrois Gajt,opieucov 

2 l/cacTTo? TL TTapaXa^ojv dveypaipev. rovrcov 84 ni^es 
fxev Alveiov yeveadai ulou? Xeyovoi 'PcupLuXou re 
Kal 'Pojpiov Tovs OLKLGrds rrjg 'PwpLrjs, erepoL 8e 
duyarpos Alveiov TralSas, orov Se Trarpo? ovKeri 
hiopltjOVTe? SoOrjvaL 8 avrovg vtt' Alveiov Aarivco 
TO) ^acnXel rajv A^opiyivcov opb-qpevoovras , ore Kal 
at TriGreis rols €7Tf)(a)pioLS npos rovs enijXvSas 
iyevovro. daTra^opLevov Se avrovs Aarivov rfj re 
glAAt^ depaveia TTepieiTeLV ev Kal eKyovov dppevog 
diraiha reXevrcovra SiaSoxovs p-ipovs nvos ri^s 

^ 'AvTiiav Steph. Byz. : avriav O. 
^ apheiav B : aphiav A. 
^ Kiessling : rjXeKrpas A, Aeu/crpas B. 
* Blicheier : 56^ai/tt AB. 

240 



BOOK I. 72, 5-73, 2 

three sons, Romus, Anteias and Ardcias, who built 
three cities and called them after their own names. ^ 
Dionysius of Chalcis - names Romus as the founder of 
the city, but says that according to some this man 
was the son of Ascanius, and according to others 
the son of Emathion. There are others who de- 
clare that Rome was built by Romus, the son of 
Italus and Leucaria, the daughter of Latinus. 

LXXIII. I could cite many other Greek historians 
who assign different founders to the city, but, not 
to appear prolix, I shall come to the Roman his- 
torians. The Romans, to be sure, have not so much 
as one single historian or chronicler who is ancient ; 
however, each of their historians has taken some- 
thing out of ancient accounts that are preserved on 
sacred tablets.^ Some of these say that Romulus 
and Remus, the founders of Rome, were the sons of 
Aeneas, others say that they were the sons of a\ 
daughter of Aeneas, without going on to determine I 
who was their father ; that they were delivered 
as hostages by Aeneas to Latinus, the king of the 
Aborigines, when the treaty was made between the 
inhabitants and the new-comers, and that Latinus, 
after giving them a kindly welcome, not only did 
them many other good offices, but, upon dying with- 
out male issue, left them his successors to some part 

^ Rome, Antiuni and Ardea. 

^ Dionysius of Chalcis (fourth century ?) wrote several 
books of KTiaeLs or " Foundings of Cities." Miiller, Frag. 
Hist. Qraec: iv. 395, 11. 

^ This probably refers to the annates maximi, the brief 
record of magistrates, prodigies and important public 
events of each year kept by the pontijcx rnaximas. Cf. iv. 
30,3. 

241 

VOL. I. K 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

3 eavTov oipxV^ KaTaXiTreZv . d'AAoi he Xeyovaiv 
Alv€LOV reXevTijcravTog AoKavLOv anacrav ttjv Aa- 
TLVcov OLp)(rjv TTapaXa^ovra velpiauOai rrpos rovs 
dSeX(f)ovs 'PojfjLvXov re Kal 'Pojfiov rrjv re ^wpav 
Koi TTjv SvvafiLV TTjv AaTivcDv rpixfj' avTOv fiev 
Brj TTjv re "AX^av Krioai Kal aAA* drra TToXiapLaTa- 
'Pcofiov 8e KaTTVTjv fiev drro rod ttpottolttttov Kolttvos, 
Ayxicrqv 8e diro rod TrpoTrdropos Ay^^iGOVy Alveiav 
he TTjV varepov KXrjOelcjav ^IdvLKXov diro rod irarpog, 
^PcjpLTjv he d(f)^ eavTov ovopLaodeLGas } ravTTjv he 
Xpoi^ovs Ttms" eprjp.ojOelaav erepas avOig eXdovo-rjS 
diTOLKLa^y Tjv AX^avol eareiXav rjyovfievov 'Pojp^vXov 
Kal 'Poj/xou, rrjv dpxo.iav kXtjcilv ^ d-noXa^eiv ■ ware 
hiTTas elvai rrjg 'Pcojjirjs rds KTiaets, rr)v fxev oXlyov 
vcrrepov Ta)i> TpcxjiKwv yevopbevqv, rrjv he irevreKai- 

4 heKa yeveals varepovoav rij? Trporepas. el he ng 
aTTtheli' ^ovXrjoeraL rd TrpoGcorepoj Kal rpiTq tls 
dp)(aLorepa tovtojv evped-qcreraL 'PcopLTj yeiop.ei'rj 
TTplv Alveiav Kal Tpcva? eXdelv etV ^IraXiav. ravra 
he ov Tcijv e7TLrvx6vTa>v ng ovhe veojv cruyypa(f)€vs 
loToprjKev, dAA' Avtloxos d UvpaKOVOio?, ov Kal 
vporepov epLvqadrju. (f)rj(jl he Mopyrirog ev VraAta 
pauiXevovTOS ('^v he rore '/raAia tj 0,770 Tdpavros 

^ ovofiaodeiaas added by Sauppe, who assumed tlie loss 
of several lines here, in which mention was made of the 
cities founded by Romulus. But it is quite probable that 
in this earlier tradition, which would appear to be more 
Greek than Roman, Romulus played somewhat the same 
subordinate role that Remus did at a later stage ; he may 
simply have aided his brother (who might better be called 
Romus here) in founding the four cities named. Indeed, 
the Etymoloyicurti Ma(jnvm {s.v. Kanvrj et 'Pw^i-q) states 

242 



BOOK T. 73, 3-4 

of his kingdom. Others say that after the death of 
Aeneas Ascanius, having succeeded to the entire 
sovereignty of the Latins, divided both the country 
and the forces of the Latins into three parts, two of 
which he gave to his brothers, Romulus and Remus. 
He himself, they say, built Alba and some other 
towns ; Remus built cities which he named Capua, 
after Capys, his great-grandfather, Anchisa, after his 
grandfather Anchises, Aeneia (which was afterwards 
called Janiculum), after his father, and Rome, 
after himself.^ This last city was for some time 
deserted, but upon the arrival of another colony, 
which the Albans sent out under the leadership of 
Romulus and Remus, it received again its ancient 
name. So that, according to this account, there 
were two settlements of Rome, one a little after the 
Trojan war, and the other fifteen generations after 
the first. 2 And if anyone desires to look into the 
remoter past, even a third Rome will be found, 
more ancient than these, one that was founded 
before Aeneas and the Trojans came into Italy. 
This is related by no ordinary or modern historian, but 
by Antiochus of Syracuse, whom I have mentioned 
before.^ He says that when Morges reigned in Italy 
(which at that time comprehended all the seacoast 

^ Anchisa and Aeneia are otherwise unknown. See 
critical note. 

2 See chap. 45, 3. 

3 Chap. 12, 3; 22,5; 35, 1. The present quotation is 
found in Miiller, Frag. Hist. Grr:ec. i. 182, 7. 

on the authority of Greek writers that Capua and Rome 
were founded by Romus and Romulus, the sons of Aeneas. 
2 Schwartz : ktiolv O, Jacoby. 

243 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

o-xpi- UoaeiScovLas TrapdXLos) iXOelv cL? avrou dvSpa 
cf)vydSa eV 'Pco/xt;?. Aeyct Se c5Se • '' irrel 8e '/raAo? 
Kareyripa, M6py7)s ipaoiXevGev. irrl tovtov 8e dvrjp 
d(^iK€To eV *PiofjL7)g <l)vyds' UtKeXog ovojxa aural." 

6 /card /U.ev' St) toi^ UvpaKOVcriov (7vyypa(f)ea naXaid tl£ 
evpLGKerat Kal vporepovcra rojv TpojiKOjv ^ 'Pcofirj} 
TTorepov 8e nepl rovs avrov? "qv tottovs, iv ot? rj vvv 
OLKOvfJLevr] ttoAi? Iotlv, r) -^ajplov erepov irvy)(auev 
ovrojs 6i'oiJLal,6pLevov daa(f)€? eKeivov KaraXLTTOvros 
oi)S' iyco hvva/JLaL ovfi^aXelv . rrepl fxev ovv tojv 
TTaXaicou KTcaecou LKavd riyovfiai rd TrpoeLprjfieva. 
LXXIV. Tov Se TeXevralov yevo/xevov rrjs 'Pco/xt^? 
OLKLCTpLOV t) ktlglv Tj o tl Srj7TOT€ XPV ^CLAetP- Tt/xaio? 
fi€v 6 ZLKeXicoT-qs ovK ot3' OTCp KavovL xpriad}JLevo<s 
dpLa KapxqhovL Kn^opLevr) yeudcrOaL (j^rjolv oySooj kol 
rpLaKOGTO) TTpOTepov €T€L Trj<; 7Tpcx)Tr)g oXufXTTidSog ■ 
AevKLOS 8e KlyKLO'^, dvrjp tujv Ik tov fSovXevTiKov 
(TVveSplov, irepl to reraprov €Tog rrjg StoSe/cdrr^? 
oXvjJLTndSog KoCvros Se 0d^LO<; /caret ro TrpaJrov 

2 €TO£ rrjs oySoT)'; oXufimdhos. Kdrcov Be UopKiog 
* EXXrjVLKOv fxkv ovx 6pit,eL ^(^povov , eTn/jLeXrjg 8e 
yevofJLevo? el Kal rt? d'AAo? Trepl ^ rrjv avvayojyrju 
tt)? dp\aLoXoyovpLei'if)<; loroplas frecjLu d7TO<f)alv€L 
Sucrt Kal rpidKOvra kol lerpaKOGiois vcrrepovaau 
Twv ^IXiaKchv. 6 be xpovos ovros duafierpr^dels 

244 



BOOK I. 73, 4-74, 2 

from Tarentum to Posidoriia M, a man came to him 
who had been banished from Rome. His words 
are these : " When Itahis was growing old, Morges 
reigned. In his reign there came a man who had 
been banished from Rome ; his name was Sicelus." 
According to the S}Tacusan historian, therefore, an 
ancient Rome is found even earUer than the Trojan 
war. However, as he has left it doubtful whether it 
was situated in the same region where the present city 
stands or whether some other place happened to be 
called by this name, I, too, can form no conjecture. 
But as regards the ancient settlements of Rome, I 
think what has already been said is sufficient. 

LXXIV. As to the last settlement or founding of 
the city, or whatever we ought to call it, Timaeus 
of Sicily," following what principle I do not know, 
places it at the same time as the founding of Carthage, 
that is, in the thirty-eighth year before the first 
Olympiad ^ ; Lucius Cincius, a member of the senate, 
places it about the fourth year of the twelfth Olym- 
piad,^ and Quintus Fabius in the first year of the 
eighth Olympiad.^ Porcius Cato does not give the 
time according to Greek reckoning, but being as 
careful as any writer in gathering the data of ancient 
history, he places its founding four hundred and 
thirty-two years after the Trojan war ; and this 

^ Later Pacstum. ''See p. 19, a. 2. 

3 813 B.C. *72Sb.c. ^141 b.o. 



^ TpojtKwv Reudler : rpojiKcbu )(p6vwi' O. 
* 'Pco/JLT) Sylburg, cm. Jacoby : rj pooix-q O. 
' TTcpt B : 6tV R. 

245 



DIONYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

Tat? ^Eparoddevovs ■x^povoypa(l)Lais Kara ro Trpajrov 
eros TTiTTTeL rrj? i^So/JLrjs oXv/xncdSo-;. on he elaiv 
ol Kavoves uytet?, ols ^Eparoadiviqs Kexpy]TaLy Kal 
TTOJS 6.V TLS arrevOvvoi rov^ ' Pcofialajv )(p6i'ov£ npos 
TOV9 E/{XrjViKovs, iv erepcp SeSi^Acorat /jlol Xoyo). 

3 ov yap rj^iovv (hs IJoXv^los 6 MeyaXoTroXlrrjs 
ToaovTO jxovov €L7reLV, on Kara to Sevrepov eros 
rrj? i^SofJLTjg oXvpLTTLOiSog rrjv ^PcofiT^v eVricr^at 

TTelBopLaL, Ou3' €7T6 TOV TTapOL TOiS dp)(L€p€Vai ^ 

K€Lp.ivov TTivaKOS ivos Kal pLovov Trjv TTLcrnv 
d^aadvLGTov KaraXiir^Zv , dXXd rovs irriXoyiGpiovs, 
ols avros TrpoGedepLrjv, els pLeaov vrrevOvvovs rols 

4 f^ovXrjOeLCTLV eGopievovs e^eveyKelv. rj [.lev ow 
dKpl^eia ev exetVoj h-qXovTaL rco Xoycp, Xe^^drjcreraL 
he Kal hid Trjahe rrjs rrpaypLareias avrd TavayKaio- 
rara. e-)(ei he ovtojs' rj KeXrcbv e<j)ohos, Kad" riv 
7) ^PcjpLaidJV ttoXls edXoj, GvpL(t>(x)veZrai G-)(^eh6v vno 
Trdvroiv dp^ovros ^AdrjvqGi rivpyiajvos yeveGOai 
Kara to npajrov eros rrjs 6yh6r]g Kal evevT]KOGrrjs 
oXvpLTndhos. 6 he rrpd rrjs KaTaXruJjeios )(p6vos 
dvayopievos els AevKiov ^Iovvlov Bpovrov Kal 
AevKLOv TapKJJVLOv KoXXanvov rovs npcuTOVs vira- 
TevGavras ev 'PcopLrj pierd rrjv KardXvGcv rcov 
^aGiXecxjv errj TTepieiXrjcjiev eiKOGL rrpds rols eKarov. 

^ Niebuhr : ayxf-orevoi. AB. 

1 Eratosthenes was perhaps the most versatile scholar 
of antiquity. Eminent not only as an astronomer, 
mathematician and geographer, he also won distinction as 
an historian, philosopher and grammarian. His Chrono- 
graphiae was an annalistic history, both political and 
literary, in which especial attention was devoted to the 

246 



BOOK T. 74, 2-4 

time, being compared with the Chroniclps of Eratos- 
thenes,' corresponds to the first year of the seventh 
Olympiad.- That the canons of Eratosthenes are 
sound I have shown in another treatise,^ where I 
have also shown how the Roman chronology is to he 
synchronized with that of tlie Greeks. For I did 
not think it sufficient, like Polyhius of Megalo- 
polis,^ to say merely that I believe Rome was built 
in the second year of the seventh Olympiad,^ nor to 
let my belief rest without further examination upon 
the single tablet preserved by the high priests, the 
only one of its kind, but I determined to set forth 
the reasons that had appealed to me, so that all 
might examine them who so desired. In that treatise, 
therefore, the detailed exposition is given ; but 
in the course of the present work also the most 
essential of the conclusions there reached will be 
mentioned. The matter stands thus : It is 
generally agreed that the invasion of the Gauls, ^ 
during which the city of Rome was taken, happened 
during the arclionship of Pyrgion at Athens, in the 
first year of the ninety-eighth Olympiad. '^ Now if 
the time before the taking of the city is reckoned 
back to Lucius Junius Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius 
Collatinus, the first consuls at Rome after the over- 
throw of the kings, it comprehends one hundred 

accurate determination of the chronology. The work 
began with the fall of Troy, which he placed in 1183 B.C. 

2751 B.C. 

3 This work, now lost, is cited by Clement of Alexandria 
iStroyn. i. 102) as XpovoL. 

* Probably in a lost portion of his Book VI. 

6 750 B.c."^ 

« Literally "Celts." See p. 123, n. 1. ' 387 B.C. 

247 



DTONYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

6 SrjXovTat Se e^ dXXojv re ttoXXcov /cat rcav KaXov- 
fievajv rLjirjTLKOJV VTTOixvqixarojv , a Sta§e;^eTat Trats' 
TTapa TTarpos /cat irepl 770AA0U Trotetrat rot? /Lte^' 
iavTov eaoiiivoLS ojairep lepa Trarpcpa TrapaSiSovaL • 
TToAAot 8' etcrtv (iTro rcDv rifJLrjTLKOw olkcov dvSpes 
iTTL^avels 01 SiacfyvXarrovreg avrd ' eV oh evpLGKOj 
oevrepcp irpoTepov eret ttJ? dAwcrea;? TLfirjcriv tov^ 
^Pojp.aLUjv hrjixov yevofxevi^v, fj TrapayeypanraL 
Kaddirep /cat rat? aAAat? ;\;/3oro? ovtos " " 'Yirarevov- 
Tos AevKLOV OvaXepLOV Uotltov /cat Tlrov MaXXiov 

6 Kamrit)Xivov fierd t7]v iKpoXrjv rcjv ^aaiXeajv iuo? 
hiovTL eLKOcrTO) Kol €KaTO(7Ta)'^ eret." ware ttjv 
KeXTLKTjv e(j)ohov, rjv tco hevrepcp fierd ttjv TLfirjGLV 
eret yevojjLevrjv evplaKOfxev, eKireTrX-qpajpievajv tojv 
et/cocrt /cat e/carov erayv yeveodai. el he rovro to 
hLaarrjfjLa rod xpo^'^^ rpiaKOvra oXvfJLTndSojv evpi- 
OKerai yevofxevov, dvdyKrj rovs Trpwrovs aTTo- 
heixOevras VTrdrov? opioXoyeli' dp^ovros l4.9'qvr]GLV 
^ laayopov ^ TrapeiXri^evaL Tr]v CLpxW '^ctra to irpo)- 
Tov eros ttjs oySorjs /cat e^7]KO(jTrjg oXvfJLTndhog . 

LXXV. Kat iJirjv diro ye rrj? eK^oXrj^ rcov 
^aGiXecov eTTi rov irpcorov dp^avTa rrjs TToXeojs 
*Pa)fjLvXov dva^iPaadel? 6 XP^^^^ ^"^V ''"errapa 
77po? Tots" * rerrapaKOvra /cat Sta/cocrtots' aTrorcAet. 
yvajpL^eraL Se rovro rat? SiaSo;Yat? rcDf ^aatXecxju 
Kat rot? ereoiv oh sKrao-rot Kareoxov rrjv dpxr]v. 
'PcofjLvXos jjLev yap 6 KTioas ttjv ttoXlu errrd koI 
248 



BOOK T. 74, 5-75, 1 

and twenty years. This is proved in many other 
ways, but parlicidarly by the records of the censors, 
which the son receives in succession from the father 
and takes great care to transmit to his posterity, 
like family rites ; and there are many illustrious 
men of censorian families who preserve these re- 
cords. In them I find that in the second vear before 
the taking of the city there was a census of the Roman 
people, to which, as to the rest of them, there is 
affixed the date, as follows : *' In the consulship of 
Lucius Valerius Potitus and Titus Manlius Capi- 
tolinus, in the one hundred and nineteenth year 
after the expulsion of the kings." So that the 
Gallic invasion, which we find to have occurred in the 
second year after the census, happened when the 
hundred and twenty years were completed. If, now, 
this interval of time is found to consist of thirty 
Olympiads, it must be allowed that the first consuls 
to be chosen entered upon their magistracy in the 
first year of the sixty-eighth Olympiad, the same 
year that Isadoras was archon at Athens.^ 

LXXV. And, again, if from the expulsion of the 
kings the time is reckoned back to Romulus, the first 
ruler of the city, it amounts to two hundred and forty- 
four years. This is known from the order in which 
the kings succeeded one another and the number of 
years each of them ruled. For Romulus, the founder 

^ 507 B.C. 

^ Tov Madvig : vno tov B, vtto twv A. 

^ Kox €KaTocrTU) Bb : om. ABa. 

^ ^laayopov Sylburg : ladypov B, et's dypov A. 

* Tols added by Kiessling. 

249 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

rpLOLKOvra err] Aeyerat Karaay^elv Trjv hwaGreiav 
/xera Se rov ' PcofjLvXov Odvarov aj^aGiXevros r) 

2 TToAt? y^veadat )(fi6vov ivLavatov. eirena Nofias 
TIoiittlXlos alpedels vtto tov Sijfxov rpia koL t€t- 
rapaKOvra errj PacnXeyuai. TvXXos he 'OottlXlos 
liera Nop-av 8vo kol TpiaKOvra. 6 8' inl tovtco 
^auiXevGas "AyKog MdpKLOs rerrapa irpo? rots 
eiKOGL. p^erd 8e MdpKLOv AevKLOS TapKVVLOS 6 
KX-qQeis IIpioKos o/crco koI rpLaKOvra. rovrov hk 
SiaSefa/x€vo? Eepomos TvXXios rerrapaKOvra Kal 
rerrapa. 6 EepovCov Se dveXcjv AevKios TapKVvios 
6 TvpawLKOS Kal Slcl TTjv TOV hiKaiov VTTepoijjiav 
KXrjBels ZovTTeppos €OJS eLKOcrrov Kal nepLTTTOV 

3 TTpoayayeiv rrjv apx^jv. rerrdpajv he Kal rerrapd- 
Kovra Kal hiaKOGLOJV dva7rXrjpovp,cvcx)v irwv, a 
Kareaxov ol ^aatXel?, oXvpuridhajv he puds Kal 
i^rjKOvra, rrdcra avdyKT] tov rrpajTOv dp^avra rrjs 
TToXeojg 'Pa)pivXov erei irpajrcp rrj? e^hopnqs oXvpund- 
hos TrapeiXr)(j)€vaL ttjv ^aatXelau dp)(OVTOS Adrjvrjai 
TTJg heKaerias Xdponog eros npajTov. tovto yap 
6 XoyicpLOS T(x)v irojv aTTaireZ. on he rooavra 
e/cacrro? rcbv f^aaiXeojv rjp^ev err) hC eKeivov hrj- 
Xovrai /xoi rod Xoyov. 

4 Td pLev hrj rrepl rod -x^povov Kad^ ov r) vvv 
hvvaarevovGa ttoXls wklo-Ot] rots re Trpo epuov 
yevopievois elprjpLeva KdpLol hoKovvra rotdh^ eoriv. 
oLKiaral 8' avrrj? otrLveg rjaav Kal ^ riui rvxo.iS 
XprjadpievoL rr^v aTTOiKLav eorreiXav doa re dXXa 
TTepl rrju Kriaiv ravriqv Luroprjrai ttoXXols /xev 
etprjraL Kal Sta</)Opa>9 rd irXeZora eviois, Xex^rjaerai, 

250 



BOOK T. 75 1-4 

of Rome, reigned thirty-seven years, it is said, and 
after his death the city was a year without a king. 
Then Numa Pompilius, who was chosen by the 
people, reigned forty-three years ; after Numa, 
Tullus Hostihus thirty-two ; and his successor, An- 
cus Marcius, twenty-four ; after Marcius, Lucius 
Tarquinius, called Priscus, thirty-eight ; Servius 
Tullius, who succeeded him, forty-four. And the 
slayer of Servius, Lucius Tarquinius, the tyrannical 
prince who, from his contempt of justice, was called 
Superbus, extended his reign to the twenty-fifth 
year. As the reigns, therefore, of the kings amount 
to two hundred and forty-four years or sixty-one 
Olympiads, it follows necessarily that Romulus, 
the first ruler of the city, began his reign in the first 
year of the seventh Olympiad, when Charops at 
Athens was in the first year of his ten-year term as 
archon.^ For the count of the years requires this ; 
and that each king reigned the number of years 
stated is shown in that treatise of mine to which I 
have referred. 

This, therefore, is the account given by those who 
lived before me and adopted by me concerning the 
time of the settlement of the city which now rules 
supreme. As to its founders, who they were and 
by what turns of fortune they were induced to lead 
out the colony, and any other details told concerning 
its settlement, all this has been related by many, 
and the greatest part of it in a difi'erent manner by 

^ 751 B.C. 



Kut Kiessling : ^ O. 

251 



DTONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

8e KOLfiol TOL TTidavcorara rcbv jjLvqfJLOvevofJievojv . 

LXXVI. M/zoAto? i7T€iSr] napeXape rrjv lAX^avcov 
^acnXeiav rov rrpeaj^-UTepov dSeXcfyov Nepiiropa rco 
KaTicr)(VGaL rrjs Trarplov TLfirjs aTreip^aSy rd re 
dXXa Kara ttoXXtjp vrrepoipiav rcov hiKaicov eSpa Kal 
reXevTctJv ep-qpLOv yevov? rov olkov rod Nepieropog 
iire^ovXevcre Troirjuai, rod re 8lk7]v VTToax^Zv (f)6^cp 
Kal epojrt rov^ pirj TravOrjvai. nore rrj? dp)(rjs. 

2 ^ovXevadjJLevos Se ravra €k rroXXov Trpcbrov pikv rov 
vlov rod Nepieropos Alyeorov dpn yevetdl^ovra 
(fivXd^a? erOa iKVvrjyerei, TrpoXoxLcra? rov x^p^ov ro 
d(j)aveararov, i^eXOovra irrl dijpav drroKreivei Kal 
TTapeGKEvaae Xeyeadat pierd ro epyov ojs vrro Xrj- 
arcov dvatpeOeLT] ro pLeipdKLOv. ov pLevroL Kpeirrcov 
Tj KaracJKevacjrrj So^a rrj? aLa>7TcopLev7]5 dXriOeias 
iyevero, dXXd ttoAAoi? Kal Trapd rd d(j<j>aXks iroX- 

3 /xaro XeyeoOat ro TrpaxOdv. Nepiercop 8e rjSei pL€V 
ro epyov y Aoytcr/xo) hk Kpelrrovt rov Trddovg ;)^pco/xei/o? 
dyvoiav iuKiJTTrero et? dKwbvvorepov dva^aXeaOai 
Xpovov rrjv dpyrjv fSovXevadpievos . M/xoAiO? Se rd 
rov pL€LpaKLOV VTToXa^cuv XeX-qOevai hevrepa rdhe 
eTToUi • rrjv Ovyarepa rov Nepueropos ^IXiav, cos 
Be nves ypd(f)ov(7L 'Peav ovopLa, EtXovtav "^ 8' eVi- 
kXtjolv, iv aKpifj ydpLov yevopLev-qv lepeiav diro- 
BeLKvvGLV 'Earlas, cu? pLrj rdx^ov elg dvSpo? iXdovaa 



^ Tov added by Steph.^ ; om. Jacoby. 
* ULAovtau Glareanus : iovXiav A, IXoviav B. 



252 



BOOK I. 75, 4-76. 3 

some ; and I, also, shall relate the most probable 
of these stories. They are as follows : 

LXXVI. \^ hen ^ Amiilius succee<led to the kmg- 
dom of the Albans, after forcibly excluding his elder 
brother Numitor from the dignity that was his by 
inheritance, he not only showed great contempt 
for justice in everything else that he did, but he 
finally plotted to deprive Numitor's family of issue, 
both from fear of suffering punishment for his 
usurpation and also because of his desire never to 
be dispossessed of the sovereignty. Having long 
resolved upon this course, he first observed the 
neighbourhood where Aegestus, Numitor's son, who 
was just coming to man's estate, was wont to follow 
the chase, and having placed an ambush in the most 
hidden part of it, he caused him to be slain when he 
had come out to hunt ; and after the deed was com- 
mitted he contrived to have it reported that the 
youth had been killed by robbers. Nevertheless, the 
rumour thus concocted could not prevail over the 
truth which he was trying to keep concealed, but 
many, though it was unsafe to do so, ventured to 
tell what had been done. Numitor was aware of 
the crime, but his judgment being superior to his 
grief, he affected ignorance, resolving to defer bis 
resentment to a less dangerous time. And Amulius, 
supposing that the truth about the youth had been 
kept secret, set a second plan on foot, as follows : he 
appointed Numitor's daughter. Ilia, — or, as some 
state, Rhea, surnamed Silvia, — who was then ripe 
for marriage, to be a priestess of Vesta, lest, if she 
first entered a husband's house, she might bring 
icy. Livy i. 3, 11. 

253 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

T€Kr) TLfJiCOpOVg TO) y€V€L. 

iXaTTOj xpovov eSet ras" Upag Kopa? ayva? Sta/xetvat 
ydficov, ah avaredeLrai rod re dcr^ecrrov TTVpos -q 
(f)vXaKr) Koi ei tl dXXo Op-qoKeveaOaL rep koluco Slol 
4 napdevcov vopupiov tjv. eirparre he MyLtoAto? rovro 
pier ovopLarcxjv KaXcov, (Ls rip,7]v ro) yevei kol 
KoopLov TrepLTLOelg, ovT€ avTOS elcrqyrjGdpievos rov 
vopLOV rovSe ovre kolvo) ovtl Trpcorov duayKdaag 
rcbv iv d^LwpLaTL XPV^^*^^ '''^^ dheXcjiov, iv edei 8e 
rot? ^AX^avols Kal iv KaXaJ ov ra? evyeveardras 
aTroheiKWoOaL Kopag rrj? 'Ear Las TrpoiroXovs. 6 
8e NepLeTcop aloBopievos ovk diro rod ^eXrlcrrov 
ravra Trpdrrovra rdv dheX(ji6v opyrjv (jiavepdv ovk 
cVoietro, Iva pbrj ro) S'qpLCp drrey^Ooiro^ dTTopprjrov 8e 
Kal rovro icf)vXarr€ ro eyKXrjpta. 

LXXVII. Terdprcp S' varepov erei rrjv ^IXiav 
iXdovoav els lepov dXuos "Apeos vharos dyvov ko- 
Pll8t]£ eveKa, (p irpos rds dvaias epueXXe -x^piqaaodai, 
^id^erat rt? ev rco repievei. rovrov Si rives piev 
d7TO(j)aLVOV(ji rojv pLvrjcrrrjpojv eva yeviadat rrjs 
Koprjs epwvra rrjs TTaiSiGKrjs,^ ol Se avrov ApLoXiou 
OVK eTTidvpiLas pidXXov r) iTn^ovXrjs eveKa (f)pa^d- 
pcevov re ottXols cos iKTrXrjKrLKOjraros 6(f)9'qGe(j9aL 

^ Trevraerovs O : TpiaKovraeTovs Glareanus, Sylburg. 
^ ipcovra Ti]s TraiBioKTjs rejected by Urlichs as a gloss; 
Sauppe rejected t^s TratSiWr^s, Biicheler t^s Koprjs. 

^ Thirty years was the period required at Rome from the 
time of Numa ; c/. ii. 67, 2. Some early editors wished 
to emend the present passage to agree with the later 
practice. 

254 



BOOK I. 76, 3-77, 1 

forth avengers for her family. These holy maidens 
who were intrusted with the custody of the perpetual 
fire and with the carrying out of any other rites 
that it was customary for virgins to perform in hehalf 
of the commonwealth, were required to remain un- 
defiled by marriage for a period of not less than five ^ 
years. Amulius was carrying out his plan under 
specious pretences, as if he were conferring honour 
and dignity on his brother's family ; for he was not 
the author of this law, which was a general one, nor, 
again, was his brother the first person of considera- 
tion whom he had obliged to yield obedience to it, 
but it was both customary and honourable among 
the Albans for maidens of the highest birth to be 
appointed to the service of Vesta. But Numitor, 
perceiving that these measures of his brother pro- 
ceeded from no good intention, dissembled his re- 
sentment, lest he should incur the ill-will of the people, 
and stifled his complaints upon this occasion also. 

LXXVII. The ^ fourth year after this, Ilia, upon 
going to a grove consecrated to Mars to fetch pure 
water for use in the sacrifices, was ravished by some- 
body or other in the sacred precinct. Some say 
that the author of the deed was one of the maiden's 
suitors, who was carried away by his passion for 
the girl ^ ; others say that it was Amulius himself, 
and that, since his purpose was to destroy her qxiite 
as much as to satisfy his passion, he had arrayed him- 
self in such armour as would render him most terrible 

2(7/. Livy K 4, 1-3. 

'The last clause (literally, "loving the girl") may 
well be a gloss to explain the preceding words " one of 
the maiden's suitors." See critical note. 

255 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ejxeXXe Kal to rrj? oifjecos yvcLpc/jLOv etV aaa^es" cLs 
•2 fxaXiara iSvvaro KaOiGravra ■ ol 8e TrAetcrrot fivdo- 
XoyovGL rod SacjjLOi'og etScoXov, ov ro xcopiov rjv, 
77oAAd Koi aAAa rco irddei Sat/xdrta fpya rrpoa- 
aTTTOvres ^ rjXlov re acfiavLopiov alcjivihiov Kal t,66ov iu 
ovpavo) KaraG-xovra- kol'^ oi/jlv 84, rjv ro etScoXov 
et^e, davfJiaGLcoripav /jLaKpo) St^ nvL ^ Kara fieyedo? 
Kal KciXXos avdpcnTTOJV. 0acri re €L7Teiv rfj Koprj 
Traprjyopovvra r-qv XvTrrjV rov ^Laadpievov , i^ ov 
yeveadai hr\Xov on deog rjv, pLTjhkv a-)(de(j9aL rep 
TTadeL ■ ro yap KOivcvwqpLa rwv ydp,a>v avrfj ye- 
yovivaL Trpos rov ip,^arevovra ro) )(a>pLOi haipLova, 
re^eaOat S' avrrjv Ik rod ^lacrpiov hvo TralSag 
dvOpojTTOJV pLaKpcp Kpariarovs dperrjv Kal rd iroXi- 
pLia. ravra Se eliTovra v€(j)eL 7TepLKaXv(j)drjvaL Kal 
3 aTTO yrjs" dpOevra <j)4peoQai hi depos dvco. ottoj? 
pL€u ovw )(pr] 7T€pl rcov roicovhe ho^-qs ^X^^^> TTorepov 
Kara(j)povelv co? dv6pcjj7Tiva>v paSiovpyrjpLdrcov els 
deovg dva(f)epopiivojv , pir]hev dv rod deov XeirovpyripLa 
TTj? dcjiddprov Kal piaKapias (jiVGews dvd^iov vtto- 
pLevovros, tj Kal ravra? TrapaSexeaOaL rds laropias, 
ojb dvaKeKpapevrjg rrj? dTrdcrr]? ovcrlag rod KoapLov 
Kal pLera^v rod deiov Kal dviqrod yevovs rpir-qs 
rivd? vnapxovor]? (^ucreco?, rjv ro hatpovcov (fidXov 
€7re;(et, rore pikv dvdpcjTTois, rore Sc Oeol? im- 
pnyvvpievov, ef ov 6 Xoyos ep^et to puvOevopevov 
Tjpdxjjv (j>dvaL yei'o?, ovre Kacpog ev rep rrapovri 
BiaaKOTTelv dpKel re oaa ^ (f)LXoa6(f)OL? nepl avrojv 

^ TTpoaaTTTovres added by Casaubon. 

2 Kal placed here by Urlichs : after tjv by O, Jacoby, 

3 Schwartz: ti O, Jacoby. * Steph.^ : cos O. 

256 



BOOK I. 77, 1-3 

to behold and that he also kept his features disguised 
as effectively as possible. But most writers relate a 
fabulous story to the effect that it was a spectre of 
the divinity to whom the place was consecrated ; 
and they add that the adventure was attended by 
many supernatural signs, including a sudden dis- 
appearance of the sun and a darkness that spread over 
the sky, and that the appearance of the spectre was 
far more marvellous than that of a man both in 
stature and in beauty. And they say that the 
ravisher, to comfort the maiden (by which it became 
clear that he was a god), commanded her not to 
grieve at all at what had happened, since she had 
been united in marriage to the divinity of the place 
and as a result of her violation should bear two sons 
who would far excel all men in valour and warlike 
achievements. And having said this, he was 
wrapped in a cloud and, being lifted from the 
earth, was borne upwards through the air. This 
is not a proper place to consider what opinion we 
ought to entertain of such tales, whether we should 
scorn them as instances of human frailty attributed 
to the gods, — since God is incapable of any action 
that is unworthy of his incorruptible and blessed 
nature, — or whether we should admit even these 
stories, upon the supposition that all the substance 
of the universe is mixed, and that between the race 
of gods and that of men some third order of being 
exists which is that of the daemons, who, uniting 
sometimes with human beings and sometimes with 
gods, beget, it is said, the fabled race of heroes. This, 
I say, is not a proper place to consider these things, 
and, moreover, what the philosophers have said 

257 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

4 iXexOrj. rj S' ovv Koprj fxera tov ^laufjiov appcxicrreiv 
OKTiipaiiivr] {rovro yap avrfj Trapijveoev r) fxijrrjp 
dacfiaXeLa? re kol tojv tt/do? tov? Oeov? oglcop eveKo) 

OVK€TL 7TpOG^€i TOtS" Upols , oXXd SlO, TCOV oXXwV 

iyivero TrapOei'cov, ah to avro TrpoGeKeiro epyov, 
ocra XeirovpyeZv iKeiviqv eSet. 

LXXVIII. M/xdAto? he eire Kara rrjv (jweLBrjcnv 
rwv Trpaxd^^TOJV elre VTrovoia rcov ecKOTWv rrpo- 
ax^^h epevvav iTTOielro Trj<; ;!^pop'tou rcov Upojv oltto- 
GTaGeajs, Kara riva yiverai pLoXiGr alrlav, larpovs 
re ols {JLaXiara eTTiGrevev etGnefjiTTcov /cat, eveiSTj 
TTjv voGOv at yvvalKes drropprjrov oXXols ^ fjrLcovro 
etvai, rrjv eavrov yvvaiKa (f>vXaKa rrjg K6pr]<^ Kara- 

2 Xlttwv.^ 60? Se Kar-qyopos avrrj rod rrddovs 
iyevero yvvaiKeia reKfiapGei ro d(j)aves rots aAAot? 
dvevpovGa, rrj? [lev rratSog, cu? pur) Xddr] reKOVGa 
(rjv Se ov TTpoGO) rod roKOv) , cfivXaKrjv enoLelro 8l 
ottXcjv avTos Se KaXeGas rov dSeX(f)6v el? ro 
GVveSpLOV rrjs re XavdavovGr^g rovs dXXovs (fyOopds 
firjvvrrjg yiverai /cat fjridro GvyKaKOVpyelv rfj 
Kopj) rov? yovelg eKeXeve re pLrj KpvTrreiv rov ^ 

3 elpyaGpLevov, dAA' etV pieGov dyetv. Nepuercop Se 
TTapaSo^wv re X6ya)v dKoveiv €(f)rj /cat Travro? 
dvairios etvai rod Xeyopuevov ;j^pdvoP' re tj^lov 
^aGdvov rrjs dX-qdeias eveKa Xa^elv • rvxdjv Sc 
dva^oXrjs pLoXc?, eTreiSrj ro rrpdypLa irapd rrj? 
yvvaiKog ep^adev a>? -q iral? ev dpxol? dcjirjyrjGaro , 

^ dXAoLS (or Tols dXXois) Naber, a.i>bpaaiv Kayser : dvOpconoLS 
O, Jacoby. 

258 



BOOK I. 77, 4-78, 3 

concerning them is sufficient. But, be that as it 
may, the maid after her violation feigned ilhiess 
(for this her mother advised out of regard both for 
her own safety and for the sacred services of the 
gods) and no longer attended the sacrifices, but her 
duties were performed by the other virgins who were 
joined with her in the same ministry. 

LXXVIII. But Amulius, moved either by his 
own knowledge of what had happened or by a 
natural suspicion of the truth, began to inquire into 
her long absence from the sacrifices, in order to 
discover the real reason. To this end he kept send- 
ing in to her some physicians in whom he had the 
greatest confidence ; and then, since the women 
alleged that her ailment was one that must be kept 
secret from others, he left his wife to watch her. 
She, having by a woman's marking of the signs 
discovered what was a secret to the others, informe<l 
him of it, and he, lest the girl should be delivered in 
secret, for she was now near her time, caused her 
to be guarded by armed men. And summoning his 
brother to the council, he not only announced the 
deflowering of the girl, of which the rest knew naught, 
but even accused her parents of being her accom- 
plices ; and he ordered Numitor not to hide the 
guilty man, but to expose him. Numitor said he 
was amazed at what he heard, and protesting his 
innocence of everything that was alleged, desired 
time to test the truth of it. Having with difficulty 
obtained this delay, and being informed by his wife 
of the affair as his daughter had related it in the 

2 Kiet>sliiig : KareAiTre^ O. ^ tou B : to R. 

259 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Tov re ^LaGfjLOv rov vrro tov Oeov ycvoficvov dn- 
i(j)aLve Kol rovs Xexdevras utt* avrov nepl toju 
SlSvijLCov TTaihcxJV Aoyous" Ste^r^A^cv rj^tov re ttlcttlv 
TTOL-qaaaOai ravrrjv roJv Xeyofxevcjov, el roiovros 6 
rrjg (LSlvos earai yovo?, olov 6 Oeos V(f)r]yT]GaTo . 
Kal yap ofiov tl tw TiKreLv elvai rrjv Koprjv, ware 
ovK els ^ fJLaKpav el paStovpyel ^ cf)ai''qGeTaL. irapeSl- 
Sou 8e Kal rds (fyvXarrovaas rrjV Koprjv /cat eXey)(cx)V 

4 owSevo? d<^LGTaro. ravra Xeyovro? avrov ro jxev 
rd)V cruvehpujv ttXtjOo? eTTelOero, ^AfjLoXio? Se ovSev 
vytes dire^aive rajv d^Lovpievojv^ dXX €K iravros 
wppLTjro rpoTTOV rrjv dvOpcoTTOV dTToXeaai. ev ocro) 
he ravr^ eyevero Traprjaav ol rrjv wSlva (f)povpelv 
raxdevre? dTTO(j)aLvovres dppeva ^pecjiTj StSu/xa reKelv 
rrjv Koprjv, /cat aurt/ca Nepierwp fiev ev rw avraj 
TToXvs Tjv Xoyco rod deov re drroSetKvvs ro epyov 
/cat fJLrjSev els r-qv KoprfV dvairiov ovaav rod irddovs 
TTapavoixelv d^iajv • M/xoAtoj Se roju dvOpajTrelcov n 
fjLr])(avr)fjLdra)v /cat ro irepl rov roKov eSd/cet yeveoBai 
TrapaGKevacrdevros erepov rat? yvvat^l ^pe<f)ovs r] 
Kpv(f)a ru)v <f)vXdKCxjv rj GvyKaKovpyovvrojv , /cat 

5 TToAAa els rovro eXexdrj. (Ls Se rrju yvajyuriv rov 
^aGiXecxJS efJLadov ol GvvehpoL dTTapatrTJrcp rfj * dpyfj 
Xpajjieinqv ehiKaicoGav /cat avrot Kaddnep eKeZvos 
Tj^LOv xpi^GaadaL raJ vofico KeXevovrL rr^v fiev alaxv- 
vauav ro craj/za pd^hots alKLGdeiGau dnodavelv, ro 

^ OVK els added by Steph. 

^ et paBiovpyel Reiske : paStoupyety O, Jacoby. 

^ a^iouixiviov Steph. : a^Lo\oyovfx4vaiv O. 

* TTj added by Grasberger. 

260 



BOOK I. 78, 3-5 

beginning, he acquainted the council with tho rape 
committed by the god and also related what the god 
had said concerning the twins, and asked that his 
story should be believed only if the fruit of her travail 
should prove to be such as the god had foretold ; 
for the time of her delivery was near at hand, so 
that it would not be long, if he were playing the 
rogue, before the fact would come to light. More- 
over, he ofl'ercd to put at their disposal for examina- 
tion the women who were watching his daughter, and 
he was ready to submit to any and every test. As 
he spoke thus the majority of the councillors were 
persuaded, but Amulius declared that his demands 
were altogether insincere, and was bent on destroying 
the girl by every means. While this was taking place, 
those who had been appointed to keep guard over 
Ilia at the time of her delivery came to announce that 
she had given birth to male twins. And at once 
Numitor began to urge at length the same arguments, 
showing the deed to be the work of the god and de- 
manding that they take no unlawful action against 
his daughter, who was innocent of her condition. 
On the other hand, Amulius thought that even in 
connexion with her delivery there had been some 
human trickery and that the women had provided 
another child, either unknown to the guards or with 
their connivance, and he said much more to the 
same purport. When the councillors found that the 
king's decision was inspired by implacable anger, 
they, too, voted, as he demanded, that the law should 
be carried out which provided that a Vestal who 
suffered herself to be defiled should be scourged 
with rods and put to death and her offspring thrown 

261 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

8e yevvriBkv els ro rov TrorajJLOv ^dXXecrdai peWpov 
vvv fjL€VTOL tojoas KaropvTTeoOai ra? rotauras" o 
T(x)V tepoJv dyopevet ^ i'ojjLo?. 

LXXIX. M€)(pL fJih' S-q TOVTCDV ol TrXetCTTOL TOJV 

(jvyypa(j)iojv rd aura t) fiLKpov TrapaXXdrropreg , ol 
p.ev eVi TO fivOajSearepov, ol S' eVt to rfj dX-qdeia 
ioLKOS {JLoXXov, d7TO(f>aivovoL, TTepl he tlov e^rjs hia- 

2 ^epovrai. ol fiev yap evdv? dvaipedrjvai Xeyovai 
TTjV KopiqVy ol S' ev elpKTjj (fyvXarropievrji' dBi^Xo) 
SiareXeaaL So^av rco hrjfxa} Trapao^^ovoav d<j)avovs 
dai'drov. eTTiKXaodijvaL Se rov^ ^Ap^oXiov els rovro 
LKerevovarjs rrjs dvyarpos ;!(;apto-ao-^at ttjv dveifjidv 
avrfj ' Tjoav 8e <Jvvrpo<f)OL re /cat rjXiKLav exovoai 
Trjv avTTjv doTTa^o/JLevaL re dXX^jXag cos dSeX(f)ds. 
■)(^apil,6p.evov ovv ravrr] tov^ M/xoAiov, fioviq S' rjv 
avroj dvydriqp, davdrov (lev drroXvoaL rrjv '/Atav, 
(^vXdrreLV he Kadeip^avra ev dcj^aveZ • XvOrjvai 8e 

3 avTTjv dvd XP^^^^ M/xoAtou TeAeL'TT^o-ai'TO?. Trepl 
fxev ovv T'qs '/Ata? outoj SiaAAaTTOuoti^ al twv 
TToXaLwv ypa(f)ai, Aoyov 8' exovaiv djs dXrjOels 
eKdrepai. Sid rovro /cdyo) fivqp.Tjv d{X(f)orepojv 
iTTOLTjo-dfMrjv^ oTTorepa Se XPV '^'■(^T^veLV avros rLS 
e'iuerai rayv dvayvwaofievcov . 

4 TTepl Se rcjv eV ttJ? */Ata? yevofxevcuv Koivros 
pev 0d^LOs 6 UiKrcop Xeyopievos, co AevKios re 
KiyKLOS Kal Kdrtov TIopKLOS kol HeLaajv KaX- 
TTovpvLOS Kol ra)v dXXojv avyypa(f)eajv ol rrXelovs 
rjKoXovdrjGav, yeypa(f>e ^ ' d)S KeXevoavros M/xoAtou 



^ dyopeJei B : hiayopevii R. 

^ Tov O ; om. Sin ten is, Jacoby, 



262 



BOOK T. 78, 5-79, 4 

into the current of the river. To-day, however, the 
sacred law ordains that such offenders shall be buried 
alive. 

LXXIX. Up ^ to this point the greater part of 
the historians give the same account or differ but 
slightly, some in the direction of what is legendary, 
others of what is more probable ; but they disagree 
in what follows. Some say that the girl was put to 
death immediately ; others that she remained in a 
secret prison under a guard, which caused the people 
to believe that she had been put to death secretly. 
The latter authors say that Amulius was moved to 
do this when his daughter begged him to grant her 
the life of her cousin ; for, having been brought up 
together and being of the same age, they loved each 
other like sisters. Amulius, accordingly, to please 
her, — for she was his only daughter, — saved Ilia 
from death, but kept her confined in a secret prison ; 
and she was at length set at liberty after the death 
of Amulius. Thus do the accounts of the ancient 
authors vary concerning Ilia, and yet both opinions 
carry with them an appearance of truth ; for this 
reason I, also, have mentioned them both, but each 
of my readers will decide for himself which to 
believe. 

But concerning the babes born of Ilia, Quintus 
Fabius, called Pictor, whom Lucius Cincius, Porcius 
Cato, Calpurnius Piso and most of the other his- 
torians have followed, writes thus : By the order 

1 Cf. Livy i. 4, 3-9. 



2 y€ypa(f>e Pluss : T171 ypa(f>rj(, O, 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TO. ^p€(f)7] AajSorres" ev aKd(f)r] Kelfxeva tojv VTrrjpeTcijv 
TfV'es' ecbepov Iji^aXovvres ets" rov TTorafiov aTre)(Ovra 

5 rT]s TToXeojs a/x(/)t tovs eKarop €lkogl araSlovs. inel 
8e iyyvs iyevovro kul elSov e^oj tov yvrjGLOv peldpov 
rov Te^epLV vtto ;(et/xc6^'6ov crwe;(a)r iKrerpafifxivov 
etV TO. TTehia, Kara^avres airo rod IJaXXavriov rrjs 
Kopv(f)rj^ eVt TO TTpoGe-x^iararov vdcop {ov yap en 
TTpocrojTepoj )((jjpeLV ololre TjOav), evOa irpaJrov rj 
rov TTorafJiOv TrXrjiJL'q rrj? UTrcupetas' rjTrrero, rWevrat 
TTjv GKdcjyriv eVt rod v8aro^\ tj he p^e)(pL /xeV nvog 
€VT^)(ero, erreira rod peldpov Kara puKpov vtto- 
\(jjpovvro^ €K rcov Trepiecrx^dTCov ^ XtOov TrpocrTrratcrct 

6 TTepirpaTTelcra eK^dXXet rd ^pe(f)-q. rd fiev Sr) 
Kvv^ovfiei'a Kara rod reXfiaros eKvXii'Selro, XvKatva 
Se Tt? €Tn(j)aveLGa peoroKog GTrapycoaa tou? puaGrovs 
VTTO ydXaKTOS dvehihov ra? diqXd? rolg Grop-aGiv 
avrcov Kal rfj yXcorrrj rop tttjXov, co KardTrXeoi 
TjGav, ajTeXixp-CL. iv Se rovrco rvyxdvovGLV at 
vopLel? e^eXavvovre<i rds dyeXos eirl vofJL-^v (rjSr) 
yap epijiardv rjv ro x^piov) Kai ns avrcov ISojv 
TTjP XvKatpav COS" rjGTrdC,ero rd ^pe(f)7] rea>s fJL€V 
dxavTjs TIP VTTO re ddpLJiovs Kal aTrtcrria? rajv 
deojpovfJLepojp ■ eVetr' aTreXOcbp'^ Kal cn^AAe^a? ogovs 
ihvvaro TrXetGrovs tcop dy^od pejJLovrojv {ov ydp 
€77 LGrevero Xeyojv) dyei rovpyop avrd deaaofxepov^. 

7 (1)S he KaKelpoL rrX-qGLOP eXOopres efiaOop ttjp fiev 
(jjGTTep reKva TrepieTTOvGap ,^ rd S' a>? fJLrjrpos 

^ TT€pi€(Jxa.TOjv Xaber, Tre'pi^ iaxdrajv Sylburg, Trept rd eo^^ara 
Meutzner : Treptea;^ ara A, Trept eaxara B, Jacoby, 
^ cttcit' oLTTeXdajv Kiessling : eTreira iXdojv 0, 
^ Sylburg : rr^pioTTwaav O. 

264 



BOOK I. 79, 4-7 

of Amuliiis some of his servants took the babes 
in an ark and carried them to the river, distant about 
a liundred and twenty stades from the city, with the 
intention of throwing them into it. But when they 
drew near and perceived that the Tiber, swollen by 
continual rains, had left its natural bed and over- 
flowed the plains, they came down from the top of 
the Palatine hill ^ to that part of the water that lay 
nearest (for they could no longer advance any far- 
ther) and set down the ark upon the flood where it 
washed the foot of the hill. The ark floated for 
some time, and then, as the waters retired by degrees 
from their extreme limits, it struck against a stone 
and, overturning, threw out the babes, who lay 
whimpering and wallowing in the mud. Upon this, 
a she-wolf that had just whelped appeared and, her 
udder being distended with milk, gave them her 
paps to suck and with her tongue licked ofl" the mud 
w^th which they were besmeared. In the mean- 
time the herdsmen happened to be driving their 
flocks forth to pasture (for the place was now be- 
come passable) and one of them, seeing the wolf 
thus fondling the babes, was for some time struck 
dumb with astonishment and disbelief of what he 
saw. Then going away and getting together as 
many as he could of his fellows who kept their 
herds near at hand (for they would not believe what 
he said), he led them to see the sight themselves. 
When these also drew near and saw the wolf caring 
for the babes as if they had been her young and the 

^ From this point the word JJaXKavriov wiU be rendered 
" Palatine hill " instead of " Pallantium," unless the con- 
text shows clearly that the village itself is meant. 

265 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

€^€)(6fi€va, SaLfiovLOv TL xPVf^^ opdv VTToXa^ovres 
iyyvrepo) TTpocrj^eaav adpooi SeSLTTOfievoL ^ofj ro 
OrjpLOV. rj Se XvKatva ov fxaXa aypiaivovGa rojv 
dvdpwTTOjv rfj TrpocroSa), aAA' (hurrepav )(€Lpo'^drj^ 
aTToardcra rcov ^p€<^cov rjpipia /cat /caret ttoXXtjv 

8 oAoytav tov TTOifJievLKOV ofJLLXov airfjei. /cat -^v yap 
Tis ov TToXv aTri-^ajv eKeWev lepos ;^ct>pos" vXtj ^adela 
avi'rjp€(l)r]s /cat nerpa kolXj] TT-qyas ivLelaa, iXeyero 
de IJavos elvai to vdiros, /cat ^cupLos r)v avrodt rod 
deov' els Tovro to ^(copiov eXOovoa dTTOKpuTTTerai. 
TO pL€v ovv oXgos ovKeTi hiapLev€L, TO he dvrpov, i^ 
ov 7] At/jd? e/cStSorat, raj TlaXXavTiO) TrpocrcoKoho- 
pLTjpLevov SeLKVvrai Kara ttjv eTrl tov iTnroSpopLOV 
(j)epovaav 686v, Kal repievos eoriv avTOv ttXt^glov, 
evda eLKow KeZrai tov nddovs XvKaiva TraiSlois Svcil 
Tov£ puauTovs ertidyovaa, ■)(pXKO. TrotT^/xara TroAata? 
epyauiaS' rfv he to x^P^ov tojv gvv Evdvhpoj ttotc 
OLKLcrdvTCDV avTO J^pKahcov lepov ojs Aeyerat. 

9 d)s he dneGTr] to Orjplov aipovGLV ol vopLels ret 
^pe(l)7] GTTOvhrjv TTOLOvpLevoL Tpe(f)eLV COS dea)v avrd 
oojteoQai ^ovXopLevcov. -qv he tls ev avToZs ovo- 
<f)op^LOjv ^aaiXiKcov errLpLeXovpLevos eTneiKrjS avrjp 



1 Compare the description of the Lupercal aheady given 
in chap. 32. 

2 The cave became a shrine and received some sort of 
architectural adornment, which must have included at 
least a dignified entrance. The Lupercal is named in 
the Monument um Ancyranum (4, 2) in a list of public 
buildings repaired by Augustus. 

3 The statue here mentioned is doubtless the one erected 
by Cn. and Q. Ogulnius near the Ficu^ Ruminalis in 

266 



BOOK I. 79, 7-9 

babes clinging to her as to their mother, they thought 
they were beholding a supernatural siglit and ad- 
vanced in a body, shouting to terrify the creature. 
The wolf, however, far from being provoked at the 
approach of the men, but as if she had been tame, 
withdrew gently from the babes and went away, 
paying little heed to the rabble of shepherds. Now 
there was not far off a holy place, arched over by a 
dense wood, and a hollow rock from which springs 
issued ; the wood was said to be consecrated to Pan, 
and there was an altar there to that god.^ To this 
place, then, the wolf came and hid herself. The 
grove, to be sure, no longer remains, but the cave 
from which the spring flows is still pointed out, built 
up ^ against the side of the Palatine hill on the road 
which leads to the Circus, and near it is a sacred 
precinct in which there is a statue commemorating 
the incident ; it represents a she-wolf suckling two 
infants, the figures being in bronze and of ancient 
workmanship.^ This spot is said to have been a 
holy place of the Arcadians who formerly settled 
there with Evander. 

As soon as the beast was gone the herdsmen took 
up the babes, and believing that the gods desired their 
preservation, were eager to bring them up. There 
was among them the keeper of the royal herds of 

295 B.C. (Livy x. 23). Another similar group stood on 
the summit of the Capitol, and was struck by lightning in 
65 B.C. The wolf of this second group is almost certainly the 
famous one still preserved in the Palazzo dei Conservator!, 
since the animal's hind legs show the effects of lightning ; 
the wolf is dated about 600 B.C., but the infants are a modern 
restoration. 

267 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

0avaTvXo? ^ ovofia, o? eV rfj noXeL Kara Sr^ ri dvay- 
Koiov iyeyoveL Kad^ ov XP^^^'^ V '^^^P^ ^'^S '/Ata? 
Kal 6 TOKO? rjX€y)(eTOj /cat /xera ravra KOfiL^ofxevcov 
inl rov TTorafJLOv tojv ^pe^aiv rot? (j>€pov(nv avra 
Kara deiav rvx^]^ afxa SteAryAi^^ei rr^v avTT]v ohov 
els TO UaXXdvTLOv lojv • os rJKLara rot? d'AAots" 
Kara(J3av'qs yevofxevos OJS eTrtCTrarat rt rod Trpdy- 
fiarog d^Lwcrag avro) ovy)((^P'r]Q'^^'o.i rd ^p€(f)rj Xa/j,- 
Pdvet re avrd irapd rov kolvov /cat (fyepojv ojs ttjv 

10 yvvaiKa epx^rat. rero/cutav Se KaraXa^cjv /cat 
dxOofxevTjv OTL veKpov avrfj to ^pecfios rjv napa- 
fjLvdelraL re /cat SlSoxjlv vTTo^aXeoOai rd Traihia 
TTO-Gav ef dpxrjs hLrjyrjordiJLevos ttjv Karaaxovorav 
avrd rvx^"^' av^ojjievois he avrols ovofia riderai 
roj jJLev 'PcofJivXop, rep Se 'PcopLov. at Se dvSpco- 
devres yivovrai Kard re d^iwcnv pLopcfyrjg /cat (f)povT^- 
fjLaros oyKOV ov crvo^op^ols /cat ^ovkoXols eoiKores, 
dAA' otous" dv Tt? d^Lcucrete rovs e/c ^aotXeiov re 
(f)VVTa? yevovs /cat ciTrd SaLfxoi'ajv cnropas yeveadai 
vopLL^opievovg, chs ev rols Trarpiois vpLvoig vtto 

11 'PcxjfJLaiOJv en /cat vvv aSerat. ^log 8' auTOt? rjv 
^ovKoXiKos /cat StaiTa auroi^pyd? ev opeort rd 77oAAd 
TTTj^apLevoLS 8td ^vXcov /cat KaXdficov GKrjvds avropo- 

^ Steph. (c/. <PavaTivos. 84, 3) : <f)aiaTvXos O (and similarly 
elsewhere), Jacoby. 

^ This meaning (on the analogy of such words as avravSpos, 
auTOK-AaSos, avroppt^os) seems to be the one required here. 
The only meaning given in the lexicons, " self -covered " 
or " roofed by nature," would imply huts depending for 
their roofs on natural shelters, such as overhanging rocks 
or overarching trees, — in other words, huts technically 

268 



BOOK I. 79, 9-11 

swine, whose name was Faustulus, an upright man, 
who had been in town upon some necessary business 
at the time when the deflowering of Ilia and her 
dehvery were made pubHc. And afterwards, when 
the babes were being carried to the river, he had by 
some providential chance taken the same road to 
the Palatine hill and gone along with those who 
were carrying them. This man, without giving the 
least intimation to the others that he knew anything 
of the aflfair, asked that the babes might be delivered 
to him, and having received them by general con- 
sent, he carried them home to his wife. And 
finding that she had just given birth to a child and 
was grieving because it was still-born, he comforted 
her and gave her these children to substitute in 
its place, informing her of every circumstance of 
their fortune from the beginning. And as they grew 
older he gave to one the name of Romulus and to the 
other that of Remus. When they came to be men, 
they showed themselves both in dignity of aspect 
and elevation of mind not like swineherds and neat- 
herds, but such as we might expect those to be who 
are born of royal race and are looked upon as the 
offspring of the gods ; and as such they are still 
celebrated by the Romans in the hvmns of their 
country. But their life was that of herdsmen, and 
they lived by their own labour, generally upon the 
mountains in huts which they built, roofs and all,^ 

roofless. But the thatched roof of the "' hut of Romulus " 
was to the Romans one of its most striking features ; see 
next note. KaXd/jLCDv, here rendered "reeds," in accordance 
with its usual meaning, is also used sometimes for " straw," 
which may be what Dionysius intended. 

269 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASStJS 

0OU9 • (Ll^ €TL Kol els €fJL€ T^V TtS" TOV ^ IJaXXaVTLOV 

€7n rrjs npos rov tTTTToSpofiov or pe(j)0vcrqs ^ Xayovos 
Poj/ivXav XeyofievT], t^v (jivXarTOVcnv Upav ols rov- 
Tojv eTTLfjLeXes ovBev IttI to oepLVOTepov i^dyovres, 
et Se n 7TOV7]GeL€v vtto )(€Lfia)vo? t) -)(p6vov to 
XelTTov i^aKovfievoL Kal rw Trpcodev i^opLOiovvres 
et? SvvafJLLv. 

12 eVet Se dfjL(f>L rd oKrajKaiheKa errj yeyovores rjoav 
djiKfjiXoyov TL TTepl TTJs uojirjs avTols yiverai irpos 
Tovs Ne/xeropos ^ovkoXovs, ol Trepl to AvevTivov 
opog dvTLKpv TOV IJaXXai'TLOV Kelfievov €L)(Ov rds 
^ovordcreis . tjtiojvto he dXXrjXovs eKdrepoi dafxivd 
7] TTjv fiTj 7Tpocn]Kovaav opydSa KaTavefieiv 7) ttjv 
KOLvrjv fJLOVOvs hiaKpareZv rj o tl S'qTTOTe tv^ol. €K 
he rrjs dipt/xaxtas ravr-qs eyevovro rrX-qyal rroTe oid 

13 )(eLpii}v, elra 8t' ottXojv. Tpavfiara Se 77oAAa xrpos" 
Tcov fieLpaKicov Xa^ovTes ol tov NefieTOpog Kal 
TLvas KOI dTToXeuavTes tcuv o(f)eTepcov /cat rcDv 
XOJpiojv rjSr] Kara Kpdros e^eipyopLevoL irapeaKev- 
dt^ovTO hoXov TLvd eV aOrou?. TrpoXoxloavres Srj 
TTJ? (j)dpayyos to d(f>aves kol ovvdepLevoL tols 
Xo-)((J^Gi rd pieLpdKLa rov ri]? eTTideGeoj? Kaipov ol 

1 TOV Kiessling : e/c tov O. 

^ eVt TTJs . . aTp€<j)Ovar]S Steph. : ttjs . . . i7naTp€<f)0vaT]^ O. 



* The present passage gives us our most detailed account 
of the casa Romvli. Plutarch {Rom. 20) adds the detail 
that it stood near the scalae Caci, a landmark on the south- 

270 



BOOK I. 79. 11-13 

out of sticks and reeds. One of these, called the hut 
of Romulus,' remained even to my day on the flank 
of the Palatine hill which faces to>vards the Circus, 
and it is preserved holy by those >vho have charge of 
these matters ; they add nothing to it to render it 
more stately, but if any part of it is injured, cither 
by storms or by the lapse of time, they repair the 
damage and restore the hut as nearly as possible 
to its former condition. 

When Romulus and Remus were about eighteen 
years of age, they had some dispute about the pas- 
ture with Numitor's herdsmen, whose herds were 
quartered on the Aventine hill, which is over against 
the Palatine. They frequently accused one another 
either of grazing the meadows-land that did not belong 
to them or of monopolizing that which belonged to 
both in common, or of whatever the matter chanced 
to be. From this wrangling they had recourse some- 
times to blows and then to arms. Finally Numitor's 
men, having received many wounds at the hands of 
the youths and lost some of their number and being 
at last driven by force from the places in dispute, 
devised a stratagem against them. They placed 
an ambuscade in the hidden part of the ravine and 
having concerted the time of the attack with those 
who lay in wait for the youths, the rest in a body 

west corner of the Palatine hill. There was also another 
casa Rormdi on the Capitoline, probably a replica of the 
first. Vitruvius (ii. 1, 5), after mentioning the primitive 
custom of constructing roofs out of reeds, brushwood or 
straw, cites the hut of Romulus on the Capitoline as a 
good example of the ancient practice. Cf. Virgil {Aen. viii. 
654), Romideoque recens horrebat regia cidmo ; and Ovid's 
similar description of the original temple of Vesta (Fasti 
vi. 2G1 f.). 

271 



DiONYSItJS OF HALICARNASSUS 

\oL7TOL Kara TrXrjOog Ittl to. fiavSpevfiara avrcjjv 
vvKTOjp iTTejSaXov. 'PwfxvXog fiev ovu rov XP^^^^ 
TOUTOV Irvyyavev a/i,a toi<^ iTTii^avecTTCLTOis tcDv 
KOJfirjTcov 7T€7Top€viJiivos ft? Tt xajptov KaLvlvTjV^ 
ovojjia^oiJLevov Upa ttoltJctojv vrrep rod kolvov TTarpia ' 
14 'PaJjJLog Se rrjv ecfyoSov avrojp alaQoyievos i^e^orjdei 
Xa^cuv ra orrXa Std rax^ojv oXlyovg rcjv Ik ttj? 
KcjfJLTjg (fiOoLGavTas Kad^ ev yeveadai TrapaXa^cov. 
KOLKelvoL ov hexov-at avrov, dAAa (fyevyovcnv vnayo- 
lievoi evda cfxeXXov iv KaXoj vrroarpei/javres iin- 
6iqo€<j9ai • 6 he 'PojjjLog ^ar' ayvoiav rod firjxoLvr]- 
fiarog oixpi- TToXAov Slcjjkojv avrovg TrapaXXdrrei 
TO XeXox'-CTfiepov ;^ctjpiOv, kolv tovtco 6 re Xoxog 
avLGrarai /cat ol (f^evyovres virooTpecf^ovGL. kvkXco- 
adfievoL Se aurous" /cat ttoXXols dpdrrovreg XlOols 
Xapi^dvovaiv vrrox^'-pi-ovg . ravr-qv yap elxov Ik 
tG)v heuTTOTUiv TTju TTapaKeXevoLv , t,a)VTas avrols 
Tou? veavLGKOvg KOfjLLGaL. ovTcxj fiev hrj ;)^eipaj^et? 
o 'PajfJiog oLTTTiyero. 

LXXX. 'Qg 8e Tov^ipojv ^t'Ato? heivog dvrjp 
/cat nepl ttjv cruvaycoy-qv rrjg loTopiag iTTLjJieXrjg 
ypd<t>eL, TTpoeSoTeg ol rod Nefxeropog OvGovrag rd 
AuKaia Tovg veavLGKOvg rco Ilavl ttjv ^ApKaSLKrjv 
wg EvavSpog /caTeoTr^craro dualav ivqSpeuaav tov 
Kaipov eKelvov rrjg Upovpylag, rjviKa XPV^ rovg nepl 
TO UaXXdvTLOv OLKOvvrag tojv veojv e/c rod AvKalou 

^ KaivivTjv (as in ii. 32, 35, and Steph. Byz.) Gary, KatvLvav 
Co bet, Jacoby : Koivifidv A, KaivLnav B. 

1 Cf. Livy i. 5, 1-3. ^ s^.^ p^ 25. n. 2. 

272 



BOOK I. 79, 13-80, 1 

attacked the others' folds by nip;ht. No wit hap- 
pened that Romuhis, together with the chief men of 
the village, had gone at the time to a place called 
Caenina to offer sacrifices for the community accord- 
ing to the custom of the country ; but Remus, 
being informed of the foe's attack, hastily armed 
himself and with a few of the villagers who had 
already got together went out to oppose them. And 
they, instead of awaiting him, retired, in order to 
draw him to the place where they intended to face 
about and attack him to advantage. Remus, being 
unaware of their stratagem, pursued them for a long 
distance, till he passed the place where the rest 
lay in ambush ; thereupon these men rose up and 
at the same time the others who had been fleeing 
faced about. And having surrounded Remus and 
his men, they overwhelmed them with a shower of 
stones and took them prisoners ; for they had re- 
ceived orders from their masters to bring the youths 
to them alive. Thus Remus was captured and led 
away. 

LXXX. But ^ Aelius Tubero,^ a shrewd man and 
careful in collecting his historical data, writes that 
Numitor's people, knowing beforehand that the 
youths were going to celebrate in honour of Pan the 
Lupercalia,^ the Arcadian festival as instituted by 
Evander, set an ambush for that moment in the 
celebration when the youths living near the Palatine 
were, after offering sacrifice, to proceed from the 

3 For a detailed discussion of the Lupercalia the reader 
is referred to Sir James Frazer's note on Ovid's Fasti ii. 267 
(Vol. ii. pp. 327 ff. ; condensed in his Loeb Classical 
Library edition, pp. 389 ff.). 

273 

VOL. I. I, 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

reOvKoras nepteXdelv Spo/JLO) ttjv kco/jltji' yvixvov? 
V7T€t,(jL)a}i€vovs TTjv atSctj rats' Sopalg rcjv veodvrojv . 
rovro Se KaOapfiov riva tcov KOjpLrjrwv Trdrpiov 

2 ihvvaro, <hs /cat vvv en hparai. eV hr] tovto) rep 
Xpovo) rovs lepoTTOLOvg veavloKovs ol ^ovkoXol 
Xo^cqaavreg Kara to orevoTvopov rrjs 68ov, eTreiSr) 
TO npcoTOV rdypia to uvv to) *Pojpa) Kar avrovs 
eyivero, rojv dpLcf)! 'Pojp^vXov re /cat rcov ^ dXXcov 
varepL^ovTOJv [rpLxfj yap ivevepnqvro /cat £/c StaarTJ- 
fxaros edeov) ov Trepi/xetVavTes" rovs Xolttovs opfiajGLV 
€7Tt Tou? TTpcjoTOVs ifi^oijcravres dOpooi Kal irepi- 
ardvreg e^aXXov ol fiev aKOvrtOig, ol Se XlOol?, ol 8' 
0)9 €KaGTOL TL Sid x^ipos el^ov . ol 8' iKTrXayevres 
TO) TvapaSo^cp rod Trddov? /cat dpLrj^avovvTeg 6 n 
hpdoeiav irpos ajTrXiopLevovs dvoTrXoi pLaxopievoL Kara 

3 TToXXriv €V7T€T€Lav ix^ipcodrjaav . 6 pL€v ovv 'PcD/xo? 

CTTt TOt? TToXepLLOLS y€v6p€V09 OVTOjg, cW^ COS" O 

0d^LOS TTapahehojKe, SdcrpLtog elg rrjv "AX^Bav dTrrj- 
yero. 'PojpLvXos 8' eTreihr) to Trepi rov d8eX(j)6v 
eyvco irddos, hi(I)K€LV evdv? a>ero Selv rovg d/c- 
puaLordrovs exco^ tcDv vopLeojv, d)S ert Kara rrjv 
oSov ovra KaTaXrufjopLevog rov *PdjpLov • drTorpeTTerai 
8' VTTO rod 0avGrvXov. opojv yap avrov rrjv airov 
Srjv pLavLKwrepav ovcrav ovro? ^ vopLLoOelg 6 var'qp, 
a^ TOP epLTTpoodev XP^^^^ d-noppiqTa rroLOVpLevos 
TOt? pieipaKLOLg SiereXecrev, cu? p^r) ddrrov oppitjaojoL 
TrapaKLvSuvevaai n rrplv iv rco Kpariarcp rrjs dKpirjg 
yeveaOaLy rore Brj ■* TTpos rrjg dudyK-qg /Stao^et? 



^ Toiv added by Kiessling. 

^ ovTos added here by Jacoby, after 6pa>v yap by Schnelle. 



274 



BOOK I. 80, 1-3 

Lupercal and run round the village naked, their loins 
girt with the skins of the victims just sacrificed. 
This ceremony signified a sort of traditional purifica- 
tion of the villagers, and is still performed even to 
this day. On this occasion, then, the herdsmen lay 
in wait in the narrow part of the road for the youths 
who were taking part in the ceremony, and when the 
first band with Remus came abreast of them, that 
with Romulus and the rest being behind (for they 
were divided into three bands and ran at a distance 
from one another), without waiting for the others 
they set up a shout and all rushed upon the first 
group, and, surrounding them, some threw darts at 
them, others stones, and others whatever they could 
lay their hands on. And the youths, startled by the 
unexpected attack and at a loss how to act, fighting 
unarmed as they were against armed men, were easily 
overpowered. Remus, therefore, having fallen into 
the hands of the enemy in this manner or in the way 
Fabius relates, was being led away, bound, to Alba. 
When Romulus heard of his brother's fate, he 
thought he ought to follow immediately with the 
stoutest of the herdsmen in the hope of overtaking 
Remus while he was still on the road, but he was 
dissuaded by Faustulus. For seeing that his haste 
was too frenzied, this man, who was looked upon as 
the father of the youths and who had hitherto kept 
everything a secret from them, lest they should ven- 
tuLTe upon some hazardous enterprise before they were 
in their prime, now at last, compelled by necessity, 



a added by Kiessling. 
6rj Schnelle : Se O. 



275 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

4 fiovcudevTL TO) 'PcxjfJivXcp Xeyei. fiadovn 8e rco 
veavLOTKO) rrdaav ef o.pXV^ "^V^ KaTa(j')(ov(jav avrovs 
rvxiqv rrjs re fjL-qrpo? oIkto? eLGepxerat Kal Nefie- 
ropog (fypovTiSy Kal rroXXa ^ovXevcrafievco [xera rod 
0av<JTvXov TrjS fJi^v avrUa opfjii]? imux^lv iSoKei, 
TrXetovL Se TrapaorKevfj Bwd/jieco? -x^prjudixevov oX.ov 
aTTaXXd^ai rov oIkov rijg 'ApLoXlov napavopLLas 
KLvSwou T€ rov €(TXO.rov vTTep rcbv pueyiorajv ddXtov 
dvappLi/jaL, TTpdrreiv Se puerd rod pnqrpoTrdropos o 
Tt aV iK€LV(l) SoKfj. 

LXXXI. 'Qg Se ravra Kpdricrra etvat eSo^e 
crvyKaXeaag rov? Kcupi-qra? diravras 6 *PajpLvXos 
Kal Serjdels els rrjv "AX^av ineLyeordaL hid raxlcjv 
pLTj Kard rd? avrdg TTvXas drravras pir]h^ dOpoovs 
eloLOvras, p^rj rt? VTrovoia rrpo? rovs ev rfj TroAet 
yevrjrai, Kal irepl rrjv dyopdv viropiivovras iroLpLous 
eti'at Spdv rd KeXevop^evov , dir^eL TrpcDro? et? rrjv 
2 ttoXlv. ol Se rov 'PojpLov dyovr€9, iTretSr] Kar- 
darrjaav inl rov ^acnXea, rd? re vf^peis aTraora?, 
daas rjcrav v^piGpilvoi npog rcov pLeLpaKicov, Karrj- 
yopovv Kal rov? rpavp^aria? gcJxjjv iTTehetKvvGav, 
ripLcopLa? el pirj rev^ovrai KaraXeiipeLV rrpoXeyovre? 
rd f^ov(f>6p^La. y4/xoAto? Se rot? ;^a)ptTats" Kard 
ttXtjOos eX-qXvdoGL ;)^api^€o-^at ^ovXopievog Kal rep 
NepieropL [rrapojv ydp ervy)(ave ovvayavaKrcov rot? 
TreXdrais) elprjvqv re dvd rrjv ^wpav GrrevScov elvai 
Kal dpLa Kal ro au^aSe? rov pLetpaKiov, cb? aKard- 
rrX'qKrov tjv ev rolg XoyoLS, St* vrroipia? Xapi^dvcov 
KaraiJjrj(f>Lil,eraL rrjv Slktjv • rrj£ be ripLcopia? rov 

276 



BOOK I. 80, 4-81, 2 

took Romulus aside and told him everything. 
When the youth heard every circumstance of their 
fortune from the beginning, he was touched both 
with compassion for his mother and with solicitude 
for Numitor. And after taking much counsel with 
Faustulus, he decided to give up his plan for an 
immediate attack, but to get ready a larger force, 
in order to free his whole family from the lawlessness 
of Amulius. and he resolved to risk the direst peril for 
the sake of the greatest rewards, but to act in concert 
with his grandfather in whatever the other should 
see fit to do. 

LXXXI. This ^ plan having been decided upon 
as the best, Romulus called together all the inhabit- 
ants of the village and after asking them to hasten 
into Alba immediately, but not all by the same 
gates nor in a body, lest the suspicions of the citizens 
should be aroused, and then to stay in the market- 
place and be ready to do whatever should be ordered, 
he himself set out first for the city. In the meantime 
those who had carried off Remus brought him be- 
fore the king and complained of all the outrageous 
treatment they had received from the youths, 
producing their wounded, and threatening, if they 
found no redress, to desert their herds. And Amulius, 
desiring to please both the countrymen, who had 
come in great numbers, and Numitor (for he happened 
to be present and shared the exasperation of his 
retainers), and longing to see peace throughout the 
country, and at the same time suspecting the 
boldness of the youth, so fearless was he in his 
answers, gave judgment against him ; but he left his 

1 For chape. 81-83 c/. Livy i. 5, 4-6, 2. 

277 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Nefxeropa 7tol€l kvolov, elnwv cb? rw hpdoavri Sead 
TO avTLTTadeLV ov TTpos aXXov TLvos fjidXXov rj rod 

3 TTeTTOvOoTO? o^ctAerat. iv ocroj S* d 'Pajfjio? vtto 
Ta)v Tov NeyLCTopos ^ovkoXojv rjyero SeSe/xeVo? t€ 

OTTLCTOJ TOJ X^^P^ ^^^ TtpOS TCOV dyOVTOJV eTTLKepTO- 

jiov^jLevoSy OLKoXovdajv 6 Nefierajp rod re crcofjLarog 
TT^v €V7Tp€7reLav OLTredavpLal^ev, cos ttoXv to pacnXiKov 
€Lx^, Kal TOV (f)pov7]pLaros ttjv €vyev€iav iveOvfieLTO, 
rjv /cat TTapd tol Seivd Stecrcocrev ou rrpos olktov ovhe 
XL7Tap7](j€L9, d>s drravTes iv rat? TOtataSe ttolOvgl tv- 
X^^^i TpaTTOfxevos, dXXd gvv evKoorpLO) o-lcotttj npos^ 

4 TOV fiopov aTTLWV. cus" S' et? rrjv oiKiav d(f)LKovTO 
/jL€Ta(jT7JvaL Tovs dXXovs KeXevcras pLovcodevTa tov 

Pujpiov rjp€To Tis elrj Kal tlvojv, cos ovk dv Ik tcjv 
rvxovTcov y€ dvSpa tolovtov yevofxevov . elnovTos 
Se TOV 'Pcofiov TocrovTov elSevac fiovov Kara ttvotiv 
rod rp€(f)0VT0Sy on crvv dSeA(/)a) SlSvjjloj eKreOelrj 
ppecpos els vaTTTjv €v6vs drro yovrjs Kal rrpos rcJov 
vopbioiv dvaipedels €KTpa(f>€L7], ^pax^v €7Ti(Jxdjv 
Xpdvov e'lre VTroronrjOeLS n rcov dX-qdojv etre rod 
SaLfJLovos dyovTOS els rovpLcjiaves ro 7Tpdyp.a Xeyei 

5 TTpos avTov " "On piev eV e'/xot yeyovas, o) 'Pcupbe, 
rradeZv 6 n dv hiKaLOJOOJ , Kal 609 rrepl ttoXXov 
TToirjoaivT dv ol KOpLiaavres ere Sevpo TroAAd Acat 
heivd iraOovres dTTodaveiv, ovhkv Set rrpds elBora 
Xeyeiv. el Se ae Bavdrov re Kal dXXov Travros 
iKXvoaipL-qv KaKOV, dp* dv elSel'qs p-OL X^P^^' ^<^^ heo- 
/xeVa> VTTOVpyr^aeLas o kolvov dpLcfiolv ecrrat dyadov ; " 

* TTpos B : €7n R. 
278 



BOOK I. 81, 2-5 

punishment to Nimiitor, sayinn that the one who had 
done an injury could be ])unished by none so justly 
as by the one who had sufVered it. ^ hile Numitor's 
herdsmen were leading Remus away with his hands 
bound behind him and mocking him, Numitor fol- 
lowed and not only admired his grace of body, so 
much was there that was kingly in his bearing, 
but also observed his nobility of spirit, which he 
preserved even in distress, not turning to lamenta- 
tions and entreaties, as all do under such afflictions, 
but with a becoming silence going away to his fate. 
As soon as they were arrived at his house he ordered 
all the rest to withdraw, and Remus being left alone, 
he asked him who he was and of what parents ; 
for he did not believe such a man could be meanly 
born. Remus answered that he knew this much 
only from the account he had received from the 
man who brought him up, that he with his twin 
brother had been exposed in a wood as soon as they 
were born and had then been taken up by the 
herdsmen and reared by them. Upon which 
Numitor, after a short pause, either because he sus- 
pected something of the truth or because Heaven 
was bringing the matter to light, said to him : 
" I need not inform you, Remus, that you are in 
my power to be punished in whatever way I may see 
fit, and that those who brought you here, having 
suffered many grievous wrongs at your hands, 
would give much to have you put to death. All 
this you know. But if I should free you from death 
and every other punishment, would you show your 
gratitude and serve me when I desire your assistance 
in an affair that will conduce to the advantage of us 

279 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

OLTTOKpLvafjiei'ov Se rod {xeLpaKLOV OTTocra rou? iv 
aTToyvojueL ^lov Keifxevov? rj rod GCxiBrjaeGOai 
iXrTLS roL£ KvptoL? TOVTOV Xeyeiv koL vmcrxi'^LaOaL 
eVatpet, Aucrat KeXeuaa? avrou 6 Nejxerojp /cat 
iravras aTreXBelv eKTroSajv cf)pd<l,€L rag avrou Tu;^a?, 
CO? ^/xoAtos" avTOv aSeA^o? coi^ aTTeaTcprjcre rrfS 
/SacrtAeias" 6p<f>av6v re ^ reKvajv edrjKe, rov fxev iirl 
9rjpa Kpv(f)a Sta;)(etptcra/xevos', r-qv S' ev elpKrfj 8c- 
SefievTjv (f)vXdTTOjv, rd re aAAa oTToaa heoTTor-qs 
■)(^pioiievos hoTjXoj StareAet.^ 

LXXXII. Taur' elrrajv koI ttoXvv dpr\vov a/xa 
rots Xoyois Karax^dfievog rj^lov TLpLOipov tols Kar 
oIkov^ auTOU * KaKOL? '^ rov 'PcopLOV yeveorOat. 
dcrfxevcog Se VTTohe^ajJiivov rov Xoyov rod fjiecpaKLOV 
/cat TrapavrLKa^ rdrrew avrov IttI ro epyov d^iovuros 
iTTaiviuas 6 Nepiercxjp rrjv TTpoOvfJiLav, " Tij? [xev rrpd- 
^eo)?/' e^T^, '^ rov Kaipov iyoj ra/xteucro/xat, crv §€ 
recus" TTpo? rov dSeA(/)6v d-rroppiqrov aTraai rot? aAAot? 
dyyeXlav Trefxifjov, on crco^r) re SrjXojv /cat 8ta raye(x>v 
avrov riKeiv d^tcuv." Ik he rovrov TTefiTrerai, rig 
e^evpedeis, o? ehoKei ' VTTTjperrjGeiv , /cat -nepirvxoiv 
ov TTpocroj rr\? TroAecos" ovri 'PajfivXa) Stacra^et rds" 
dyyeAta? * o Se nepLXCLpri? yevopievo? epx^Tai cnrovhrj 
TTpos NepLeropa /cat rrepLTrXaKel? dpi(f)OLV do-TT-d^erat 
fxev TTpujrov, eTreira (j>pdt,eL rrjv eKdecrLV acfxjjv /cat 
rpocfyrjv /cat rdAAa oaa Trapd rod 0avurvXov eirvdero. 

1 T€ Meutzner : Se O. 

2 StareAei added by Sintenis, Xaj^drai by Meutzner, Jacoby. 
' /car' oiK'oi' Kiessling : KaroiKOLS ABa, /car' ot/cous Bb. 

* avTov Kiessling : avrov AB. 

^ KaKOLS added by Kiessling ; Reiske had suggested KaKols 
for KaroiKois of the MSS. 
280 



BOOK 1. 81, 6-82. 2 

Loth ? " The youth, having in answer said every- 
thing which the hope of life prompts those who are in 
despair of it to say and promise to those on whom 
their fate depends, Numitor ordered him to be 
unbound. An<l commanding everybody to leave the 
place, he acquainted him with his own misfortunes — 
how AmuUus, though his brother, had deprived him 
of his kingdom and bereft him of his children, having 
secretly slain his son while he was hunting and keep- 
ing his daughter bound in prison, and in all other 
respects continued to treat him as a master would 
treat his slave. 

LXXXII. Having spoken thus and accompanied 
his words with many lamentations, he entreated 
Remus to avenge the wrongs of his house. And 
when the youth gladly embraced the proposal and 
begged him to set him at the task immediately, 
Numitor commended his eagerness and said : " I my- 
self will determine the proper time for the enterprise ; 
but do you meanwhile send a message privately to 
your brother, informing him that you are safe and 
asking him to come here in all haste." Thereupon 
a man who seemed likely to serve their purpose 
was found and sent ; and he, meeting Romulus not 
far from the city, delivered his message. Romulus 
was greatly rejoiced at this and went in haste to 
Numitor ; and having embraced them both, he first 
spoke words of greeting and then related how he and 
his brother had been exposed and brought up and 

^ TTapavTiKa Jacoby : irdXaL O. 

'After eSoK-et Meineke supplied eu; Reiske proposed to 
read os TTpodvfiujs Kai ttlotcos eSoKCt virrjper-qaeiv. 

281 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

rots' Se ^ovXofxivoLS re kol ov ttoXXcjv Iva Tnarevoreiav 
reK/jLrjpLcov heofjievois Kad^ rjSovas to Xeyofievov -^v} 
CTTet 8e aveyvcoGav aXXrjXovs avriKa uvverdrTovro 
KOL hieoKOTTOvv OGTLs ccTTat TpoTTOs rj Kaipog els TrjV 

3 €7710 euLv eTnrrjheLos . iv (L 8e ovtol nepl ravr -qoav 
6 0av(7TvXos aTrdyeraL Trpog M/xdAtov. SeSotKcb? yap 

fJLT) ov TTIGTOL So^J) Tip Ne/JLETOpL XdyELV 6 'PcO/XuAo? ^ 

dvev cn^/jL€i<juv ijJL^avcov fxeydXov 7Tpdy[xaro£ fjirjvvrrjg 
y€v6p.€vo<i, TO yvcopLOjJLa rrjs iKOeo-eco? rwv ^pecfxZv 
TTji' (jKd<f)r}v dvaXapojv oXlyov vorepov IhicjKev els 

4 rrjv ttoXlv. hiep)(^6pLevov S' avrov rds TTvXas rapa- 
)(ajSa)S Trdvv kol irepl ttoXXov 7TOLOvp.evov fx-qSevl 
TTOLTJaaL Kara(f)aves to ^epopLevov ^ rwv ^vXdKwv tls 
KaTap.a6a)v {'^v Se TToXepiicjv €(f)6hov Seos kol rag 
TTvXas ol fidXtcTTa TTiUTevopLevoi irpo? rod ^aonXeajs 
i(f)povpovv) ovXXapL^dvec re Kal to KpvTrrov 6 tl 
h-qTTOT rjv KaTapLadelv d^LCJv diroKaXiiTTTei ^la ttjv 
TrepL^oXijv. d>? he ttjv OKdcjy-qv ededoaTO kol tov 
di'dpojTTOv efiadev drropovfjievov, tj^lov Xeyeiv ris rj 
Tapaxr) Kal tl to ^ovXrjpia tov pir] cjiavepcos elG<j)epeiv^ 

6 (jKevog ovhev heopievov dTTopprjTov (f)opds. iv 8e 
TOVTcp TrXelovs twv (f>vXdKa)v ovveppeov Kal tls 
avTcov yvojplt,eL ttjv crKdif)r)v avrog iv iKelvrj tol 
TTathla KO/jblaas eVt tov TTOTapLov Kal (f)pdt,ei irpos 
tov? TrapovTas . ol he avXXa^ovre? tov 0av(JTvXov 
dyovGLv eV avTOv tov ^aatAea Kal hLrjyovvraL Ta 

^ -qv added by Steph. 

2 Syiburg : ^aiaruAos AB. 

282 



BOOK I. 82, 2-5 

all the other circumstances he had learned from 
Faustulus. The others, who wished his story might 
be true and needed few proofs in order to believe 
it, heard what he said with pleasure. And as soon 
as they knew one another they proceeded to consult 
together and consider the proper method and occa- 
sion for making their attack. While they were thus 
employed, Faustulus was brought before Amulius. 
For, fearing lest the information given bv Romulus 
might not be credited by Numitor, in an affair of 
so great moment, without manifest proofs, he soon 
afterwards followed him to town, taking the ark 
with him as evidence of the exposing of the babes. 
But as he was entering the gates in great confusion, 
taking all possible pains to conceal what he carried, 
one of the guards observed him (for there was fear 
of an incursion of the enemy and the gates were being 
guarded by those who were most fullv trusted by 
the king) and laid hold of him ; and insisting upon 
knowing what the concealed object was, he forcibly 
threw back his garment. As soon as he saw the ark 
and found the man embarrassed, he demanded to 
know the cause of his confusion and what he meant 
by not carrying in openly an article that required 
no secrecy. In the meantime more of the guards 
flocked to them and one of them recognized the ark, 
having himself carried the children in it to the river ; 
and he so informed those who were present. Upon 
this they seized Faustulus, and carrying him to the 
king himself, acquainted him with all that had 



^ (f)€p6fj.evov Gelenius, OTeyofximu Keiske : Aeyoixevop O. 
* cia^e'peii' B : eK(f>€p€ii' A. 



283 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

(J yev6jj.€va. lAfJLoXiog Se dneLXfj ^aadvajv KarairXiq^d- 
fi€V09 Tov dvdpcoTTOv, €L fiTj Xl^oi TO.? dXrjOeia? eKOiVy 
TTpwrov jjL€v el t,cx)Giv ol TTatSe? rjpero ' cLs Se rovr 
efjiade, rrj? oojrrjpias avrols ootls 6 Tporros eyivero • 
8irjy7jGap,€vov Se avrov iravra c5? iTTpd)(dr], " "Aye 
St], cf)r]GLV 6 ^aacXevg, eTreihr^ ravr" dXrjdevGa? ^x^l?, 
(f)pdGov 07T0V I'vv dv evpeOeZev. ov yap en Si/catot 
elatv ev ^ovkoXol? koL dSo^ov ^iov ^ t^rfv epLOiye ovreg 
Gvyyevel? , dXXcog re kol OedJv Trpovoia aco^o/xevot." 
LXXXIII. 0auGTvXos Be rrjs dXoyov TrpaoTrjTO? 
VTTOijjia KLvrjOels p-rj (jypovelv avrov o/xoia rols Aoyot? 
diroKpiverai o5Se • '' Ot piev iralhes eiGiv ev rots opeGi 
^ovKoXovvreg, oGirep eKeivajv ^io<;, eyd) S' errepL(j)Qriv 
Trap' avra)v rfj pirjrpl hrjXojGOjv ev at? eiGi rv-)(ai<s ' 
ravrrjv Be rrapd Got (f)vXdrreGdaL aKOVwv Sei^GeGOai 
rrj? cr^? dvyarpos epueXXov, Iva pie irpos avrrfv dydyoi. 
rrjv Se GKd<hrjV e(f)epov tv' e^o) SeiKvvvaL reKpLtjpLov 
ep(j)ave<g dpua rot? Xoyoc?. vuv ovv, eirel hehoKrai 
GOL rovg veavLGKOVS Sevpo KoptoaL, ■)(aipco re kol 
Trepufjop ovGrivag ^ovXei gvv epoi. hei^oj pev ovv 
rolg eXdovGL rovs TralSa?, (f)pdGOVGL S' avrol'? eKelvoi 

2 rd TTapd gov.^^ 6 piev Brj raur' eXeyev dva^oXrjv 
evpeodai ^ovXopevog rols TTaiGi rod davdrov Kal 
dp,a avrog dnoSpdoeGdai rovg dyovras, eireihav ev 
roL£ opeoL yevTjraL, eXniGas. ApioXiog he rols 

^ dho^ov ^iov Useiier : dbo^u) ^iw O. 

284 



BOOK I. 82, 6-83, 2 

passed. Amiilius, havinoj terrified the man by the 
threat of torture if he did not willingly tell the truth, 
first asked him if the ehildren \v ere alive ; and learning 
that they were, he desired to know in what manner they 
had been preserved. And when the other had given 
him a full account of everything as it had happened, 
the king said : " Well then, since you have spoken 
the truth about these matters, say where they may 
now be found ; for it is not right that they who are 
my relations should any longer live ingloriously among 
herdsmen, particularly since it is due to the provi- 
dence of the gods that they have been preserved." 

LXXXIII. But Faustulus, suspecting from the 
king's unaccountable mildness that his intentions 
were not in harmony with his professions, answered 
him in this manner : " The youths are upon the moun- 
tains tending their herds, which is their way of 
life, and I was sent by them to their mother to give 
her an account of their fortunes ; but, hearing that 
she was in your custody, I was intending to ask your 
daughter to have me brought to her. And I was 
bringing the ark with me that I might support my 
words with a manifest proof. Now, therefore, since 
you have decided to have the youths brought 
here, not only am I glad, but I ask you to send such 
persons with me as you wish. I will point out to 
them the youths and they shall acquaint them with 
your commands." This he said in the desire to 
discover some means of delaying the death of the 
youths and at the same time in the hope of making 
his own escape from the hands of those who were 
conducting him, as soon as he should arrive upon the 
mountains. And Amulius speedily sent the most 

285 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TTLGrordroL? tcjv 677Xo(f)6pcx}v iTTLO-relXas Kpv(f)a, ou? 
av o cruo^op^os avrolg Set^r) ovXXa^ovra? ct>9 aurov 
dyeiv, oLTTocTTeXXeL Std ra^eojv. ravra Se SLaTrpa^d- 
jii€vo£ avTLKa yvojpirjv irroLeLTO KaXeaas rov aSeA- 
<f>6v iv ^vXaKrj dSeufiq) '^x^^^> ^^^ av ev drJTai rd 
TTapovra, koL avrov d)s err" oAAo hrj n CKdXei. 6 Se 
aTTooTaXels dyyeXos evvoia. re rod KLvhvvevovros /cat 
iXeci) rrj? rvx^jS emrpeijjas Karrjyopo? ylverat Ne/xe- 
Topt rrjg "ApLoXiov yvcofxr)?. 6 Se rots' rraiGi B-qXcoaas 
Tov KareiXrjSora klv^vvov avrovs /cat napaKeXevad- 
jjievog dvSpas dyadovg yeveoOai Traprjv dyojv (jjttXl- 
(TfJievovs irrl rd jSacrtAeta rayv re dXXojv rreXarajv Kal 
iraLpcov /cat OepaTreia? TTiarrjg X^^P'^ ^^'^ oXlyrjv. 
TjKov Se /cat ol e/c rcov dypojv ovveXdovres els ttjv 
ttoXlv eKXirrovres ttjv dyopdv exovres vtto rat? rrepL- 
jSoAat? ^iffir) KeKpvfjLfieva, GrZ(j)OS Kaprepov. ^laad- 
fievoL Se TTju etcroSov ddpoa dpfifj iravres ov rroXXolg 
orrXlraLS (j^povpovixevrjv drroocjidrrovGLV evrrero)? 
"AfXoXiov /cat ^era rovro rrjv aKpav KaraXa/JL^dvov- 
Tab. ravra fiev ovv rols rrepl 0d^iov elpr^r ai. 

LXXXIV. "ErepoL Se ouSei^ rd)v fxvdojhearepojv 
d^Lovvres laropiKfj ypa(f)fj Trpoo-qKeLv tt^v re drro- 
deuLv T'qv rcov Ppe(f)a>v ovx o)? eKeXevcrdr] rolg 
vrr-qperaL? yevofxevriv drriOavov elvai </>acrt, /cat 
rrjs XvKaivqs to ndauov, tj tovs /xacrrous" e 7ret;\;e 
rot? TraiStot?, d>s SpapLartKrjs ^ fxecrrov drorrias 

^ 8pafj.aTiK7Js B : 8paaTiKT]S R. 



1 Literally " under guard without chains," probably a 
translation of the Latin libera custodia. In later times 

286 



BOOK I. 83, 2-84, 1 

trustworthy of his guards with secret orders to seize 
and bring before him the persons whom the swine- 
herd should point out to them. Having done this, 
he at once determined to summon his brother and 
keep him under mild guard ^ till he had ordered the 
present business to his satisfaction, and he sent for 
him as if for some other purpose ; but the messenger 
who was sent, yielding both to his good-will toward 
the man in danger and to compassion for his fate, 
informed Numitor of the design of Amulius. And 
Numitor, having revealed to the youths the danger 
that threatened them and exhorted them to show 
themselves brave men, came to the palace with 
a considerable band of his retainers and friends and 
loyal servants. These were joined by the country- 
men who had entered the city earlier and now came 
from the market-place with swords concealed under 
their clothes, a sturdy company. And ha\"ing by 
a concerted attack forced the entrance, which was 
defended by only a few heavy-armed troops, they 
easily slew Amulius and afterwards made themselves 
masters of the citadel. Such is the account given 
by Fabius. 

LXXXIY. But others, who hold that nothing 
bordering on the fabulous has any place in historical 
writing, declare that the exposing of the babes by 
the servants in a manner not in accordance with their 
instructions is improbable, and they ridicule the 
tameness of the she-wolf that suckled the children as 
a story full of melodramatic absurdity. In place of 

persons of rank were often thus kept under surveillance in 
their own houses or in the house of a magistrate. 

287 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

2 Biaovpovcnv • avTiSLaXXarTOfJievoi Se npo? ravra 
XeyovGiv (hs 6 NefjLerojp, eVetS?) rrjv ^IXlav €yvaj 
KVovGaVj erepa TrapaGKevaudpievos Traihia v€oyva 
StT^AAa^aro reKOVGrjS avrrjs to. ^p€(l)r] /cat ra p,ev 
odi^ela SeScoK€ tols ^vXarrovGL ras cjSlvas dTTO(l>epeLV , 
€tT€ ^(pripidrojv ro ttlgtov rrjg ■)(peia£ avrojv Trptd- 
pL€vos etre Sta yvvaiK(i)V rrjv VTTaXXayrjv pLr]xo.vr)Gd- 
pL€vos, Kal aura Xa^cbv M^oAto? orco Sij tlvi rpoTTcp 
dvaLpel • rd S' eV rrjs '/Ata? yevopieva irepl iravros 
7TOLOvpL€vog 6 pLrjTpoTrdrwp Stacrctj^ecr^at SlSojgl tco 

3 0avGTvXoj. Toi^ Se 0avGTvXov rovrov ^ApKdha p.kv 
elval ^aGi ro yivos 0,770 rcjv gvv Evdvhpcp, Karoi- 
Kelv 8e TTcpl TO TlaXXdvriov eTnpiiXeLav ej^oi^ra rcuv 
^ApLoXiov KT-qpidrojv . ■)(apiGaG8aL 8e NepLeropL r-qv 
€Krpocf)rjv rcx)V Traihiov rdSeXc^o) ^ ireidopi^vov ovopua 
0avGTLvcp ras" Trepl rou Avevrlvov r/De^o/xeVa? rod 

4 Nepteropog dyeXas imrpoTrevovrL ' rrjv re rid-qv-qGa- 
pL€vr)v rd TratSta Kal paGrov? eTTiG^ovGav ov Xv- 
Kaivav etval <^acrtv, aAA' oiGTrep eiKO? yvvaiKa rep 
0avGrvXcp GvvoLKovGav Aavpevrtav ovopLa, j) Sr)- 
pLOGLevovGT] 770X6 TTjv rov GcopLarog wpav at irepl 
rd TJaXXdvriov hiarpi^ovres irrLKX-qGLi' edevro rrjv 
AovTTav • ^ €CTTt Se rovro ' EXX-qviKov re Kal dp^alov 

^ Hertlein : dBeX(f>a> O. 

2 XovTrnav AB (and similarly jiist below). 



1 Cf. Livy i. 4, 7. litpa is found in various Latin 
authors in the sense of " prostitute," and lupanar meant 
" brothel." 

288 



BOOK I. 84, 2-^ 

this they give the following account of the matter : 
Numitor, upon learning that Ilia was with child, 
procured other new-born infants and when she had 
given birth to her babes, he substituted the former 
in place of the latter. Then he gave the suppositi- 
tious children to those who were guarding her at the 
time of her delivery to be carried away, having either 
secured the loyalty of the guards by money or con- 
trived this exchange by the help of women ; and 
when Amulius had received them, he made away 
with them by some means or other. As for the 
babes that were born of Ilia, their grandfather, who 
was above all things solicitous for their preservation, 
handed them over to Faustulus, This Faustulus, 
they say, was of Arcadian extraction, being descended 
from those Arcadians who came over with Evander ; 
he lived near the Palatine hill and had the care oi 
Amulius' possessions, and he was prevailed on by 
his brother, named Faustinus, who had the over- 
sight of Numitor's herds that fed near the Aventine 
hill, to do Numitor the favour of bringing up the 
children. They say, moreover, that the one who 
nursed and suckled them was not a she-wolf, but, 
as may well be supposed, a woman, the wife of 
Faustulus, named Laurentia, who, having formerly 
prostituted her beauty, had received from the 
people living round the Palatine hill the nickname 
of Lupa.^ This is an ancient Greek ^ term applied 

2 It would seem as if " Greek " must be an error here for 
"Latin." Not even the Greek equivalent of hipn (XvKaiva) 
is found used in this sense. Hesychius' gloss, Xv-nra (for 
XvTTTTa ?) • eralpa, nopinj, may well have been taken from some 
Roman history. 

289 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

CTTt rat? fJLLodapvovaaig Ta(f)pohLOia ridefxevov, at 
vvv €V7rp€7T€(TT€pa KXijuei Iralpai TrpocrayopevovraL, 
ayvoovvras Se rivas avro TrXdoai rov nepl Trjg 
XvKaivqs pLvdov, eVeiS')) /card rrjv yXcorrav, t^v to 
Aarivojv eBvos (f>BeyyeraL, Xovrra KaXelrat tovto to 
drjpiov. TjVLKa Se rrjs ev ro) ydXaKn rpocjirjs dnr^X- 
Xdyrj TO. TraiSta, SoOrji-aL rrpos rcov rpecjiovTOJV ets" 
Fa^Lovs ttoXlv ov /xaKpav (xtto rod IJaXXavrlov 
KCLjiiviqVy (1)5 'EXXdSa Traiheiav eKpudOoiev, KaKeZ 
77a/)' dvSpdcnv Ihio^ivoLS rod OavarvXou rpacfirjvac 
ypd/JLfJLara koL fJLOvo-LKTjv /cat )(prj(7LV ottXojv 'EXXtjvl- 

6 Kwv^ iKhihaoKopiivovs fiexpL^ rjlSr]?. iirel he d(f)L- 
KOVTO TTpos Tovs vofJLLi^ojJLevovs yovel? GvpL^rjvai rrjv 
Siacjiopdv avToZs Trpos rovs Nepilropos ^ovkoXovs 
Trepl rwv Gyvvofxcov ^(ojpiojv • e/c he rovrov TrXrjyds 
avToTs hovra? cos avrovs aTreXdoai rds dyeXas, 
TroLTJoai he ravra rfj yvcopir) rod NepLeropos, Iv* 
dpx'T] yevoiTO eyKXrjpLdTwv /cat d'jLta Trapovaias elg 

7 Tr]v ttoXlv TO) vopLevriKO) TTXrjOei 7Tp6(j)aGis. to? Se 
ravT eyevero Nepueropa piev lApLoXtov /cara^oav, 
COS" hetvd Trdcj-xoL StapTra^o/xcyos" vtto tCjv eKeivov 
^ovKoXcov, /cat d^iovv el pL-qhevos airios ^ eari napa- 
hovvaL rov pov(f)op^6v^ avro) /cat rovs vlovs errl 
hiKT) • ^ApioXiov he dTToXvoaoOai jSouXopievov rrjv 
alriav rovg re alr'qdevras /cat rovs dXXov? airavraSi 
oaoL TTapeZvai rolg yevopuevoLg el^ov alriav, rJKeLV 

8 KeXevecv hiKag v(f>e^ovras roj Neperopi. rroXXayv he 



^ eXA-qviKcov B : iXXrjvLKrjv R. 

^ atrLos Kiessling : alrios eKilvov A, aircos ruiv CKeivov B. 



290 



BOOK I. 84, 4-8 

to women who prostitute themselves for gain ; but 
they are now called by a more respectable name, 
hetacrac or *' companions." But some who were 
ignorant of this invented the myth of the she-wolf, 
this animal being called in the Latin tongue lupa. 
The story continues that after the children were 
weaned they were sent by those who were rearing 
them to Gabii, a town not far from the Palatine 
hill, to be instructed in Greek learning ; and there 
they were brought up by some personal friends of 
Faustulus, being taught letters, music, and the 
use of Greek arms until they grew to manhood. 
After their return to their supposed parents the 
quarrel arose between them and Numitor's herds- 
men concerning their common pastures ; thereupon 
they beat Numitor's men so that these drove away 
their cattle, doing this by Numitor's direction, to 
the intent that it might serve as a basis for his com- 
plaints and at the same time as an excuse for the 
crowd of herdsmen to come to town. When this had 
been brought about, Numitor raised a clamour 
against Amulius, declaring that he was treated 
outrageously, being plundered by the herdsmen of 
Amuhus, and demanding that Amulius, if he was 
not responsible for any of this, should deliver up to 
him the herdsman and his sons for trial ; and Amulius, 
wishing to clear himself of the charge, ordered not 
only those who were complained of, but all the rest 
who were accused of having been present at the con- 
flict, to come and stand trial before Numitor. Then, 

2 Kiessling : avo<f>op^6v O. 

291 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

orvveXOovTOjv a^ia tol? lirairioLg cVt rr] TrpoSaGei ttj? 
SiKTj? (fypdaavra rolg veaiiOKOig tov /irjTpoTrdTopa 
TTaaav rrjv KaraXapovaai' avrovg rvxr]v /cat (fyi^cravTa 
TLfxajpLav vvv et TTore Katpov elvai Xa^elv, avriKa 
TTOL'qcraGdaL avv ro) vofievrtKa) TrXrjOeL ttjv eTTidecnv, 
TTcpl jjiev ovv yev€aea>9 Kal Tpo(f)rjg rujv olklgtojv 
TTJs 'Pco{jLr)? ravra XeyeraL. 

LXXXV. Td Se Kard rrjv ktlglv avTrjv yevopieva 
[tovto dv/i en puoL to piipos ttj? ypacfirjs AetVerat) 
vvv epxofiaL Sir]yr](j6p.€vo?. iTreihrj ydp M/xoAtou 
TeXev-nqGavTO? dvevewcraro r-qv dpxrjv 6 Nepiercop 
oXiyov iTn(j)(ow xpdi^ov, iv (h ttjv ttoXlv Ik rrjs irpo- 
repov irrexovcrrjg aKoapLLa? ^ el? tov dpxalov CKoapbeL 
TpoTTOv, eijOv? inevoeL Tolg pL€LpaKL0LS Ihiav apx'rjv 

2 KaTao-Kevdfjat eTepav ttoXlv OLKiaa?. a/xa Se Kal tov 
ttoXltlkov TrX-qBovs eTTiSoo'LV tt's- evavSplav io'X'qKOTog 
dTTavaXdJaai tl KaXcos €X€lv coero, Kal /xaAtorra to 
Std^opov avTO) 7TOT€ y€v6pL€vov , ojg purj St' vnoi/jias 
avTOV? ^X^'-- KOivojcrdpLevog Se rot? pLeipaKioig ^ 
ineLSr] KaKetvois e8o/c€t, SlScocnv aurot? x^P^^ f^^^ 
ojv dp^ovaLV, €vda TratSe? ovTes eTpdcfyrjciav, €k 8e 
TOV Xeoj TOV ^ T€ St' VTToifjiag auTcp yevofxevov , o? 
e/xeAAe v-ecoreptcr/xou elaavdts dpx^-iv, Kal et tl 

3 eKovcTLOv aTTavaGTTJvaL i^ovXeTO. '^v he iv tovtol? 

TToXv pL€V aXJTTep 6Lk6? Iv TToAct KLVOVpLeVT] TO 8rj- 

fjLOTLKOv yevo<;, iKavdv Se ^rat to dird tov KpaTiGTOV 
' aKoofxias 13 : dvojxiai H. ^ To»' Kiessling : to U. 

292 



BOOK I. 81. 8-85, 3 

when great numbers came to town tojicther with the 
accused, ostensibly to attend the trial, the grand- 
father of the youths acquainted them with all the 
circumstances of their fortune, and telling them that 
now, if ever, was the time to avenge themselves, he 
straightway made his attack upon Amulius with the 
crowd of herdsmen. These, then, are the accounts 
that are given of the birth and rearing of the founders 
of Rome. 

LXXXV. I ^ am now going to relate the events 
that happened at the very time of its founding; for 
this part of my account still remains. When Numitor, 
upon the death of Amulius, had resumed his rule 
and had spent a little time in restoring the city from 
its late disorder to its former orderly state, he pre- 
sently thought of providing an independent rule 
for the youths by founding another city. At the 
same time, the inhabitants being much increased 
in number, he thought it good policy to get rid of 
some part of them, particularly of those who had 
once been his enemies, lest he might have cause 
to suspect any of his subjects. And having com- 
municated this plan to the youths and gained their 
approval, he gave them, as a district to rule, the 
region where they had been brought up in their 
infancy, and, for subjects, not only that part of the 
people which he suspected of a design to begin 
rebellion anew, but also any who were willing to 
migrate voluntarily. Among these, as is likely to 
happen when a city sends out a colony, there were 
great numbers of the common people, but there were 
also a sufficient number of the prominent men of 

1 For chaijs. 85-88 cj. Livy i. 6, 3-7, 3. 

293 



DIONl^SIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

yvcopt/jiov, Ik Se rod TpcoLKOV to evyeveararov Sr^ 
voiJLLt,6iJL€vov, i^ ov Kal yeveai rives €tl TTepirjaav 
els ijJ-^y TrevTTjKOvra /xctAtcrr' oIkol. ej^opr^yelro he 
rols veavLOKOLS /cat xprjpiara Kal oVAa Kal gltos Kal 
avSpdnoSa Kal virol^vy la dx0o(f)6pa Kal et rt d'AAo 

4 TToXecos rjv KaraGKevfj Trpoacfiopov. cLs Se dvecTqaav 
eK rrjs "AX^as ol veavicjKoi rov Xecjv fii^avres avrcb 
rov avToBev, ogos rjv ev ro) TJaXXavriU) Kal irepl Trjv 
Earopviav inroXLTnjg, fxepll^ovTai to ttXtjOos drrau 
^'-XV- 'Tovro 8e avrois So^av irapecry^e (/)tAoTt/xias", 
Xva ddrrov dvv'qr ai rfj TTpds dXXrjXovs afXiXXr] rd 
epya, atnov he rod jJLeyLUTOV KaKOV, GrdcrecoSy 

6 iyevero. ol re yap TTpGuvepLTjOevTes avrois rov 
eavra)v rjyefjiova eKarepoi ^ Kvhaivovres d>s emr-qheiov 
aTTavrcov dp)(eLV eTrrjpov, avroi re ovKen fxiav yvcj- 
fiTjv exovres ovhe dheX(f)d hiavoelGdai d^iovvres, (1)5 
avTos dp^ojv eKdrepos darepov, irapcjaavres rd 
LGOV rod TrXeiovos (Lpeyovro. recos /xev ovv dcfiavij 
rd TrXeoveKr-qpLara avrwv rjv, eireira he e^eppdyrj 

6 orvv roidhe 7Tpo(f)dGeL. rd ;)^ajptov evda epLeXXov 
IhpvaeLV rrjv ttoXlv ov rd avrd fjpelro eKarepos. 
^PcjfjLvXov {jLev ydp rjv yvcopLT] rd UaXXavnov olkl- 
t^eiv rcjjv re dXXojv eVe/ca Kal rrjs rvx^JS rov roirov, 
7] rd acxjdrjvat re avrois Kal rpa(f)rjvaL 7Tape<JX€' 
*Pcofjia) he ehoKei rrjv KaXovfievrjv vvv drr^ eKeivov 
'Pepiopiav OLKL^eiv. eon he rd ;)^coptoy einrriheiov 

' Schwartz : eKaoroL O, Jacoby. 
^ This hill camiot be identified. The name was also 

294 



BOOK T. 85. 3-6 

the best class, and ol the Trojan element all those 
'who were esteemed the noblest in birth, some of 
"whose posterity remained even to my day, consisting 
of about fifty families. The youths were supplied 
with money, arms and corn, with slaves and beasts 
of burden and everything else that was of use in the 
building of a city. After they had led their people 
out of Alba and intermingled with them the local 
population that still remained in Pallantium and 
Saturnia, they divided the whole multitude into two 
parts. This they did in the hope of arousing a spirit 
of emulation, so that through their rivalry with each 
other their tasks might be the sooner finished ; 
however, it produced the greatest of evils, discord. 
For each group, exalting its own leader, extolled 
him as the proper person to command them all ; 
and the youths themselves, being now no longer 
one in mind or feeling it necessary to entertain 
brotherly sentiments toward each other, since each 
expected to command the other, scorned equality and 
craved superiority. For some time their ambitions 
were concealed, but later they burst forth on the 
occasion which I shall now describe. They did 
not both favour the same site for the building of the 
city ; for Romulus proposed to settle the Palatine 
hill, among other reasons, because of the good fortune 
of the place where they had been preserved and 
brought up, whereas Remus favoured the place that 
is now named after him Remoria.^ And indeed this 
place is very suitable for a city, being a hill not far 

given (according to Paulas in his epitome of Festus, 
p. 276) to a site on the summit of the Aventine where 
Remus was said to have taken the auspices (chap. 86). 

295 



DTONYSTUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

VTroSe^aaOaL ttoXlv Xocbos ov Trpouoj rod Te^epiog 
Keluevo?, OLTTexco^ '!"^S 'PwfjLT]? afxchi rovs rpidKOvra 
OTaSiov?. €K Se rrjg (f)iXoveLKLa? TavTrjs olkolvcovt]- 
TO? evdvs VTTeSrjXovTO <j)i\ap)(ia. rw yap et^avrt to 
Kparrjcrav drravTa^ ofioloj? eTndrja^uBai ejieXX^v. 

LXXXVI. Xpovov 8e Ttvo? ev tovtco Siayevofjie- 
vov, eTTeihr] ovhev ifxeLOvro rrj? ^ crracrea*?, So^av 
afjL(f>OLv TO) fjLrjrpoTrdropL iTTLrpdifjaL rrapriGav els ttjv 
"AX^av. 6 8e auTOt? ravra VTroTideraf deov? 
TTOLTjaacrdaL hiKaards, OTTorepov XPV '^W d.7ToiKiav 
XeyeaOai /cat Tr]v rjyefiovlav elvac. ragafxevog Se 
avTOLS Tjixepav eKeXevaev i^ ioidivov KaOet^eadai 
XOJpl? dXXriXajv, iv af? €Kdr€poL d^covcnv eSpats"* 
TTpodvaavras Se rols deoh Upd rd uofju^o/jieva 
cf)vXdTTeLv olojvovg aloLOV<; ' onorepo) 8' dv ol 
opvides TTporepcp Kpeirrovs yevowrai, tovtov dpx^LV 

2 TTJ? aTTOLKLa?. dirrieGav ol veaviUKOi ravr eiraive- 
oavres /cat /caret rd (ruyKeifjLeva naprjaav iv ttJ 
Kvpla Trj<; TTpd^eajg 'qpiepa. tjv 8e 'PajpLvXcv fiev 
OLOJVLurripLOV, evOa rj^LOV rrjv dTTOLKcav ISpvaaL, to 
UaXXdvTioVy 'Pojiio) 8' o TTpoGexqs eKeivco X6<f>os 
Avevrlvog /caAouftevo?, o)? 8e Ttve? loropovaiv rj 
'PejJiopia- </>L»Aa/cr5 re a/Lt(/>oa' Traprjv ovk iinrpe- 

3 i/jovaa^ d tl fxr] (f)av€iri Xeyeiv^ wg 8e to? irpocrq- 
Kovoag ehpag eXa^ov dXlyov i-nLGxdjv XP^^'^^ o 

'PojjLtuAo? V7t6 GTTOvSrjS T€ KOL TOV TTpOg TOV dSeX- 

<j)6u <t)d6voVj^ taojs 8e /cat o Beds ouVco? evrjye, irplv 



^ dnavra Kiessling, els dnavra Jacoby : els iravra O. 
2 TT?s O : TO rijs Hertlein, Jacoby. 



296 



BOOK I. 85, 6-86, 3 

from the Tiber aiul about thirty stades from Rome. 
From this rivalry their unsociable love of rule im- 
mediately began to disclose itself; for on the one 
who now yielded the victor would inevitably impose 
his will on all occasions alike. 

LXXXVI. Meanwhile, some time having elapsed 
and their discord in no degree abating, the two agreed 
to refer the matter to their grandfather and for that 
purpose went to Alba. He advised them to leave 
it to the decision of the gods which of them should 
give his name to the colony and be its leader. And 
having appointed for them a day, he ordered them 
to place themselves early in the morning at a dis- 
tance from one another, in such stations as each of 
them should think proper, and after first offering to 
the gods the customary sacrifices, to watch for aus- 
picious birds ; and he ordered that he to whom the 
more favourable birds first appeared should rule the 
colony. The youths, approving of this, went away 
and according to their agreement appeared on the 
day appointed for the test. Romulus chose for his 
station the Palatine hill, where he proposed settling 
the colony, and Remus the Aventine hill adjoining 
it, or, according to others, Remoria ; and a guard 
attended them both, to prevent their reporting 
things otherwise than as they appeared. When they 
had taken their respective stations, Romulus, after 
a short pause, from eagerness and jealousy of his 
brother, — though possibly Heaven was thus directing 

^ ovK inLTpei/jovaa Kiessling : ovk en iTnrp4<f)ovaa [iinaTpi- 
(j>ovaa B) O. 

* Hertlein, Kayser: Xi^eiv O, Jacoby. 

^ ths §€ Kox 6 (f>96vos after <f)d6vov deleted by Reiske. 

297 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

r] ^ /cat oTLovv G-qixelov dedaacrdaL Trefiipa? d)s rov 
dSeA^ov dyyeXovs rjKeiv rjilov Std rax^cov, d>? irpo- 
repos ISojv olcjvovs aluiovs. iv cp Se ol TrepLcfjOlvres 
V7T* avTOv 8t' alaxvvrjs e^ovTes rrjv OLTrdrrjv ov 

OTTOvhfj €)(a)pOVV, TCti 'PojfjLO) yV7T€S 6771(77] fiaU'OV(JLV 

e^ drro rcjv Se^ttuv TrerofxevoL. /cat 6 fiev Ihojv 
rovs opviQas rrepixaprjs iyivero, fxer ov ttoXv he 
ol TTapd rod 'PojpivXov Tre/x^^eVre? dvaGTiquavres 
4 avrov aryovcnv ettl to IJaXXdvriov . eVet Sc iv rep 
avTO) iyevovTO rjpero /mh' rov 'PojfXvXov 6 'Pcofios 
ovGTLva? OLOjvovg tSot TTpoTepos, 6 Se €V aTTopcp 
yiverat 6 tl dTroKplvairo. ev he tovtw SctjSe/ca 
yvTTe? aiGLOL TrerofievoL a)(f)drjGav, ovs tScov dappel 
re /cat rot ^PcopLco Set^a? Xeyei, " Ti yap d^Lol? ra 
TrdXai yevofjieva fiadelv ; rovuhe yap S77 ttov tous" 
olojvovs avTos dpas"." d he dyavaKreZ re /cat Setvd 
TTOieZrai, cLs hirjprrjiJLevos vtt^ avrov, rrjs re drroLKias 
ov pLed-qcreaOat avra> (l)rjGLV. 

LXXXVII. MvtoTTaTat hrj e/c rovrov /xetjcov rrjs 
vporepag epis, eKarepov ro rrXeov exeiv d(f)av6js 
hiajKop^evov,^ ro he ^ pur] pbetov * dva(f)avh6v ajro St- 
Kaiojoreoj? roidcrhe eiriGwdTrrovros . elprjpievov yap 
Tjv auTot? vrro rod pLr^rpondropos, orco dv rrporepa) 
Kpeirrovs opviOes eTTLO-qpLTjvwGL, rovrov dpx^^v rrjg 
drroLKLas ' yevov? he opvldajv evog dpi(j)OLV 6(f)dev~ 



ro? o pLev rep irporepos 



6 he ro) TrXeiov? Ihelv 



1 rj added by Jacoby. 

^ hioiKOfxivov O : SiotKou/LteVou Schmitz, hiKaLOVjxivov Jacoby, 
hiavoovfxivov Hertlein. Madvig proposed tw nXeov (X^iv d^avcDs 
8iojKOfj.€V<o TO nrj fxelov . . . €7novvaTrrovros . 

298 



BOOK I. 86, 3-87, 1 

him, — evrn before he saw any omen at all, sent 
messengers to his brother desiring him to come 
immediately, as if he had been the first to see some 
auspicious birds. But while the persons he sent 
were proceeding with no great haste, feeling ashamed 
of the fraud, six vultures appeared to Remus, flying 
from the right ; and he, seeing the birds, rejoiced 
greatly. And not long afterwards the men sent by 
Romulus took him thence and brought him to the 
Palatine hill. When they were together, Remus 
asked Romulus what birds he had been the first to 
see, and Romulus knew not what to answer. But 
thereupon twelve auspicious vultures were seen 
flying ; and upon seeing these he took courage, and 
pointing them out to Remus, said : " Why do you 
demand to know what happened a long time ago ? 
For surely you see these birds yourself." But 
Remus was indignant and complained bitterly 
because he had been deceived by him ; and he re- 
fused to yield to him his right to the colony. 

LXXXVII. Thereupon greater strife arose between 
them than before, as each, while secretly striving 
for the advantage, was ostensibly willing to accept 
equality, for the following reason. Their grandfather, 
as I have stated, had ordered that he to whom the 
more favourable birds first appeared should rule the 
colony ; but, as the same kind of birds had been 
seen by both, one had the advantage of seeing them 
first and the other that of seeing the greater number. 

^8e D (according to Kiessling), Steph. : om. AB. 

* fxrj fxelov Steph., crqfieiov Schinitz, Sauppe : fjLvrjfieiov A, 

I.L€lt,OV B. 

^ Reiske : npoTepw O. 

299 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

eKparvvero. orvveXdjJL^ave Se avrols rrj? (jyiXoveiKias 

Kol TO dXXo TtXtjOoS '^pi^ T€ TToXefJLOV hi-)(a TCOV 

rjyefJLOvajv oTrXiaOev, Kal ytVerat jJ^o-X'T) Kaprepa Kai 

2 <j)6vos e^ d/x^otv ttoXvs. iv ravrrj cfyacrl rtve? rfj 
(JLaxj) TOP OauGTvXov, o? i^eOpeiparo rovg veavLCJKOVs, 
SiaXvaaL ttjv eptv rcov dSeA^cov ^ovXofievou , co? ovhev 
otos r rjv dvvaaL, el? fxecrovs cocracr^at rovg /xa;^o- 
[levov? dvoTrXov OavaTOV rod Ta\i(jrov rvx^lv irpo- 
dvfJLOv/JLevoVy oTTep ^ iyevero. nves Se Kal tov Xeovra 
Tov XlOlvov, OS" €K€LTO Trjg dyopds rrjg rcov 'PojfJLaicov 
€v rw KpariGTW xojpico Trapd rolg ifM^oXoLg, inl toj 
(TcofxaTL TOV 0av(jTvXov Tedrjvat (j^acnVy evOa eireaev 

3 VTTO TOJV €Vp6vTUJV Ta(f)€VT0S . aTToQaVOVTOS S' €V TTj 
pidxX] 'P^l^OV VLKYjV OLKTLGTTjV 6 'PojfJLvXoS OLTTO TC 

TOV dS€X(f)ov Kal TToXLTLKTJg oXX'qXoKTOvia'? dveXo- 
fxevos TOV fiev ^PcbpLOV iv ttJ 'PefiopLO. QdrrTei, iTreiSr) 
Kal t,cbv TOV ;)^a>ptou Trjg KTioeojs TrepLelx^TO, avTos 
be VTTO ^ XvTT7]S T€ Kal [jL€TavoLa? T(x}v TTeTTpayixivojv 
TTapels iavTov ets" OLTToyvojaLv tov ^lov rpeVerai. ttjs 
Se Aavp€VTiaSi tj veoyvovs TTapaXa^ovaa i^edpeifjaTO 
Kal fjLTjTpos ovx TjTTOv r)(jTTdll,€TO , SeofJLevTjs Kal TTap-q- 
yopovGTj?, TavTT] TTeidopLevos dvtWarat * ovvayaywv 
he Tovs AaTLVOVS, ogol fir] /card tt]^ pidxrjv hLe(j)dd- 
prjorav,^ oXlyqj TrXeiovs oVras" TpLGX^^Xicov eV TTdvv 
TToXXov KaT dpxds yevofievov ttXtjOov?, OTe ttjv 
dTTOLKiav ecrreAAe, TToXil^ei to IJaXXdvTLOU. 

4 '0 iJL€vovvTTLdava)TaTO£T<jjvX6ya)VTTeplTrJ£ Pcofxov 
TeXevTTJ? ovTOs elvai jioi Soxret. XeyeaOo) 3 ofxajs 

^ onep O : oTTcp Koi Cobet, Jacoby. 

300 



BOOK I. 87, 1-4 

The rest of the people also espoused their quarrel, and 
arming themselves without orders from their leaders, 
began war ; and a sharp battle ensued in which many 
were slain on both sides. In the course of this battle, 
as some say, Faustulus, who had brought up the 
youths, wishing to put an end to the strife of the 
brothers and being unable to do so, threw himself un- 
armed into the midst of the combatants, seeking the 
speediest death, which fell out accordingly. Some 
say also that the stone lion which stood in the princi- 
pal part of the Forum near the rostra was placed 
over the body of Faustulus, who was buried by those 
who found him in the place where he fell. Remus 
having been slain in this action, Romulus, who had 
gained a most melancholy victory through the death 
of his brother and the mutual slaughter of citizens, 
buried Remus at Remoria, since when alive he had 
clung to it as the site for the new city. As for him- 
self, in his grief and repentance for what had hap- 
pened, he became dejected and lost all desire for 
life. But when Laurentia, who had received the 
babes when newly born and brought them up and 
loved them no less than a mother, entreated and 
comforted him, he listened to her and rose up, and 
gathering together the Latins who had not been 
slain in the battle (they were now little more than 
three thousand out of a very great multitude at 
first, when he led out the colony), he built a city on 
the Palatine hill. 

The account I have given seems to me the most 
probable of the stories about the death of Remus. 

"Meineke: aTro O. * Cobet : ^Oap-qaav O . 

301 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

/cat el Tis irepojs e^cov Trapahidorai} </)ao"t hrj 
rive's (JvyxcupijcravT^ avrov roj 'PcofjivXip ttjv rjye- 
fioviav, axOofievov 8e Kal 8t' opyrjs e^ovra -rqv 
aTTar-qv, eTTeihrj KareGKevauOrj ro reixo? (j)Xavpov 
aTTohel^ai to epvfia ^ovXopLevoVy " MAAa tovto y'," 
elrrelv, " ov "xaXeTTajs o.v rt? vpuv VTrep^alr] TToXeiXLO?, 
woTTep eyco *" /cat aurt/ca vTrepaXeadai • KeXeptov 8e 
TLva Twv eTTL^e^TjKOTOjv rod r€L)(ovs, OS" rjv eTnardrrig 
Tiov epyojVy " v4AAd rovrov ye rov TToXepnov ov 
XCLXenojg av rt? ripiojv a/xwatro," etVoVra, TrXrj^ai rw 
OKa(f)eLCp Kara rrjg Ke(f)aXrjs /cat avriKa aTTOKrelvai ' 
TO fxev Sr) TeXos Trjg (jTOicrecog tujv dBeX(f)ajv tolovto 
XeyeTai yeveudai. 

LXXXVIII. ^Eirel he ovhev ert rjv efiTToSajv tco 
KTLupLari TTpoeiTTcbv 6 'Paj/jL'uXo? rjiJLepavJ^ iv fj tovs 
deovg dpeordjJLevos efieXXe rrjv dp)(riv rcuv epycxjv 
TTOLTiGaadai, TTapaGKevaordfxevos re oaa els Ovalag 
Kal vTToSoxds Tov Xeoj XPV^^I^^^ ^i^i-^ efxeXXev, d>s 
rJKev 6 GvyKelpLevo? ;)(poVos' avTos re irpoOvcras rolg 
Oeols Kal TOVS dXXovs KeXevaas /card SwVa/xtv to 
avTo Spdv opvidas /xev TrpcjTOV alalovs ^ Xajx^dvei * 
/Lterd he tovto TTvpKa'Cds Trpo rwv ok7]vu)v yeveodai 
KeXevaas e^dyei tov Xeojv rds (f)X6yas VTrepdpojOKOVTa 
TTJs oGiojGeojs Tcov fjnaafidTCov eveKa. errel he ndv, 
ocrov rjv e/c Xoyicjjxov Oeols (f)iXov, ojero 7reTTpd)(9aLy 
KaXeoras dnavTas els tov d7roSet;)(^eVTa tottov Trepi- 
ypd(f)eL TeTpdycovov o";(7j/xa tco Xo^co, ^oos dppevos 

1 Kiessling : TrapaSt'Sorai O. 
^ rjfiepav added by Reiske. 
^ alaiovs Kiossling : derovs O. 

302 



BOOK I. 87, 1-88. 2 

However, if any has been handed down that differs 
from this, let that also be related. Some, indeed, 
say that Remus yielded the leadership to Romulus, 
though not without resentment and anger at the 
fraud, but that after the wall was built, wishing to 
demonstrate the weakness of the fortification, he 
cried, " Well, as for this wall, one of your enemies 
could as easily cross it as I do," and immediately 
leaped over it. Thereupon Celer, one of the men 
standing on the wall, who was overseer of the 
work, said, " Well, as for this enemy, one of us 
could easily punish him," and striking him on the 
head with a mattock, he killed him then and there. 
Such is said to have been the outcome of the quarrel 
between the brothers. 

LXXXVIII. When no obstacle now remained 
to the building of the city, Romulus appointed a 
day on which he planned to begin the work, after 
first propitiating the gods. And having prepared 
everything that would be required for the sacrifices 
and for the entertainment of the people, when the 
appointed time came, he himself first offered sacri- 
fice to the gods and ordered all the rest to do the 
same according to their abilities. He then in the 
first place took the omens, which were favourable. 
After that, having commanded fires to be lighted 
before the tents, he caused the people to come out 
and leap over the flames in order to expiate their 
guilt. When he thought everything had been done 
which he conceived to be acceptable to the gods, he 
called all the people to the appointed place and de- 
scribed a quadrangular figure about the hill, tracing 
with a plough drawn by a bull and a cow yoked 

303 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

a/xa 6r]XeLa i^ev^Oevrog vtt" aporpov eA/cucra? auAa/ca 
SiTjveKrj rrjv fiiXXovuav VTrohe^eadat to relxo? ' i^ 
ov 'PcjJixaiois TO 'idos rovro rrjs TTepLapoareojs tqjv 
XOJpLcvv eV OLKLGfJLOL^ TToXecxjv TTapafxevei. ipyaad- 
fievog 3e ravra /cat tcop ^ocbv eKarepou? Upevaag 

dXXcOV T€ TToXXcOV dv/JLOLTajV KaTap^OLfieVOS i(f)L(7Tr](JL 

3 TOLS epyois rov Xewv. ravTTjv ert /cat ets" e/xe rrjv 
Tj/jLepav 'PajfJLatajv tj TroAt? ioprajv ouSe/xta? yJTTOva 
TiOeixevq /ca^' eKacrrov eros ayei, KaXovGi he ^ 
TlapLXia.^ dvovGL 8' €v avrfj irepl yovrjg rerpa- 
TTohoiV ol yecopyol /cat vofiels Ovuiav ■)(^a.pLGTqpiov 
€apo9 dp)(OjjL€vov . TTorepov Se TTaXalrepou en ttjv 
Tjfiepav ravT-qv ev evnadelaig Sidyovres ^ eTTtrrySeto- 
rdrrjv ot/ctcr/xa) TToXecu? evofjuaav, -q rod KTioixaros 
dp^aoav lepdv eTroL-qaavro /cat deov? ev avrfj rovs 
TTOLfJLecn cf)LXovs yepaipeiv coovro helv, ovk e)(aj ^e- 
jSatco? elrrelv. 

LXXXIX. /4 fxev ovv ejjiol Suya/xt? iyevero gvv 
7TO/\Xfj (jipovrihi dvevpeZv 'EXXrjpcDV re /cat 'PajfiaUov 
(Tvx^dg dvaXe^apirpcp ypacfid? vrrep rov rwv 'Poj/jLaicov 
yevov<;, rotdh^ euriv. ware dappwv rjSrj rig aTTO- 
^atveadco, TToXXd -xaipeLv (j^pdaas rols ^ap^dpajv /cat 
SpaTTerdJv /cat dvearicov dvOpojiTCJv Karacpvyrjv rrjv 
*Pa)fJL7]i' TTOiovoiv, ' EXXdha rroXiv avrrjv, diroheLKVv- 

^ KoXovai Se Bb, KoXovs ABa ; KoXovaa Steph. 

^Sylburg: TrapepraAia O. 

' 8idyovT€s acided by Sintenis. 

304 



BOOK I. 88, 2-89, 1 

together a continuous furrow designed to receive 
the foundation of the wall ; and from that time this 
custom has continued among the Romans of plough- 
ing a furrow round the site where they plan to build 
a city. After he had done this and sacrificed the 
bull and the cow and also performed the initial rites 
over many other victims, he set the people to work. 
This day the Romans celebrate every year even 
down to my time as one of their greatest festivals and 
call it the Parilia.^ On this day, which comes in the 
beginning of spring, the husbandmen and herdsmen 
offer up a sacrifice of thanksgiving for the increase 
of their cattle. But whether they had celebrated 
this day in even earlier times as a day of rejoicing 
and for that reason looked upon it as the most suitable 
for the founding of the city, or whether, because 
it marked the beginning of the building of the city, 
they consecrated it and thought they should honour 
on it the gods who are propitious to shepherds, 
I cannot say for certain. 

LXXXIX. Such, then, are the facts concerning 
the origin of the Romans which I have been able to 
discover after reading very diligently many works 
written by both Greek and Roman authors. Hence, 
from now on let the reader forever renounce the views 
of those who make Rome a retreat of barbarians, 
fugitives and vagabonds, and let him confidently 
affirm it to be a Greek city, — which will be easy when 

^ The Parilia, or more properly Palilia, was an ancient 
festival celebrated by the shepherds and herdsmen on the 
21st of April in honour of the divinity Pales. See the de- 
tailed description of its observance in Ovid, Fasti iv, 721 ff.,, 
with Sir James Frazer's note on that passage (vol. iii. pp. 
336-42; condensed in his L.C.L. edition, pp. 411-13). 

305 

VOL. I. M 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

fievog fxev ^ KOivordrrjv re TroXecov koI (j)i\avQ pcxjiro- 
rdrriv, iv6vfjL0VfjL€i'09 Se - otl to iikv tojv ^A^opiyLvcov 

2 (j}vXov OlvcorpLKov rjv, rovro he ApKahiKov • fie/jLvrj- 
fjL€V0£ Be Tojv GVvoLKiqcrdvriov avrols UeXacrycov , ot 
QerraXiav KaToXiTTovres Mpyetot to yevog ovreg elg 
^IraXiav dcfiLKOi'TO • Evdvhpov re av /cat ApKdSojv 
d(/)L^eaj?, ot TTepL to IJaXXdvTLov a>Kr]Gav, lA^opiyu'cov 
avTols TTapaa^ovTOjv to ■)(copLOv • en he UeXoTTOv- 
vrjoiojv Twv cruv 'HpaKXel rrapayevofxevajv , 61 
KaTcpKTjo-av errl tov EaTopviov • TeXevraZov he tojv 
drravaGTdvTiov eK ttjs Tpcodhog /cat crvyKepaaOevTOJv 
Tols TTpoTepois. TOVTojv ydp dv ovhev evpoL twv 

3 edvwv ovTe dp^aioTepov ovre 'EXXrjvLKcoTepov. at 
he TOJV ^ap^dpcxjv eVt/xt^-iat, St' a? rj ttoXl? ttoXXol 
TOJV dpxoLLOjv eTTiTrjhevjJLdrojv aTrepLade, crvv )(p6vo) 
iyevovTO. /cat davpLa pLev tovto TToXXolg dv etvat 
ho^eie Ta et/cora XoyiaapLevoL?, 7toj<; ov-^ aVacra 
e^e^ap^apcoOrj ^Ottlkovs re VTTohe^apievrj /cat Map- 
Govs /cat EavvLTas /cat Tvpp-qvovs /cat BpeTTiovs 
^Opbf^pLKOjv T6 /cat Aiyvojv /cat ^I^iqpojv /cat KeXTOJV 
crv)(yds pLvpcdha? dXXa re npo? rot? elprjpLevoLS edvr), 
rd pLev e^ avrrjg ^IraXias, ra S' ef erepojv d<f)LypLeva 
TOTTOjv, pvpla ocra ovTe opioyXojTTa ovTe opLohi- 
atra, ojv ^ /cat ^iovs ovyKXvhag dvaTapa^OevTa? e/c 
TOGavTT}? hiacjjojVLas TToXXd TOV TraXaLov KoapLov 

4 T7J£ TToXeojs veo)(pLa)GaL et/co? -^v • errel oAAot ye 
ov)(vol ev ^ap^dpoLs OLKOvvres oXiyov )(^p6vov 

^ fi€v added by Reiske. ^ Be added by Reiske. 

2 After J)v the MSS. have ovre (fxxjvas ovre SiaLrav, deleted 
by Ritschl. 

306 



BOOK I. 89. 1-4 

he shows that it is at once the most hospitable and 
friendly of all cities, and when he bears in mind that 
the Aborigines were Oenotrians, and these in turn 
Arcadians, and remembers those who joined with 
them in their settlement, the Pelasgians who were 
Argives by descent and came into Italy from Thes- 
saly ; and recalls, moreover, the arrival of Evander 
and of the Arcadians, who settled round the 
Palatine hill, after the Aborigines had granted the 
place to them ; and also the Peloponnesians. who, 
coming along with Hercules, settled upon the Satur- 
nian hill ; and, last of all, those who left the Troad 
and were intermixed with the earlier settlers. For 
one will find no nation that is more ancient or 
more Greek than these. But the admixtures of the 
barbarians with the Romans, by which the city 
forgot many of its ancient institutions, happened 
at a later time. And it may well seem a cause of 
wonder to many who reflect on the natural course 
of events that Rome did not become entirely 
barbarized after receiving the Opicans, the Marsians, 
the Samnites, the Tyrrhenians, the Bruttians and 
many thousands of Umbrians, Ligurians, Iberians 
and Gauls, besides innumerable other nations, 
some of whom came from Italy itself and some 
from other regions and differed from one another 
both in their language and habits ; for their very 
w ays of life, diverse as they were and thrown into 
turmoil by such dissonance, might have been ex- 
pected to cause many innovations in the ancient 
order of the city. For many others by living among 
barbarians have in a short time forgotten all their 

307 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

SieXdovTog arrav to ' EXXtivlkov OLTre/jLadov, a»? fjLtjre 
(f)cov7]v 'EXXdSa (f)d€yy€udai fjnqre e7nT7]Seu^acrtv 
^EXX-qvajv^ XprjcrOai, jJL'qre O^ovg rov? avrov? vofii- 
t,€iVy jJL'qTe vofjLOV? Tou? im€LKeL?, (h fidXiGTa StoA- 
Xd(7(T€L <j)vcns 'EXXd? ^ap^dpov, fjirjre rwv aXXcov 
GvpL^oXalajv fJLrjh* otlovv} d7ro)(pa)GL 8e tov Xoyov 

TOvSe^ ^AxO-l-^V ol 7T€pi TOV TIoVTOV WKr^fieVOL T€KjJLr)- 

pLcocraL, ^HXeloL * piev eV rod ' EXXrjVLKOjrdrov yevo- 
fievoL, ^ap^dpojv 8e crupLTrdvTOJV vvv ^ ovres ^ dypLO)- 
raroL. 

XC. 'PajpLOLOi 8e (jywvTjv pikv ovr a.Kpcj';'^ ^dp^apov 
ovT d7rr]pTLGpL€Vcu<; ^EXXdBa <j>deyyovTai, pllkttjv Si 
TLva ef dpL(f)OLV, rjg iariv rj TrXeicjv AloXU, rovro 
pLOvov aTToXavcravTes eK rcov ttoXXcov iTnpLL^LOJV, to 
fjLTj irdoi ToZs (f>96yyoig opOoeTreiv, to, 8e aAAa o-nooa 
y€vov<; 'E?^r]VLKOv pir]vvp.aT^ ecrrtv ® ojg ovx eTepol 

Ttt'e? TCOV dTTOLKTjodvTOJV hiaCJcLt^OVTeS , Ol) vvv TTpWTOV 

dp^dpLevoL TTpos (jyiXiav ^rjv, rjVLKa ttjv Tvynf]^ ttoXXtjv 
Kal dyaOrjv peovaav SiSdoKaXov e)(ovoi tcov KaXujv 

^ eXXrjvojv B : e'AA 17^601' Irt R. 
^ OTiovv Steph.^: on elalv O. 
3 (hs dXr]9i] elvaL after Toi'Se deleted by Cobet. 
*Kiess!ing: rjXeiojv Bb, Jacoby, T7Aaji' Ba (Kiessling 
reports -qXai for B), oXcov A ; ({)v\ajv Sinteiiis, ndXcu Urlichs. 
^ vvv O : TCOV vvv Meutzner, Jacoby. 
* Sylburg : ovtcov O. 
' Reiske : aKpav O. 
^ fi7)vvfj.aT^ earlv Jacoby : fnqwfid iariv A, eoriv fi-qvvfxa Ba. 

^ Those Asiatic Achaeans were a barbarian people of the 
Caucasus, whose name was made to coincide with that of 
the Greek Achaeans ; hence the beUef arose that they were 

308 



BOOK T. 89, 4-90, 1 

Greek heritage, so that they neither speak the Greek 
language nor observe the customs of the Greeks nor 
acknowledge the same gods nor have the same equi- 
table laws (by which most of all the spirit of the 
Greeks differs from that of the barbarians) nor agree 
with them in anything else whatever that relates 
to the ordinary intercourse of life. Those Achaeans 
who are settled near the Euxine sea are a sufficient 
proof of my contention ; for, though originally Eleans, 
of a nation the most Greek of any, they are now the 
most savage of all barbarians.^ 

XC. The language spoken by the Romans is 
neither utterly barbarous nor absolutely Greek, but 
a mixture, as it were, of both, the greater part of 
which is Aeolic ^ ; and the only disadvantage they 
have experienced from their intermingling with 
these various nations is that they do not pronounce 
all their sounds properly. But all other indications 
of a Greek origin they preserve beyond any other 
colonists. For it is not merely recently, since they 
have enjoyed the full tide of good fortune to instruct 
them in the amenities of life, that they have begun 
to live humanely ; nor is it merely since they first 

an offshoot of the latter. Strabo connected them either 
with the Boeotian Orchomenus (ix. 2, 42) or with Phthiotis 
(xi. 2, 12); other writers do not go into the same detail. 
The name " Eleans " in the text must be regarded as very 
uncertain ; see the critical note. 

2 Dionysius is probably thinking particularly of the 
letter digarnma (c/. p. 65, n. 1) which Quintilian (i. 4, 8; 
i. 7, 26) calls the Aeolic letter, and the preservation in 
Aeolic, as well as Doric, of the original a, as in (f>a.fj.a (Lat. 
fd77ia),fidT7)p {nuiter), as contrasted with the Ionic (f)rjixT),^riTiqp. 
Quintilian, too, regards the Aeolic dialect as being closest 
to Latin (i. 6, 31). 

309 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ouS' d(^' ov TTpojTOV (x>pe)(9iqGav rrjg BiaTTovrLOV rr^v 
Kapxr]8ovLCxJv Kal MaKeSoicuv dpxw KaraXvaavres , 
oAA' eV TravTos" ov orvvcpKLcrOrjcrav p^poi^ou ^lov "EX- 
Xrjva 1,6jvt€s Kal ovSev eKTrpeTriorepov iTTirrjSevovres 
2 npos dperrjv vvv r] Trporepov. fivpla S' elg rovro 
XeyeLv e-)(cov /cat ttoXXoI? reKfjurjpLOis p^pT^a^at Svvd- 
jjLevos dvSpcQV re pLaprvplas <f)€p€Lv ovk d^lcov 
dTTLGTelcrdaLy iravra dva^dXXofiaL ravra els tov 
jrepL ttJs" TToXireias avrcjv avyypacjiiqoopLevov Xoyov. 
wvl he eTTL ttjv e^rjs Sn^yrjaLV rpeipofiat rrjv dva- 
KecfiaXyalajGLV rcov ev ravrrj SehrjXojfievajv rfj ^l^Xco 
TTJg i)(OjJLevr]s ypa(l)rjs TTOiiqodiJievos dpx'j^* 



310 



BOOK I. 90, 1-2 

aimed at the conquest of" countries lying beyond 
the sea, after overthrowing the Carthaginian and 
Macedonian empires, but rather from the time 
when they first joined in founding the city, that 
they have lived hke Greeks ; and they do not 
attempt anything more illustrious in the pursuit 
of virtue now than formerly. I have innumerable 
things to say upon this subject and can adduce many 
arguments and present the testimony of credible 
authors ; but I reserve all this for the account I 
propose to write of their government.^ I shall now 
resume the thread of my narrative, after prefacing 
to the following Book a recapitulation of what is 
contained in this. 

^See especially vii. 70 ff., where Dionysiiis reminds the 
reader of the promise made here. As contrasted with 
Book I, which deals with the origin of the Romans, all 
the rest of the work could be thought of as an account of 
their government. 



311 



A I O N Y 2 I O Y 

AAIKAPNA2EQ2 
PHMAIKHl APXAlOAOriAS 

A0r02 AEYTEP02 

*H ' PajfJLalojv ttoXl? tSpurat fi€P iv rotg iuTrepioLS 
fiepeGL TTj? '/raAta? rrepl TTorafiov Te^epiv, o? /card 
jjLecrr^v /xdAtcrra rrjv olkttjv iKhihcooiv, OLTrexovoa ttjs 
Tvppr]VLKrj? daXaTTTjg eKarov €lkool OTaSlov?. ol 
8e Karauxo^'T^s avTrjv rrpajTOL rcov fivqfiovevoiJLevojv 
^dp^apoL Tiveg rjaai^ avroxdoves UiKeXol XeyopievoL 
TToXXa Kal dXXa rrjg '/raAta? ■)(ajpia KaraG')(6vTes , (Lv 
ovK oXiya SL^fieLvev ovS^ dcjiavrj fjLvrjfjiela ficxpi- rajv 
Kad^ rjfJLdg )(p6v(x>v, iv ols Kal tottojv tlvojv ovofiaTa 
EiKeXiKa Xeyofieva, /xrjvvovra rrjv TrdXai irork avrwv 
ivoLKTjGiv. TOVTOVs iK^aX6vT€s ^ Af^opiylves avTol 
Kareaxov tov tottov Olvojrpojv ovres dTToyovoi tcov 
KaroLKOVVTOJV rrjv djro Tdpavrog d-^pi- Uooeihajvias 
TTapdXiOv. Upd TLS avTTj ve6Trj<; KaBouicjdeZoa deoig 
Kara tov eTTLXcvpLov vofxov vtto tojv Trarepcov dno- 
GTaXrjvaL Aeyerai x^P^^ OLK'qGovGa ttjv vtto tov 

SaLfXOVLOV 0(jiLGL 8o0r]OO[Ji€Vr]V . TO Se tcjv OlvOJTpOJV 

yevos ApKaSiKOv rjv €k ttjs TOTe fi€v KaXovfJLevrjs 
312 



THE ROMAN ANTIQUITIES 

OF 

DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

BOOK II 

The city of Rome is situated in the western part 
of Italy near the river Tiber, which empties into 
the Tyrrhenian sea about midway along the coast ; 
from the sea the city is distant one hundred and 
twenty stades. Its first known occupants were 
certain barbarians, natives of the country, called 
Sicels, who also occupied many other parts of Italy 
and of whom not a few distinct memorials are left 
even to our times ; among other things there are 
even some names of places said to be Sicel names, 
which show that this people formerly dwelt in the 
land. They were driven out by the Aborigines, 
who occupied the place in their turn ; these were 
descendants of the Oenotrians who inhabited the 
seacoast from Tarentum to Posidonia. They were 
a band of holy youths consecrated to the gods 
according to their local custom and sent out by 
their parents, it is said, to inhabit the country which 
Heaven should give them. The Oenotrians were an 
Arcadian tribe who had of their own accord left 

313 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

AvKaovca?, vvv he ApKaSla?, €kovglcxj<; i^eXdov 
6776 yrjg KTrjcrcv dfieLVOvo? r)yovjJievov rrj? aTTOiKia? 
Olv(x>rpov Tov AvKaovos, icf)^ ov ttjv inLKXrjGLV to 

3 kOvos eXa^ev. A^opiyivcov 8e Kar€)(ovTcov ra ;^a)/ota 
TTpojTOL fxev avTOL? yivovrai gvvoikol TleXaayol 
7rXdv7jT€S €.K Trjs Tore /xev KaXov/xevqg Alixovtas, 
vvv he QeTTaXia?, iv fj -x^povov nvd ojKrjcrav • fxera 
Se TOV£ rieXacjyovs ApKohes e/c IJaXXavriov TToXeoJS 
e^eXdovres Evavhpov rjyefiova TTOLr^aafxevoi rrjs 
dnoiKias 'Ep/jiov kol vvfi(f)r]s SefJLihos vlov, ol irpos 
evl Tojv eTTTCL X6(f)OJV TToXH^ovrat os iv fieaa) juaAtcrra 
KeZrai rrjs 'Pcojjltj^, TIa?iXdvTiov ovojxduavTes ro 

4 x^P^ov errl ttjs ev ApKaSla TrarplSos. ^P^^^^^ ^* 
ov TToXXols VGTepov 'HpaKXlovs Kara-xdevTos ^Is 
^IraXiav, ore ttjv aTparidv i^ ^EpvOelag oiKaSe 
dm^yaye, fioXpd rt? VTToXeL(j)9elGa rrjs gvv avro) 
hvvdjJLew? ' EXX'qviKrj ttXt^glov IBpverai rod IJaX- 
Xavriov, rrpos erepcp rojv epLTTeTToXiG/JLevajv rfj TToXeL ^ 
X6(f)CDV, OS rore jxev vtto rwv emxajpLCOv UaropvLog 
iXeyerOy vvv 8e KaTnroiXlvos vtto 'Pajp-alcov • ^ETretol 
ol TrXeiovs rovrojv ^ rJGav e/c TroAeco? "HXlSos i^ava- 
Grdvres SLaTreTTOpdrjfjLevrjs avrols rrjs irarpihos v(j)^ 
*HpaKXeovs. 

II. Fevea 8* eKKaiSeKarr) jxerd rov TpojLKOV 
TToXefJLOV 'AX^avol GwoiKil^ovGiv dfi(f)aj rd x^P'-^ 
ravra reix^i TrepiXa^ovre? Kal rd(f)pcp. recog he rjv 
ajjAta ^ov(f)opl^La)v re Kal ttolijlvlojv ^ /cat rojv d'AAcor 
Karayojyal ^orijpajv d(f)9ovov dvahihovcrqs iroav rrjs 

314 



BOOK II. 1. 2-2, 1 

the country then called Lycaonia and now Arcadia, 
in search of a better land, under the leadership of 
Oenotrus, the son of Lycaon, from whom the nation 
received its name. ^ hile the Aborigines occupied 
this region the first who joined with them in their 
settlement were the Pelasgians, a wandering people 
who came from the country then called Haemonia 
and now Thessaly. where they had lived for some 
time. After the Pelasgians came the Arcadians 
from the city of Pallantium, who had chosen as 
leader of their colony Evander, the son of Hermes 
and the nymph Themis. These built a town beside 
one of the seven hills that stands near the middle 
of Rome, calling the place Pallantium, from their 
mother-city in Arcadia. Not long afterwards, 
when Hercules came into Italy on his return home 
with his army from Erytheia, a certain part of his 
force, consisting of Greeks, remained behind and 
settled near Pallantium, beside another of the hills 
that are now inclosed within the city. This was 
then called by the inhabitants the Saturnian hill, 
but is now called the Capitoline hill by the Romans. 
The greater part of these men were Epeans who had 
abandoned their city in Elis after their country had 
been laid waste by Hercules. 

II. In the sixteenth generation after the Trojan 
war the Albans united both these places into one 
settlement, surrounding them with a wall and a 
ditch. For until then there were only folds for 
cattle and sheep and quarters of the other herdsmen, 

- ol rrXeiovs rovrcov Kiessling, tovtcov ol nXeiovs Reiske : 
TrXfLovs TouTcov B. TovTcov TrXeiovs R. 

315 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avTodi yrj^ ov fxovov rrjv ^^^eifxepLvriv dAAa kol ttjv 
depeiuo/jLov Sta rous" dvaip-uxovrds re Kal Kardphov- 

2 ra? avTTjv TTorapLOVs . yivos he to tojv^ ^AX^avcJv '^ 
fiLKTov rjv €K re TJeXaaydjv Kal ApKdSoju Kal 
^ETTetiw rwv e^ "HXlSo? eXdovrojv,'^ reXevraiojv he 
rcov fier ^IXlov ^ dXajutv dcbiKOfxevajv et? ^IraXiav 
TpcjJOiv, ovs rjyev^ Alvelas 6 Ayx^CTov Kal Acjypohir-qs . 
ecKog he n Kal ^ap^apiKov Ik rchv iTpoooiKcov r) 
TTaXaiOiv olKTiropojv VTroXtTreg rw ' EXXt^vlkco Gvy- 
KarafXLyrjvaL .'^ ovofia he kolvov ol ovjJiTravres ovroi 
Aarlvoi eKX-qdrjoav en dvhpos hvvaarevcraPTog rcov 
roTTCxjv Aarivov rds /car' edvos ' dvopLaaias dcfyat- 

3 pedevreg. ereL)(LG6r] pceu ovv rj ttoXls vtto rovrtov 
rdjp edv(x)v evLavroj hevrepco Kal rpiaKOGro) ^ Kal 
rerpaKOGLOGTO) pier ^IXiov^ dXojoiv eirl rrjs e^hopLrjs 
oXvpLTTidhos. ol he dyayovres rrjv dTTOLKtav dheXcfiol 
hihvpLOL rod ^aoiXeiov yevovg iquav • 'Pcu/xuAo? avrcjv 
ouopLa Oar e pep y ro) S' erepco 'PdJpLO? • rd pLTfrpodev 
pLev dir' Alveiov re Kal Aaphavihai, rrarpos he 
dKpi^eiav piev ov pdhiou eiTTelv e^ drov (fivvres, 
TTeTTLOrrevvraL he vtto 'PajpLalajv "Apeo^ viol yeveodai. 

4 ov pLevroi hiepLeivdv ye dpLcjiorepoL rrjg dTTOiKLa? 
rjyepioves vrrep rrj<; dpx^j? araoidGavres . dXX 6 
TTepiXeicjidels avrajv ' PojpivXos diToXopiei'OV darepou 

1 TcDi' added by Grasberger. 

^ dX^avwv B : dX^auov R. 

^ CK re rieXaayuiv Kal ^ApKaScov Kal 'EneLaJv twv ef 'HXl8os 
eXdovTCov Airibrosch : eK re dp/caStojv . . . dXdovTojv Kal TreXaaycov 
B, e/f T€ apKoBoji' Kal rreXaayajv Kal rdv e^ ^Ai8os ^XQovTUiv 

e7T€LU)V R. 

* fi€Ta iXiov O : /icrd ttjv 'IXtov Jacoby. 

316 



BOOK II. 2. 1-4 

as the land round about yielded plenty of grass, not 
only for winter but also for summer pasture, by reason 
of the rivers that refresh and water it. The Albans 
were a mixed nation composed of Pelasgians, of 
Arcadians, of the Epeans who came from Elis, and, 
last of all, of the Trojans who came into Italv with 
Aeneas, the son of Anchises and Aphrodite, after the 
taking of Troy. It is probable that a barbarian 
element also from among the neighbouring peoples 
or a remnant of the ancient inhabitants of the place 
was mixed with the Greek. But all these people, 
having lost their tribal designations, came to be 
called by one common name, Latins, after Latinus, 
who had been king of this country. The walled 
city, then, was built by these tribes in the four 
hundred and thirty-second year after the taking of 
Troy, and in the seventh Olympiad.^ The leaders 
of the colony were twin brothers of the royal family, 
Romulus being the name of one and Remus of the 
other. On the mother's side thev were descended 
from Aeneas and were Dardanidae ; it is hard 
to say with certainty who their father was, but the 
Romans believe them to have been the sons of 
Mars, However, they did not both continue to be 
leaders of the colony, since they quarrelled over the 
command ; but after one of them had been slain 
in the battle that ensued, Romulus, who survived, 

1 751 B.C. 



^ ou? -qyev Reiske : os rjv O. 

^ Biicheler : avyKaTaXcyiivai O. 

' Kara eOvos O : Kara to edvos Jacoby, Kara eOvrj Reiske. 

* Kat TpiaKoaTw added by Gelenius. 



317 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Kara rrjv fidxrjv olKiarr^s yiverai rrjg TToXecug /cat 
rovvofia avrfj TTJg ISlag /cAr^creoj? irrcovvfjiov riOerai. 
dpLdfios Se rcjv jjLeraGXovrcxiv avro) ^ rrjs aTTOLKias 
drro TToXXov rod Kar dp-)(ds i^aTToaraXevros oAt'yo? 
rjv 6 KaraXect^dels, rptcrx^XiOL Tre^ot /cat l7T7T€LS 
rpiaKOGLOi. 

III. ^Errel ovv rj re rd(/)pos avrols l^eipyacrro 
Kal TO epVjjLa reAos" ^Ix^v at re oi/CT^cret? rd? 
dvayKaiovs KaraoKevds drreiXrj<^eGav , dTTTjrei 8' o 
Kacpos Kal TTepl Koapiov TToXirelas cb ;!^p')jo-oi'Tat 
GKorrelv, dyopdv TTOirjudpLevos avra)V 6 'PcofivXog 
VTToOefjievov rod pLTjrpoTTdropog Kal StSd^ai^rog d 
Xpr) Xeyeiv, r7]v fxev ttoXlv ecjyy] rals re SrjfjLOGLaig 
Kal rals tStat? KaraGKevals co? veoKnGrov drro- 
Xpci)^rojg KeKOGjjLTJGdac • tj^lov S' evdvpLelGOai Trdvras 
cos ov ravr^ eGrl rd TrXeiGrov d^ia ev rals TToXeGiv, 

2 ovre yap ev rols oOvelotg TToXepiois rds ^adeias 
rd(j)povs Kal rd ^ vifsiqXd epvfJLara iKavd elvai rols 
evhov aTTpdyfiova GojrTjpLas vnoX-qi/jiv Trapao^eti', 
aAA' ev n jjlovov eyyvaGOat, rd fxrjdev ef eTnSpofjirjs 
KaKov vrr' exOpdJv Tradelv rrpoKaraXrj<f)9evra?, ovd^ 
drav eficfyvXiOL rapa^al rd kolvov KardGxcoGt, rcjv 
IhiCDV OLKWV Kal evhiairriixdra)v rd? Kara^vyds 

3 vnapx^f-v rivl aKivSvvovs. GxoXrjs ydp dvdpujTTois 
ravra Kal paarcov-qs ^lojv^ evprJGdat TrapapLvdia, 
fxed^ ujv ovre rd eTn^ovXevov rwv ^ ireXas KOjXveGdaL 
fir] ov TTOvrjpdv elvai ovr iv rep aKcvSvvcp pepr]KevaL 
dappelv rd eTTLpovXevofievov, ttoXlv re ovhepiiav ttcj 

318 



BOOK II. 2, 4-3. 3 

became the founder of the city and called it after 
his own name. The great numbers of which the 
colony had originally consisted when sent out with 
him were now reduced to a few, the survivors 
amounting to three thousand foot and three hundred 
horse. 

III. When, therefore, the ditch was finished, the 
rampart completed and the necessary work on the 
houses done, and the situation required that they 
should consider also what form of government they 
were going to have, Romulus called an assemblv of 
the people by the advice of his grandfather, who had 
instructed him what to say, and told them that 
the city, considering that it was newly built, was 
sufficiently adorned both with public and private 
buildings ; but he asked them all to bear in mind that 
these were not the most valuable things in cities. 
For neither in foreign wars, he said, are deep ditches 
and high ramparts sufficient to give the inhabitants 
an undisturbed assurance of their safety, but guar- 
antee one thing only, namely, that they shall suffer no 
harm through being surprised by an incursion of the 
enemy ; nor, again, when civil commotions afflict the 
State, do private houses and dwellings afford anyone 
a safe retreat. For these have been contrived bv men 
for the enjoyment of leisure and tranquillity in their 
lives, and with them neither those of their neigh- 
bours who plot against them are prevented from doing 
mischief nor do those who are plotted against feel any 
confidence that they are free from danger ; and no 

^ avTw B : avrois R. ^ rd added by Reiske. 

8 ^Lwv Bb : jSi'ou ABa. * twv B: toD A. 

319 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TouTot? eKXafXTTpwdelcrav irrl ixrjKiGrov evSalfiova 
yeviodai kol fieydXrjv, ovS^ av napa to [jlt^ rv)(^elv 
Tiva KaraaKevrj? 18 la? re /cat SrjfiocrLa? TToXureXov? 
KeKwXvaOaL fieydXrjv yeveodai kol evSaLfiova • oAA* 
erepa etrat to. aw^ovra Kal TToiovvra fxeydXas eV 

4 pLLKpcov rag 77oAet? • iv piev rol? odveioig TToXepLOig 
TO Std Tojv ottXojv KpaTog, tovto Be ToXpLjj TTapa- 
yiveodai kol fieXeTj], eV Se rat? ipL(l)vXLOis Tapa-)(aLS 

T7JV TCOV 7ToXlT€VOp.€VOJV 6p,0(^pOGVVriV , TaVTTjV Sc 

Tov acocfypova /cat 8t/catov e/cao-rou ^lov aTrdcfyrjvev 

5 LKavcoTaTov ovTa tw koivco Trapaax^^^' - Tovg Si] tol 
TToXepLid re dcr/cowra? /cat tcjv ^ iTnOvpiLcov KpaTOvv- 
ra? dpioTa Koop^elv Tas iauTwu TrarptSa? Tel^T^ T€ 
dvdXcoTa TO) kolvo) /cat /caraycoyd? rot? iavTOiV 
PloLs dG(f)aXels tovtov? elvat tovs Trapacr/ceua^o- 
jjLevovg ■ pLaxT^rdg Se ye /cat St/catou? dvSpa? /cat 
Tag dAAa? dpeTa? eTTLTr^SevovTag to Trjg iroXiTeias 
G)(fipLa TToielv Tolg (f)povip.cog avTO /carao-TT^CTa/xeVot?, 
paXOaKOvg re av /cat irXeoveKTag Kal hovXovg al- 
Gxpcov eTndvfjLLcov rd TTovrjpd eVtTT^SeujLtara inLTeXeLV. 

6 e</)T7 re napd tojv TrpeaBvTepcjov /cat Std TroXXrjg 
LGTopiag iXrjXvdoTOjv d/coueti^, ort TroAAat fiev aTTot/ctat 
fieydXaL /cat et? evBalpLOvag d^t/cd/xevat Torrovg, at 
/Ltev avTLKa Si€(f)ddprjGav elg GTdGeig e/xTrecroucrat, at 
S' oAtyov' dvTLGXovGai )(p6vov vm^KOOL Tolg irX-qGio- 
XojpoLg TjvayKdGdrjGav yeveGOat /cat dvrt KpeiTTOvog 
)(copag_ Tjv KaTeG^ov, ttjv x^ipova TV)cqv ScaXXd^aGdai 
SovXat i^ eXevdepoju yevopLevai • erepat S' oAtydt'- 

^ tcDp Reiske : rd tcjv O. 

320 



BOOK II. 3, 3-6 

city that has gained splendour from these adorn- 
ments only has ever yet become prosperous and 
great for a long period, nor, again, has any city from 
a want of magnificence either in public or in private 
buildings ever been hindered from becoming great 
and prosperous. But it is other things that pre- 
serve cities and make them great from small be- 
ginnings : in foreign wars, strength in arms, which 
is acquired by courage and exercise ; and in civil 
commotions, unanimity among the citizens, and 
this, he showed, could be most effectually achieved 
for the commonwealth by the prudent and just 
life of each citizen. Those who practise warhke 
exercises and at the same time are masters of 
their passions are the greatest ornaments to their 
country, and these are the men who provide 
both the commonwealth with impregnable walls 
and themselves in their private lives with safe 
refuges ; but men of bravery, justice and the other 
virtues are the result of the form of government 
when this has been established wisely, and, on the 
other hand, men who are cowardly, rapacious and 
the slaves of base passions are the product of evil 
institutions. He added that he was informed by 
men who were older and had wide acquaintance with 
history that of many large colonies planted in fruitful 
regions some had been immediately destroyed by fall- 
ing into seditions, and others, after holding out for 
a short time, had been forced to become subject to 
their neighbours and to exchange their more fruitful 
country for a worse fortune, becoming slaves instead 
of free men ; while others, few in numbers and 

321 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

BpcDTTOL Koi els x^P^^ ^'^ TTOLvv uTTovSoLa TTapayevo- 
fievai iXevOepaL fiev Trpcbrov, eVetra S' erepcov 
apxovaai SiereXeaav • /cat ovre rat? evTrpayiais rcov 
oXlycov ovT€ rat? Sv(Ttvxlo.l? tujv ttoXXcjv krepov ri 

1 ri TO rrjs TT-oAtreta? crx^jp^CL VTrdpx^i^v aiTLOV. el fiev 
ovv fJLLa TLs rjv TTapa Trdcnv dvdpcoTTOLS ^iov rd^LS rj 
TTOLovaa evhaipLOvas rds TToXeis, oi) x^^^'^W ^^ 
yeveaOai u(j)iui t7]V alpeoiv avrrj?' vvv S' ecjyiq 
TToAAas" TTUvddveord ai rds KaradKevds Trap* "EXX-qal 
re /cat ^ap^dpotg vnapxovGas, rpels S' e^ diTaGiJjv 
eTTaivovfjievag jjidXiara vtto tojv ;^pajjLter6ov d/couetv, 
Kal TOVTOJv ovSepLiav ehat rojv TToXireLajv elXiKpivrj, 
TTpoGelvaL he rivas eKdcrrrj Krjpag (Tvix(j)vrovs, ware 
XaXeTTT^v avTcJov elvau ttjv alpeoiv. tj^lov re avrovs 
^ovXevGapLevovs ^ttI crxoXrjs elirelv elre vcj)' evos dp- 
Xeadai deXovaiv dvhpd? elre vtt* oXiyojv elre uofJLOvg 
KaraarrjadpLevoL Trdaiv dTTohovvai rrjv rcjv koivcjv 

8 TTpocrrauiav. " ^Eyd) 8' u/xtv," e^ry, '' vpos t^v dv^ 
Karaarn^orjGOe TToXireiav evrpeTnjg, /cat ovre dpxetv 
dira^ioj ovre apx^crdoL^' dvaivopiai. ripLcov Se, dg 
pLOL TTpooed'rjKare rjyepiova pie rrpcorov dnohei^avres 
rrjs diToiKLas, eTreira /cat rfj rroXei rrjv errojvvpiiav 
irr* ipLov Oevres, a'At? ^X^' ravras ydp ovre 
TToXepLOs VTTepopLOs ovre urdoLs epi^vXios ovre 6 
Trdvra pLapau'ojv rd KaXd XP^^^^ d^aipriaerai pie 
ovre dXXr] rvx'^ TraXiyKoros ovSepbla ' dXXd /cat 
l,a)vrL /cat rou ^iov e/cAtTrdvrt rovrcov vrrdp^ei pLOL 
r(x)v ripLCOP TTapd rrdvra rov Xolttov alojva rvyxdveiv ^ 

' TTpos Tjv 6.V Portus : TTpoaijp tav A, npos to vday 13. 

322 



BOOK II. 3, 6-8 

settling in places that were by no means desirable, 
had continued, in the first place, to be free them- 
selves, and, in the second place, to command others ; 
and neither the successes of the smaller colonies nor 
the misfortunes of those that were large were due to 
any other c:iuse than their form of government. If, 
therefore, there had been but one mode of life among 
all mankind which made cities prosperous, the choos- 
ing of it would not have been difficult for them ; but, 
as it was, he understood there were many types of 
government among both the Greeks and barbarians, 
and out of all of them he heard three especially 
commended by those who had lived under them, 
and of these systems none was perfect, but each 
had some fatal defects inherent in it, so that the 
choice among them was difficult. He therefore asked 
them to deliberate at leisure and say whether they 
would be governed by one man or by a few, or whether 
they would establish laws and entrust the protection 
of the public interests to the whole body of the people. 
" And whichever form of government you establish," 
he said, " I am ready to comply Mith your desire, 
for I neither consider myself unworthy to command 
nor refuse to obey. So far as honours are concerned, 
I am satisfied with those you have conferred on 
me, first, by appointing me leader of the colony, and, 
again, by giving my name to the city. For of these 
neither a foreign war nor civil dissension nor time, 
that destroyer of all that is excellent, nor any other 
stroke of hostile fortune can deprive me ; but both 
in life and in death these honours will be mine to 
enjoy for all time to come." 

323 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

IV Tocavra fxev 6 PcofjLvXo? e/c St8a;^7^? tov 

firjTpOTrOLTOpOS , (X)(J7T€p €(f>rjV, OLTTOpLVqiJLOVeVGa? €V 

ToZs TrX-qOeatv ^Xe^ev. ol Se ^ovXevoajxevoi Kara 
G(f)d? avTovs CLTTOKpLvovrai roidhe' " ' HpLel? ttoXltc tag 
p,ev KaLvrjg ovSev Seofieda, rrjv 8 vtto twv varepojv 
SoKLfiaaOelaav elvai Kparioriqv TrapaXafSovreg ov 
jjLerarLOefJLeOa, yvcv/jLT) re eTTOjjievoi rix)v TraXaLorepcov , 
OV5 ^ 0,770 fiel^ovos olopLeOa (f)poi"qGe(x)S avT7]v /cara- 
GT-qaaadaL, Kal rvxj] dpeGKOfievoi ov yap r^vSe 
fxepuljalfjLeO^ dv eiKOTOj?, rj rrapeGx^v rjpLLv ^aGcXevo- 
fxevoLS rd pLeytGra rcbv ev dvOpojiroi? dyaddjv, 
iXevdeplav re Kal dXXojv dpxijv. irepl pLev Sr) 
TToXireias ravra eyvojKapiev • r-qv Se ripi-qv ravrrju 
ovx irepcp tlvI pidXXov 7] gol TTpoGiqKeiv VTToXapL- 
Pdi'opi€v rod re jSacnAetou yevovs eveKa Kal dperijg, 
pidXiGTa 8' on rrjs diroiKLas rjyepLovL Kexp'qp^^Od 
GOL Kal TToXXrjv GVVLGpiev ScLVOT-qra, ttoXXtjv 8e 
GO(f)Lav, ov Xoycp pidXXov rj epyo) paOovreg.^' ravra 
6 'PojpLvXos aKOVGag dyairdv pL€v 'icjuq ^ao-tAeta? 
d^io? VTT^ dv'6pd>7Tcx)v KpiOelg ' ov pievrot ye XrjijjeGdaL 
rrjv rLpLYjv Trporepov, idv pL-q Kal ro SatpiovLov im- 
OeGTTLGq St' olcovcQP aloLOJV. 

V. ' Qg he KdKelvois -qv ^ovXopievois Trpoenrajv 
-qpiipav, ev fj SiapLavrevGaGOat rrepl rrj? o.px'q'S 
epLeXXev, erreihi) KaOrJKev 6 XP^^^^ ai'aara? irepl 
rov opdpov e/c rrjs GKTjvrj? TrporjXdev ' Grd? Se 
vrraldpios ev KaOapo) x^^P^^ ^^tt TrpodvGas a vopuos 
rjv evx^To Ad re ^aGiXel Kal rot? aAAotS" deols, ovs 

^ ovs Steph. : ws O. 

324 



BOOK II. 4, 1-5, 1 

IV. Such was the speecli that Romulus, following 
the instructions of his grandfather, as I have said, 
made to the people. And they, having consulted 
together by themselves, returned this answer : 
" We have no need of a new form of government 
and we are not going to change the one which our 
ancestors approved of as the best and handed down 
to us. In this we show both a deference for the 
judgment of our elders, whose superior wisdom we 
recognize in establishing it, and our own satisfaction 
with our present condition. For we could not reason- 
ably complain of this form of government, which 
has afforded us under our kings the greatest of human 
blessings — liberty and the rule over others. Concern- 
ing the form of government, then, this is our decision; 
and to this honour we conceive none has so good a 
title as you yourself by reason both of your royal 
birth and of your merit, but above all because we 
have had you as the leader of our colony and recognize 
in you great ability and great wisdom, which we 
have seen displayed quite as much in your actions 
as in your words." Romulus, hearing this, said it 
was a great satisfaction to him to be judged worthy 
of the kingly office by his fellow men, but that he 
would not accept the honour until Heaven, too. had 
given its sanction by favourable omens. 

V. And when the people approved, he appomted 
a day on which he proposed to consult the auspices 
concerning the sovereignty ; and w hen the time 
was come, he rose at break of day and went forth 
from his tent. Then, taking his stand under the open 
sky in a clear space and first offering the customary 
sacrifice, he prayed to King Jupiter and to the 

325 



DTONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

iTTOLTjaaTO itjs aTTOLKLas -qyefjiovoLs, €1 /SouAo/xei'Ot? 
auTot? ecrrt ^aGiXeveaOaL ttjv ttoXlv v(f>^ eavrou, 

2 orjfieia ovpdvia (j)avr\vai KaXd. /xera Se rrjv ev)(r]v 
dcTTpaTrrj SirjXdev ek rcbv dpiarepcov im rd Se^ta. 
TiOevraL Se 'PojfxaloL rd? eV rcov dpiarepcov iirl 
rd Se^id darpaTrdg aloiovs, etre irapd Tvpprjvcov 
BibaxOevres, etre Trarepajv KadriyrjGaixivcjjv , Kara 
roLovhe TLvd, <hs iycb TTeldopLaL, XoyLopLov, oti 
Kadihpa fJL€i> Igtl Kal ardoLS dpLarrj rwv olcjvois 
fiavrevojjLevojv rj ^Xeirovoa rrpos dvaroXd?, ddev 
tjXlov re dvacfyopal yivovrai Kal oeXijvrjg Kal dori- 
pwv TrXavqrcDV re Kal dirXavajv, tj re rov kog/jlov 
7TepL(f)opd, St' T^v rore fxev VTrep yrjg diravra rd iv 
avro) yiverai, rore Se vno yrj?, eKeWev dp^afxevrj 

3 rrju eyKVKXiov dTroSt'Scocri Kiv-qGiv. rot? Se irpos 
dvaroXds ^XeTTOVuiv dpiorepd fiev yCverai rd ^ irpos 
rrjv dpKrov e7Tiarpe(f)ovra pL^prj, he^id he rd ^ Trpog 
jjLeo-qfjL^plav (f)epovra ' rtfjLLCjrepa Se rd Trporepa 
7Te(j)VKev elvai rajv voreptov. /xerecopi^erat ydp 
dird rojv ^opeiojv fJLepwv 6 rod d^ovos ttoXo?, rrepl 
6v Tj rov Koofjiov arpo(f)r) yiver at, Kal rcov irevre 
kvkXcov rcov hiet^ajKorajv rrjv Gcjyalpav 6 KaXovfjuevos 
dpKriKos del rfjSe (fyavepos ' rarreivovrai S* 0,770 
rcov voricov 6 KaXovfxevos avrapKriKOS kvkXos 

4 d(})aur)<; Kard rovro rd p.epos. eiKog Srj Kpdriara 
rojv ovpavLcov Kal fierapGicov Grj/xetcov vnapx^f-v, 
60a CK rov KparcGrov yiverai jjcepovg, €7x61817 Be rd 
fjLev eGrpapL/jLeva Trpds ra? dvaroXd? -qyepLOVLKCorepav 
fioLpav ex^i rwv TTpoGeGTrepicov, avrcov he ye rcov 
dvaroXiKcov vijjTjXorepa rd ^opeia rcov voruov, ravra 

^ rd added by Sylburg. 

326 



BOOK IT. S. 1-4 

other gods whom he had chosen for the patrons of 
the colony, that, if it was their pleasure he should 
be king of the city, some favourable signs might 
appear in the sky. After this prayer a flash of 
lightning darted across the sky from the left to the 
right. Now the Romans look upon the lightning 
that passes from the left to the right as a favourable 
omen, having been thus instructed either by the 
Tyrrhenians or by their own ancestors. Their 
reason is, in my opinion, that the best seat and 
station for those who take the auspices is that which 
looks toward the east, from whence both the sun 
and the moon rise as well as the planets and fixed 
stars ; and the revolution of the firmament, by which 
all things contained in it are sometimes above the 
earth and sometimes beneath it, begins its circular 
motion thence. Now to those who look toward 
the east the parts ^ facing tow ard the north are on 
the left and those extending toward the south are 
on the right, and the former are by nature more 
honourable than the latter. For in the northern 
parts the pole of the axis upon which the firmament 
turns is elevated, and of the five zones which girdle 
the sphere the one called the arctic zone is always 
\4sible on this side ; whereas in the southern parts 
the other zone, called the antarctic, is depressed and 
invisible on that side. So it is reasonable to assume 
that those signs in the heavens and in mid-air are 
the best which appear on the best side ; and since 
the parts that are turned toward the east have 
preeminence over the western parts, and, of the 
eastern parts themselves, the northern are hif;her than 

* " Parts " in this chapter means regions ol the sky. 

m 



DIONYSTUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

) du e'ir] KpoLTLGTa (hg Se Tildes iGropovaLv e/c iraXaiov 
T6 /cat npiv r) Trapd Tvpp-qvwv fxadelu rot? 'Pcofjualajv 
TTpoyovoL'^ a'lGiOL €VOfjLLi,ouTO at €K Tojv dpiGTepcjv 
dorpairai. 'AoKavicxi yap to) e^ Alveiov yeyovorty 
Ka6' 6v XP^^^^ ^^° Tvpp7jV(x)v , ovs -qye jSaatAeus" 
MeoevTLOi, iiroXeixeiTO kol T€Lxr)prjS r]v , irepl Trjv 
TeXevTaiau e^oBov, rjv dTTeyvojKOJS rjhrj rchv irpay- 
fjidrwu 'iixeXXe TTOLeladat, jjuer' 6Xo<f>vp^ov tov t€ 
Ala /cat TOV£ dXAovi atrou/xeVco deou? alaia crq/jLela 
8ovvaL rrj'^ i^oSou cfiaolv aWpiaq ovGT]<i €K tcov 
dpLGTepwu dGrpdifjat tov ovpai'oi'. tov S ay(jjuo<i 
^KkLvov Xa^ovTOi TO KpaTLGTov TeXos SiafJuelpaL napd 
TOLS €Ky6voL<; avTOU voixit,opievov aiGiov roSe to 
Griix€iov. 

VI. ToTe 8' ovv 6 'PojfivXos iTTeiBrj rd Trapd tov 
haiyioviov /SejSata irpooeXa^e , cruy/caAeaa? tov ^rjpLou 
els €KKXr]GLav /cat ret fxavTela ^rjXcQoa's jSaatAeu? 
aTToSeLKVUTai Trpo? avTOji' /cat KaTeGT-qGaTO eV edei 
Tols fJL€T^ avTOU dvTaGL pnqTe /SacrtAeia? fi-qTe dp-)(d<s 
Xafi^dv^LV, idv /jlt) /cat to haLfxoviov avTols eVt- 
QeGTTLGr}, SiejJieLve re fJ^^XP'- "^oXXoO (j)vXaTT6/jL€vou 

VTTO ' PojjJiaiOJV TO 7T€pl TOV? olojl'LGlXOVS I'OfJLLjJLOV , OV 

jjiovov ^aGiXevo^ivq^ Trjg TToAfco?, dAAd /cat /jueTa 
KaTdiXvGLv Tcbv fjLovdpxcjov iv VTTaTOjv /cat GTpaT-qycjv 
/cat Ta)v oAAoii^ tojv /card vo/ulov; dpxdvTCxJv atpeaet. 
2 TTeTTavTai 6' ev toIs Kad^ rjfidg xP^^^^^j TrXr)v olou 
eiKwv Tt9 avTOV AeiVerat ttj? data? avTrjg ^ eve/ca 
ytvofievT) eTTavXil^ovTaL fiev yap oi ra? ap^as 
jjieXXovTes XajJipdveLV /cat Trept tov opBpov dviGTo.- 

' fcJteph,^; Tavrrjs O. 
328 



BOOK TI. 5, 5-6, 2 

the southern, the former woiihl seem to be the hcst. 
But some relate that the ancestors of the Romans 
from very early times, even before they had learned 
it from the Tyrrhenians, looked upon the lightning 
that came from the left as a favourable omen. For 
they say that when Ascanius, the son of Aeneas, was 
warred upon and besieged by the Tyrrhenians led 
by their king Mezentius, and was upon the point 
of making a final sally out of the town, his situation 
being now desperate, he prayed with lamentations 
to Jupiter and to the rest of the gods to encourage 
this sally with favourable omens, and thereupon 
out of a clear sky there appeared a flash of lightning 
coming from the left ; and as this battle had the 
happiest outcome, this sign continued to be regarded 
as favourable by his posteritv. 

VI. When Romulus, therefore, upon the occasion 
mentioned had received the sanction of Heaven also, 
he called the people together in assembly ; and having 
given them an account of the omens, he was chosen 
king by them and established it as a custom, to 
be observed by all his successors, that none of them 
should accept the office of king or any other magis- 
tracy until Heaven, too, had given its sanction. 
And this custom relating to the auspices long 
continued to be observed by the Romans, not only 
while the city was ruled by kings, but also, after the 
overthrow of the monarchy, in the elections of their 
consuls, praetors and other legal magistrates ; but it 
has fallen into disuse in our days except as a certain 
semblance of it remains merely for form's sake. 
For those who are about to assume the magistracies 
pass the night out of doors, and rising at break of 

329 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Hei^OL TTOLOvvrai nvag eu;^d? VTraidpiOL, rcbv 8e 
TTapovrojv rive? opviOouKOTrcjv fitcrOou eV rov Stj- 
jxoGLOv (f)€p6juLevoL d(JTpa7Tr)v avTols crqfJLaLveLV ^ iK 

3 Tojv apiGrepcx)v (f)acnv ttjv ov yevopLeviqv . ol Se tov 
€K T7J<i (j>(jjvrj<? olojvov Xa^ovTes OLTrepxovraL ra? 
oipX^i^ TrapaXr)ilj6/j.evoL ol fikv avTO rovd^ LKavov 
VTToXa/jL^di'oures elvai ro firjSeva yeveodai rcov 
eiavT Lovixivojv re kol kojXvovtojv olwvcov, ol Se 
/cat TTapd TO ^ovXyjixa rod Oeov,^ ecrrt yap ore 
^Lat,6/ji€i'OL KOL ra? ap;^a? dpnd^ovTeg fidXXov rj 

4 Xa/j.^dfoi>T€'^ . St* ou? TToXXal fiev ev yfj crrpaTial 

Poj/jiaLOjp dTTOjXovTo TTavcLXeOpoL, TToXXoi S' iv da- 
Xdrrr) gtoXol 8L€cl)9dp7]Gav avravSpoi, dXXai re [le- 
ydXat Kai Seivai TrepiTTereiai ^ rfj TToXei GuveTreaov at 
fiev iv 6dveioL<^ TToXepLotg, at Se /caret rds ifjL(f)uXLOv? 
SLXOGraoLas, ifjic/yaveGrdry] Se /cat fieyLGrr] ^ Kara ^ ttjv 
ifjirjv rjXLKiav, ore Alklvvlo? KpaGGos dvrjp ovSevog 
Sevrepog tcjv Kad^ eavrov rjyejJLovcjv Grparidv rjyev 
evrt TO ridpdcov edvog, evavriovfievov rod haipLoviov 
TToXXd xalpeLv chpdGag rdl? dTTOTpeirovGi rrjv e^oSov 

OLOJVOL? (JLVpLOig OGOLS y€VOfJL€VOL?. ClAA' V7T€p fJL€V 

rrjs et? ro SaLfjiovLOv oXiycjjpias , fj ;^a)vTat nves iv 
roLS KaO^ rjiids ;!^povots', ttoXv epyov dv etr] Xiyeiv. 

VII. '0 Se 'PojfJLvXo? d7ToS€L)(d€L9 rovrov rov 
rpoTTOv V7t6 re dvOpconajv /cat Oedjv ^aoiXevs rd 
re TToXefica Set^'os' /cat (f>LXoKLvSvvos ofioXoyelrai ® 

* Cobet: ixrjvvetv O, Jacoby. Perhaps crqfirjvai is the true 
form. 

2 Schwartz : tov deoC kcdXvovtos O, Jacoby. 

^ TreptTTeVetat Bb : om. ABa. Steph. added avyi<j>opal before 

330 



BOOK II. 6. 2-7, 1 

day, offer certain prayers under the open sky ; w here- 
upon some of the augurs present, who are paid by 
the State, declare that a (lash of lightning coming 
from the left has given them a sign, although there 
really has not been any. And the others, taking 
their omen from this report, depart in order to take 
over their magistracies, some of them assuming 
this alone to be sufficient, that no omens have 
appeared opposing or forbidding their intended 
action, others acting even in opposition to the will 
of the god ; indeed, there are times when they 
resort to violence and rather seize than receive the 
magistracies. Because of such men many armies 
of the Romans have been utterly destroyed on land, 
many fleets have been lost with all their people at 
sea, and other great and dreadful reverses have 
befallen the commonwealth, some in foreign wars 
and others in civil dissensions. But the most re- 
markable and the greatest instance happened in 
my time when Licinius Crassus, a man inferior to 
no commander of his age, led his army against the 
Parthian nation contrary to the will of Heaven and 
in contempt of the innumerable omens that opposed 
his expedition. But to tell about the contempt of 
the divine power that prevails among some people 
in these days would be a long story. 

VII. Romulus, who was thus chosen king by 
both men and gods, is allowed to have been a man 
of great military ability and personal bravery and 



* Reiske : €ijL<f>aveaTaTcu Se /cai f^idyiarai O. 

* Kara Ambrosch : Kal /cara O, Jacoby. 

* d^oAoyeiTat R : oi/xoAdyT^rat B. 

331 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

yeveodac /cat TToXireiav i^rjyijoraardat rrjv KpaTLcrrrjv 
cjjpovLfiwraro?. hU^eifiL S' avrov ra? Trpd^eig rag 
re TT-oAiTtKo.'s KOi Ta<; ^ /card TroAe'/xous", (I)v /cat 

2 Xoyov av rtg iv luropias a^i)yriG€L TTOL-qoairo . ipco 
Se TTpajTov VTTep rod koojjlov rrjs TToXirelag, ov iyw 
TTOLvrcav rjyovfiat ttoXltlkCjv KOGjiOiv avTapKeorrarov 
eV eLpTJiji T€ /cat /card TToXeptovg. rjv 8e tol6gS€' 
rpixfj veipia^ rrju ttXtjOvv aTraaav e/cdcrrT^ t(jl)v pLoipcov 
TOP €7TL(f)av€(JTaTov i7T€GT7]oev TjyepLOva . eireira tcov 
rptojv TTaXiv pLOipcJjv cKOLGrrji' el? Se/ca pLoipas SteAcav, 
tcroL'? -qyepLovas /cat rovrajv aTreSei^e roiji di'SpeLord- 
Toug- 6/cdAet Se rd^ fxkv /zet^ou? pLolpa? Tpl^ovg, 
Td<i S' iXdrrov^ /couptas', to? /cat /card rdi^ rjpLerepov 

3 jStot' tTi TTpoaayopevouTaL . etr] S' dv '£'AAd8t yXcvrrr] 
rd ouopLaTa ravra pLedepp^-quevopLeua (j)vXrj pLev /cat 
TpiTTUS rj TpL^o?/ (fypdrpa Se /cat Ad;)(Ob t^ Kovpia, 
/cat ToDt' di'Spto^' ot /xei^ rd? tcjv rpi^ojv r/yepLOULag 
exomeg (j)vXap-)(oL re /cat rpLTTvapxoL, ov? koXovgl 
'PojpLaloL rpi^ovvovs ' ol he rat? Kovplaig e(f}eaTr]- 
Koreg /cat cfypaTpiapxoi /cat Ao;(ayot, ou? e/cetvot 

4 Kovpiojiag ovopbdl^ovGL. hifjprjVTO he /cat et? Se/cdSa? 
at ^parpai 77pd? avrov, /cat rfyepojv eKdGrrjv eKOGpLeu 
heKaha, heKOvpiojv /card tt]!^ eTnxojpiov yXwrrav 
rrpoGayopevopievog . cos he hieKpLdrjoau diravreg /cat 
avverdxdrjGav els (f)vXds /cat (^pdrpas, hteXdju rr]u 

^ rds added by Sylburg. - rpi^os R: rptfious B, Jacoby. 

^ Dionysius is here thinking ot Miese divisions of the 
people both as political and military units. The ordinary 
Greek equivalent of " tribe " is phyle, but etyraologically 
trittys is probably the same word as tribus, both originally 

332 



BOOK II. 7, 1-4 

of the greatest sagacity in instituting the best kind 
of government. I shall relate such of his political 
and military achievements as may be thought worthy 
of mention in a history ; and first I shall speak of 
the form of government that he instituted, which 
I regard as the most self-sufficient of all political 
systems both for peace and for war. This was the 
plan of it : He divided all the people into throe 
groups, and set over each as leader its most dis- 
tinguished man. Then he subdivided each of these 
three groups into ten others, and appointed as many 
of the bravest men to be the leaders of these also. 
The larger divisions he called tribes and the smaller 
curiae, as they are still termed even in our day. 
These names may be translated into Greek as follows : 
a tribe by phyle and trittys, and a curia bv phratra 
and lochos ^ ; the commanders of the tribes, whom 
the Romans call tribunes, by phylarchoi and tritty- 
archoi ; and the commanders of the curiae, whom 
they call curiones, by phratriarchoi and lochagoi. 
These curiae were again divided by him into ten 
parts, each commanded by its own leader, who was 
called decurio in the native language. The people 
being thus divided and assigned to tribes and curiae, 

meaning a " third " ; in actual practice, however, tritty 8 
was used of the third of a tribe. Phratra or phratria, 
" brotherhood " or " clan," was also the third of a tribe, 
and the phratries in their organization and rites offer a 
niimber of parallels to the curiae {cf. chap. 23). Lochos 
is a military term, " company " of indefinite size. The 
phylarchoi were the commanders of the cavalry contingents 
furnished by each tribe, and the lochagoi were infantry 
captains. The trittyarchoi and phratriarchoi were simply 
the heads of their respective political divisions. 

333 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

yrjv €LS TpiaKovra KXijpov^ taovg eKaurr] (fypdrpa 
kXtjpov airehcoKev eVa, i^eXojv rrjv apKOvcrav et? tepa 
Kal refievrj Kai nva /cat tw kolvco yrjv KaraXiTTcov. 
fjLia jjLev avTTj Staipecns vtto 'PojfivXov rcav re 
avSpa)v Kal rrjg ;^a»pas' tj ^ nepiexovaa ttjv kolvtjv 
Kal fxeyiGnqv LGorrjra, roidSe rt? rjv. 

VIII. ^Erepa 8e avrwv ttoXlv tcov dvhpwv rj rd 
(f>iXdi'dpct)7Ta Kal rds nfjids Siavepiovaa Kara ttjv 
dftay, 7]^ fJLeXXco hnqyelddai. rovs €7TL(f)av€Z£ Kara 
yevos Kal St' dperrjv eTraivovfievovs Kal xP'^H-olotlv cos 
iv Tols Tore Kaipol? evTropovs, oU tJSt) TralSe? rjcav, 
hiojpitev d-TTo TCOV darjfjLOJV Kal raTreLvaJv Kal diropajv. 
€/C(xAet 8e Tou? piev iv rfj KaraSeecrrepa rvxj} TrXiq^ei- 
ov?y d)S S* dv "E?^riv€S eiTTOLev hrfpLOTLKOvs ' rov? 8* 
€v rfj KpeLTTOVL TTarepag €lt€ 8id to 7Tpea^€V€LV 
rjXLKLa Twv dXXa>v, etd' on TratSe? avrol? rjcrav, 
€Lre hid rrjv eVt^dvetav rov yivovs, €lt€ 8td Trdvra 
ravra' eK rrjs ^A97]vaLcov TToXcretas, (Lg dv tls 
etVdorete, rrjs Kar CKelvov rdv xpdvov en SLapLevovarjs 
2 TO TTapdheiypLa Xa^wv. cVetvot /xev ydp el? 8vo pLcp-q 
vetpLavres to ttXtjOo? evnarplSag puev eKdXovv rovg eV 
TcDv iTn(f)avd)v o'lkcov Kal XPVI^<^^^ Swarovs, ols rj 
rrjg TToXeco? dveKetro TrpoarauLa, dypoLKOVs 8e rovs 
dXXovs TToXlras, ol tojv kolvcjv ovSevos Tjoav KvpioC 
1 -q added by Ambrosch. 

1 Both the Latin plebeius and the Greek demotikos are 
adjectives, " belonging to the plehs or demos.** 

334 



BOOK II. 7, 4-8. 2 

he divided the land into thirty equal portions and as- 
signed one of them to each curia, having first set apart 
as much of it as was sufficient for the support of the 
temples and shrines and also reserved some part of 
the land for the use of the public. This was one 
division made by Romulus, both of the men and 
of the land, which involved the greatest equality 
for all alike. 

VIII. But there was another division again of 
the men only, which assigned kindly services and 
honours in accordance with merit, of which I am now 
going to give an account. He distinguished those 
who were eminent for their birth, approved for their 
virtue and wealthy for those times, provided they 
already had children, from the obscure, the lowly 
and the poor. Those of the lower rank he called 
" plebeians " (the Greeks w ould call them demotikoi ^ 
or " men of the people "), and those of the higher 
rank " fathers," either because they were older than 
the others or because they had children or from their 
distinguished birth or for all these reasons. One 
may suspect that he found his model in the system 
of government which at that time still prevailed 
at Athens. For the Athenians had divnded their 
population into two parts, the eupatridai or " well- 
bom," as they called those who were of the noble 
families and powerful by reason of their wealth, 
to whom the government of the city w as committed, 
and the agroihoi ^ or " husbandmen," consisting of 
the rest of the citizens, who had no voice in public 

2 Called also geomoroi or georgoi. 

33^ 



l)fONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ovu )(p6i'a) 8e /cat ovtol TrpooeXrjcjyO-qoav iirl ra.'? 

3 apxo-S. ol [lev Srj ra TnOavwraTa nepl rrjg ' Pcopatcou 
TToXireia? Icrropovvres Sia raura? ras alrias KXrjdrj- 
vai (fjaGL Tovs dvSpag eKeivovs rraTepas /cat rous 
€Ky6vov5 avTcou TTarpiKLOU?, ol 8e rrpos tov tStov 
(fidovov dva(f)epovT€^ to 77pay/xa /cat hia^aXXovres 
etV SvayeveLav r-qv iroXiv ov Sta ravra TrarpiKiovs 
€KeLVOV£ KXrjOrjvaL cfyaaLUj dAA' ort rrarepag elxoi^ 
dTTohel^ai jJLOVOL, ws tcjv ye dXXaov Spanercju ovtojv 
/cat ovK €)(6vTa)V ovofMaaaL jrarepa? iXevOepovs. 

4 T€Kp.T]pLov Be TOVTOV TTapiy^ovTai ,^ on rov? fiev 
TTarpLKLOvg, OTTore ho^eie rol? ^aotXevaL GvyKaXelv, 
ol KYjpVKeg i^ ovofiarog re /cat TrarpoQev dvrjyopevov , 
Tovi Be hrjpLOTLKovg vTTrjperai rives ddpoovs ^ Kepacn 
^oeiois ifi^VKavwvre'S eVt rds eKKXrjuias crvvrjyou. 
eGTL Se ovre rj rcjv KiqpvKCjv dvaKXrjGLs rrjg evyeveias 
ra)v TTarpLKiiov reKfju-qptov, ovre r) rrj<i ^VKavrj^ (fxtjvr) 
rrjg dyi'0)GLa<; rcov h-qfxoriKCov gvjjl^oXov , aAA' eKelvrj 
fjL€v rifxris, avrrj he rdxovs . ov yap olovre tjv iv 
oXiyoj ^(^povqj rrjv ttXtjOvv KaXelv e^ ovofxarog. 

IX. '0 Se 'PcufjLvXog eTreihr] Ste/cptve rovs Kpeir- 
rovg dno raJv -qrrovojv, evofioOereL jxerd rovro /cat 
SUrarrev , d XPV '^pdrretv eKarepovs ' rovg /.lev 
euTrarptSa? lepdadaL re /cat apx^Lv /cat hiKat^etv /cat 

^Schwartz : napdxovmv O, Jacoby. 
2 Reiske : adpooi AB. 

^ Dionysius ignores the demiourgoi (artisans), the third 
class of the three into which Theseus, according to tradition, 
divided the population. 

336 



BOOK 11. 8, 2-9, 1 

affairs, though in the course of time these, also, were 
admitted to the offices.^ Those who give the most 
probable account of the Roman government say 
it was for the reasons I have given that those men 
were called " fathers " and their posterity " patri- 
cians " ^ ; but others, considering the matter in the 
light of their own envy and desirous of casting re- 
proach on the city for the ignoble birth of its founders, 
say they were not called patricians for the reasons 
just cited, but because these men only could point 
out their fathers,^ — as if all the rest were fugitives and 
unable to name free men as their fathers. As proof 
of this they cite the fact that, whenever the kings 
thought proper to assemble the patricians, the 
heralds called them both by their own names and 
by the names of their fathers, whereas public ser- 
vants summoned the plebeians en masse to the 
assemblies by the sound of ox horns. But in reality 
neither the calling of the patricians by the heralds is 
any proof of their nobility nor is the sound of the 
horn any mark of the obscurity of the plebeians ; 
but the former was an indication of honour and the 
latter of expedition, since it was not possible in a 
short time to call every one of the multitude by name. 
IX. After Romulus had distinguished those of 
superior rank from their inferiors, he next established 
laws by which the duties of each were prescribed. 
The patricians were to be priests, magistrates and 

2 This is the explanation given by Livy (i, 8, 7). 

* Cf. Livy X. 8, 10 (part of a speech) : patricios . . . 
qui patrem ciere pos-scnt, id est nihil ultra qtmm ingenuos. 
This derivation of palriciu.'^ from pater and cieo is a good 
instance of Roman etymologizing at its worst. 

337 

VOL. I. N 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

[Jied^ iavrov ra KOiva -npaTreiv iirl rcbv Kara ttoXlv ^ 
€pycov fievovrag, rovg Se Sr]fjLOTLKOVs tovtcov fi€v 
OLTToXeXvudai rcov TTpayfiareicjv aTreipovs re avrcjv 
ovras Koi St' airopiav p^/or^jaarcov auxoXovs , yecopyelv 
8e Koi Krr)vorpo(f)€LV /cat ra? xprjfiaroTTOLov^ ipyd- 
t,€adaL ri^i^as, Iva fir) CTracrta^cocrtv, cjairep iv rat? 
dXXais TToXecTLV, rj rcov iv reAet 7Tpo7Tr]XaKLt,6vTOJV 
rovs raiTeivovs rj rcov <f)avXa)V /cat OLTTopcov tols iv 

2 rat? V7Tepo-)(aZs (jiOovovvrojv. TTapaKarad-qKas Se 
eScuKe TOLS rrarpiKLOis rovs SrjfxoTLKOVs eVtrpe^a? 
iKOLcrrq) rcov eV rod rrX-qdov?, ov auro? i^ovXero, 
vepi€iv TTpocrroLTrjv y e^os" ' EXXrjVLKOv /cat dpxalov, o) 
QerraXol re p^^XP^ ttoXXov ;)(paj/>t€vot StereAeorav 
/cat ^AdrjvoLOL /car' dpxdiS, ^ttl rd Kpeirroj AajScov. 
eKelvoi fjL€V yap VTTepoTTriKOJS ixpojvro rots' TreAarat? 
epya re iTnrdrrovres ov 7TpGoi]K0vra eXevOepois, /cat 
OTTore fxrj irpd^eidv n rwv K€Xevop,evojv, rrXr^yds 
ivreivovres kol rdAAa ajGirep dpyvpcxjvrjrois rrapa- 
XP<^P'€voL. eKdXovv Se AdrjvaloL fxev drjras rovs 
TTeXdras eirl rrjs Xarpeias, ©erraXol 8e rrevearas 
oveiSL^ovres avrols evdvs iv rfj KXiqaei rr]v rvxrjv. 

S 6 Se 'Pajp.vXos iiTLKXriuei re evrrpeTrel ro TTpdyfia 
iKoapL-qae irarpcovelav ovopidaas rrjv rwv rrevT^rcov 
/cat rarretvcov vpoGraalav, /cat ret epya XPV^'''^ 
TTpocredrjKev eKarepOLS, /cat ^iXavO pcLirovs /cat TToAt- 
Tt/cct? d-n-epya^opLevos ^ avrojv rds (jvt,vyias. 



1 ttoXlv O : TTjv TToXiv Reiske, Jacoby. 

2 Kiessling : ipyaioyievos B, KaraaKevat^ofievos A, Jacoby. 



338 



BOOK II. 9, 1-3 

judges, and were to assist him in the management 
of pubhc afi'airs, devoting themselves to the business 
of the city. The plebeians were excused from these 
duties, as being unacquainted with them and because 
of their small means wanting leisure to attend to 
them, but were to apply themselves to agriculture, 
the breeding of cattle and the exercise of gainful 
trades. This was to prevent them from engaging 
in seditions, as happens in other cities when either 
the magistrates mistreat the lowly, or the common 
people and the needy envy those in authority. He 
placed the plebeians as a trust in the bands of the 
patricians, by allowing every plebeian to choose 
for his patron any patrician whom he himself 
wished. In this he improved upon an ancient 
Greek custom that w as in use among the Thessalians 
for a long time and among the Athenians in the 
beginning. For the former treated their clients 
with haughtiness, imposing on them duties un- 
becoming to free men ; and whenever thev dis- 
obeyed any of their commands, they beat them 
and misused them in all other respects as if they 
had been slaves they had purchased. The Athenians 
called their clients thetes or " hirelings," because 
they served for hire, and the Thessalians called 
theirs penestai or " toilers," by the very name 
reproaching them with their condition. But 
Romulus not only recommended the relationship 
by a handsome designation, calling this protection 
of the poor and lowly a " patronage," but he also 
assigned friendly offices to both parties, thus making 
the connexion between them a bond of kindness 
belitting fellow citizens. 

339 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

X. ^Hv 8e TO. V7T^ eKeivov -ore opiaOivTa /cat 
fiexp'- TToXXov 7TapafjL€LvavTa ■)(p6vov 'Pajfiaiois edrj 
7T€pL Tag TTarpojveias roidSe ' rou? pcev TrarptKLOvg 
eSeu Tols iavTcov TreXdratg e^rj-yelGOai rd St/cata, cSv 

OVK el)(OV €K€.ZvOl TTjV €77 LGTl] fJLl^V , TTapOVTOJV T€ aVTOJV 
KOL flT] TTUpOVTOJV TOV aUTOt' €77 LfjieXeLcrd at rpoTTOV 

airavra 77pdrTOVTas, ocra 77€pl Tralhajv TrpdrTovai 
7raT€p€Sf ets" XPVH'^'^^^ "^^ '^^^ '*'^^ 77€pl ;(;pi7/xaTa 
ovpL^oXaiajv Xoyov hiKa<; re V77€p rchv TreAarcov 
dSLKOvfjL€va)P Xa'y)(dv€iVy et rt? ^Xd7TTOLTO 77€pl rd 
avfJL^oXaLa, /cat rolg iyKaXovatv V7T€X€iv • a>s" S^ 
oAtya 77€pL 77oXXcov dv TLs etTTot, Trdcrav avrols 
€LpT]vr]P TLov r€ Ihiojv /cat rajv koivojv TTpaypLdrojv, 

2 rjg pidXiGTa ihiovro, 77ap€X€LV. rou? Se TreAara? 
eSet rot? iavrdjv Trpocrrarats' Bvyarlpas re (jvv€k- 
StSoCT^at yajjiovfjiivag, et O77avLL,0L€V ot Trarepe? 
XP'Tjl^drajv , /cat Aur/Da /cara/^aAAetv 77oX€fJLLOLs, 
et Tt? auTcDi' •^ TratSojv alxp-dXojTos ydvouro- 
St/ca? re oAoVtojv tSta? t) ^r^/xia? 0(/)AdvTajv h-qpLoaias 
dpyvpiKov ixovcra? ripnqp^a €k tcjv Ihiojv Xu€GdaL 
Xpijp-drcxjv, ov Sav€LGpLaTa 770Lovvrag, dXXd xdptras' 
€v T€ dpxcus /cat y€p'q(^opLai£ ^ /cat rat? aAAats" 
rat? ct? ra /cotva SaTravats" rcov dvaXajpLdrajv 

3 CO? Tou? yeVet 77pocrqKOVTag pL€T€x^iv. Koivfj 8' 
dpL(f)OT€poL? ovT€ ouiov ovT€ ^fjLtt? rjv KaTr]yop€LV 
dXXijXojv eVt St/cat? "^ KaTapLapTVp€lv tj iljrj(f)ou 

^ This word does not occur elsewhere, but two inscrip- 
tions have yielded the adjectival forms Y€pT)<^6pos and 
yepea(/>dpo? ; see the latest revision of Liddell and Scott's 
Lexicon. Kiessling proposed to read Upa<f)opiais. and Jacoby 
(in a note) reAeoc/ioptats. 

340 



BOOK II. 10, 1-3 

X. The regulations which he then instituted 
concerning patronage and which long continued in 
use among the Romans were as follows : It was the 
duty of the patricians to explain to their clients the 
laws, of which they were ignorant ; to take the same 
care of them when absent as present, doing every- 
thing for them that fathers do for their sons with 
regard both to money and to the contracts that 
related to money ; to bring suit on behalf of their 
clients when they were wronged in connexion with con- 
tracts, and to defend them against any who brought 
charges against them ; and, to put the matter 
briefly, to secure for them both in private and in 
public affairs all that tranquillity of which they 
particularly stood in need. It was the duty of the 
clients to assist their patrons in providing do\vries 
for their daughters upon their marriage if the fathers 
had not sufficient means ; to pay their ransom to the 
enemy if any of them or of their children were taken 
prisoner ; to discharge out of their own purses their 
patrons' losses in private suits and the pecuniary 
fines which they were condemned to pay to the 
State, making these contributions to them not as 
loans but as thank-offerings ; and to share with 
their patrons the costs incurred in their magistracies 
and dignities ^ and other public expenditures, in the 
same manner as if they were their relations. For 
both patrons and clients alike it was impious and 
unlawful to accuse each other in law-suits or to bear 

^ The word y^pri^opla should mean literally the " bearing, 
or enjoyment, of privileges," hence a " position of honour" 
or a " dignity." Presumably the reference is to priest- 
hoods. 

341 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

cvavrlav l7n(f>€p€Lv 7} /xera rwv 6)(9pa)v i^erd^euOaL, 
€L Se Tig i^eX€y)(deiiq tovtojv tl hiairpoTToyLevo? 

€VOXO? 'QV Tib VOfJbCp TTJS TTpoSoGLa?, OP €KVpajGeV 

6 'PojfjLvXog, TOP 8e oAovra ra> ^ovXofxivcp Kreiveiv 
ocTLOv rjv CO? dvfia rod KaraxOovLOV A cos. cV edet'^ 
yap 'PojfiaLOLs, ogovs i^ovXovro vtjttolvI reOvdvai, 
ra TOVTcov adifxara decJov otcoSt^tlvl, fidXtarra Se rots' 
KaraxQoviois KaTovojidt^eiv o /cat rore 6 *Poj/jlvXos 
eVotr^cre. roiydproL Siefieivav iv TroAAat? yeveats" 
ovhkv hia(j)€pov(jai ovyyeviKOJv dvayKaLorrjTcov at 
Twv TreXarwv re /cat Trpoorrarcbv cru^uytat Tratcrt 
TTatScov avvLGrdfievaij /cat fxeyag eVatro? t^v rot? €/c 
Tojv eVt^avcDv oIkcov ojs rrXeLurov? ireXdras ^x^lv 
rds Te TTpoyovcKOLS (fyvXdrrovcn SiaSoxoig rcov rra- 
TpajveLOJv /cat Sta ttJ? iavraJv dperrjs oAAa? €7tlktco- 
fievoLs, 6 re dyojv rrjs evvoias ^ VTrkp rod firj 
XeL(f)drjvaL rrjs oAAt^Aoji' ;)^aptTO? cktottos rjXlKOS 
d[JL(j)OT€poLS rju, Tcbv jiev TTeXarojv amavra toIs 
TTpoardrais d^LOVvrcov cu? Svvdfieojg et^ov v-rnqpe- 
T€LV, Tctjv Se TTarpiKiajv rjKiGra ^ovXofievcov rot? 
TreAarats- ivoxXetv ;^p7]/>taTt/c')7v re ovhejxiav hojpeav 
7TpoGL€fJL€va>v ' ouTOJ? iyKpaTT]? 6 ^ios r]v avToZs 
OLTTdorjs Tjhovrjs /cat to /xa/captov dpeT-fj fjLerpajv, ov 

XI. Ov fxovov 8' ev avrfj rfj TToXei to Stjijlotlkov 

VTTO TTjV TTpOGTauiaV TOJU TTaTpLKLOJV TjV , oAAo. /Cat 



^ ev edei Kiessling : evdev O. 

^ TTJS euvoi'as Kiessling : inrep rrjs evvoias O ; om. Cobet. 



342 



BOOK II. 10, 3-11. 1 

witness or to jiive their votes against each other or 
to be found in the number of each other's enemies ; 
and whoever was convicted of doing any of these 
things was guilty of treason by virtue of the law 
sanctioned by Romulus, and might lawfully be put 
to death by any man who so wished as a victim 
devoted to the Jupiter of the infernal regions.^ 
For it was customary among the Romans, whenever 
they wished to put people to death without incurring 
any penalty, to devote their persons to some god 
or other, and particularly to the gods of the lower 
world ; and this was the course which Romulus then 
adopted. Accordingly, the connexions between the 
clients and patrons continued for many generations, 
diflfering in no wise from the ties of blood-relation- 
ship and being handed down to their children's 
children. And it was a matter of great praise to 
men of illustrious families to have as many clients 
as possible and not only to preserve the succession 
of hereditary patronages but also by their own merit 
to acquire others. And it is incredible how great 
the contest of goodwill was between the patrons and 
clients, as each side strove not to be outdone by the 
othei in kindness, the clients feeling that they should 
render all possible services to their patrons and the 
patrons wishing by all means not to occasion any 
trouble to their clients and accepting no gifts of 
money. So superior was their manner of life to 
all pleasure ; for they measured their happiness by 
virtue, not by fortune. 

XI. It was not only in the city itself that the 
plebeians were under the protection of the patricians, 

* ».e. Difl or Piuto. 

343 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 



Tojv a-noLKCDV avrrjs TToXewv kol tojv eVt crf^/xa;^ta 
/cat <f)iXLa TTpoaeXdovGOJv Kal twv e/c TToXejiov k€- 
KpaTr][i€vojp eKOLGTrj (f)vXaKag ei;^e Kal Trpoardras 
ovs i^ovXero 'Pajfiaicou. Kal tto/^Xolkls tj ^ovXtj to. 
eV TOVTOJV a[Ji(j)iGJirjTrjp,aTa toju iroXeojv Kal iOvcav 

€7tI TOVS TTpOLGTa/JLeVOVi aUTCUt' OLTTOGTeXXoVGa, TO, 

2 utt' iKeii'OJV hiKaGdevra Kvpta rjyelro. ovrco Se 
apa /SejSato? rjv -q 'Pajfiatajv opuovoia rrjv dpxqv 
eV rcov vTTo ' PcofxvXov KaraGKevaGdevrajv Xa^ovGa 
idojp, (joGTe ovheTTore St' atfiaro? Kal (l)6vov rod 
Kar dXXrjXojv ixcoprjGav ivros i^aKOGiojv Kal rpid- 
Kovra irajp, ttoXXojp Kal fieydXcov dp.(^iG^rjrr]ijLdrajv 
yevopLevajv tcu S'qfJLO) Trpos tovs eV reXei irepl rwv 
KOivojUy d)s iv dndGais <f)iXd yiyv^Gdai puKpals re 

3 Kal [jLeydXais 7t6X€Glp • dXXd TTeiOovres Kal hthdoKOV- 
T€S oAAtJAou? Kal rd pikv elKovres,^ rd Se Trap' 
eiKovrcjv ^ XapL^dvovres , TToXiriKd^ iiroiovvro rds 
T<jjv eyKX-qpidrojv StaAucrets-. e| ov he rdios FpdKXOS 
irrl TTJs" S'qpLapxi^KTJ? i^ovGLas yev6/jL€POs hi€(f>d€Lpe 
TTjv rod TToXirevp^arog dppLovLav, ovKeri TreTravvrai 
a(l)drrovr€g aAAr^Aou? Acat <j)vydhas iXavvovres eV 
rrjs TToXecog Kal ovhevos rcov dvr^KeGrcov drrexopievoL 
TTapd ro vLKav . oAAa irepl fiev rovrcDV erepos earat 
TOts" XoyoL? Katpos iTTLrrjSeiorepog. 

XII. *0 Se 'P(jjp.vXos eTTeihr) ravra SieKOGfjLrjGe 
jSouAeyrd? evQv? eyva> KaraGrrjGaGdaL, fxed^ (Lv 

^ eiKovres R : ^kovt^s Bb. 

^ ^Ikovtojv Reiske : iKOvrajv O. 

1 Dionysius ignores the bloodshed in connexion with 
the slaying of Tiberius Gracchus in 133 and the execution 

344 



BOOK II. 11, 1-12, 1 

but every colony of Rome and every city that had 
joined in alliance and friendiihip with her and also 
every city conquered in war had such protectors 
and patrons among the Romans as they wished. 
And the senate has often referred the controversies 
of these cities and nations to their Roman patrons 
and regarded their decisions as binding. And in- 
deed, so secure was the Romans' harmony, which 
owed its birth to the regulations of Romulus, that 
they never in the course of six hundred and thirty 
years ^ proceeded to bloodshed and mutual slaughter, 
though many great controversies arose between the 
populace and their magistrates concerning public 
policy, as is apt to happen in all cities, whether large 
or small ; but by persuading and informing one 
another, by yielding in some things and gaining 
other things from their opponents, who yielded in 
turn, they settled their disputes in a manner be- 
fitting fellow citizens. But from the time that 
Gains Gracchus, while holding the tribunician 
power, destroyed the harmony of the government 
they have been perpetually slaying and banishing 
one another from the city and refraining from no 
irreparable acts in order to gain the upper hand. 
However, for the narration of these events another 
occasion will be more suitable. 

XII. As ^ soon as Romulus had regulated these 
matters he determined to appoint senators to assist 

of many Gracchans that followed. The overthrow of 
Gaius Gracchus occurred at the very beginning of the 
year 121, which was the year 631 of the City according to 
Dionvsius' reckoning. 
2 (JJ. Livy i. 8, 7. 

345 



DTONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TTpdrreLV ra kolvo. efxeXKev, Ik rcav irarpLKuov av- 
Spa? eKarov emXe^diJLei'o?. €7TOLeZro 8e avrCjv 
TOidvhe TTjv hiaipeoLv auro? pikv ef aTravrcov eva 
Tov dpLorrov aTTeSet^ev, w rds Kara ttoXlv coero Belv 
e7nTp€7T€Lv OLKOVOfjLLag, ore avrog i^dyot orrpandv 

2 V7T€p6pLov ' Tcov 8e (f)vXa)V eKdoTTT] TTpocrera^e rpel'S 
dvSpa^ eXeadat tov? iv rfj (^povLfiojrdTrj rore ourag 
rjXLKla Kal 3t' evyeveiav €7TL(f)avei£ . /Ltera Se rovg 
iwea TOVTOvs eKdarrjv (f)pdrpav ^ ttoXlv eKeXevcre 
T/Det? eK rojv TTarpLKLoyv dTToheZ^ai ^ rovs im- 
TT^SeioraTous'i* eVetra rolg TrpcoroL? iwea toTs vtto 
TCOV (f>vX(jL)v dTToheixdelai tovs ivevijKovTa Trpoodeist 
ovs at (ppo-Tpai Trpo€-)(eipLoavTO , Kal tovtwv, ov 
auTO? TTpoeKptvev, r^yefxova TTOL-qcras tov tow eKaTOV 

3 i^eTrX-qpojore ^ovXevTCov dpiOpiov. tovto to owe- 
SpLOV ^ ^ EXXtjvigtl ipix-qvevopievov yepovuiav Svi'aTai 
Sr]Xovv Kal pii'Xfii- tov napovTOS vtto ' Poj/JLalajv 
ovTOJS KaXeLTai. iroTepov he hid y'r]pas tcov /cara- 
XeyevTCxjv els avTo dvSpoJv rj St' dpeTrjv TavTrjg 
€TV)(e TTJs eTTLKXrjGeciJS ovK e)(Oj TO (ja(jyes etVetv. 
Kal yap tov? TTpeu^vTepovs Kal tovs dpidTOVs 
yepovTas elcodeoav ol TraXatol KaXelv. ol Se jLtere- 
)(OVTeg TOV PovXevTTjpLov Trarepe? eyypa^oi Trpocrq- 
yopevO-qaav Kal p-expf^S epiov TavT-qs eTvyx^avov Trjg 
TTpoorjyopias. 'EXXtjvlkov Se dpa Kal tovto to* 

4 edos rjv. TOL9 yovv ^auiXevaLV , ocrot re TraTpiovs 

^ Jacoby : iKaarji <f)pa.Tpa O. 
^Kiessling: eViAe'^at O. 



* After avvihpiov lieiske supplied iKoXei. oevdTov o. 

* TO added by Kiessling. 



346 



BOOK II. 12, 1-4 

him ID administering the public business, and to this 
end he chose a hundred men from among the pa- 
tricians, selecting them in the following manner. 
He himself appointed one, the best out of their 
whole number, to whom he thought fit to entrust 
the government of the city ^ whenever he himself 
should lead the army beyond the borders. He 
next ordered each of the tribes to choose three men 
who were then at the age of greatest prudence and 
were distinguished by their birth. After these nine 
were chosen he ordered each curia likewise to name 
three patricians who were the most worthy. Then 
adding to the first nine, who had been named by 
the tribes, the ninety who were chosen by the curiae, 
and appointing as their head the man he liimself 
had first selected, he completed the number of a 
hundred senators. The name of this council may 
be expressed in Greek by gerousia or " council of 
elders," and it is called by the Romans to this 
day - ; but whether it received its name from the ad- 
vanced age of the men who were appointed to it or 
from their merit, I cannot say for certain. For the 
ancients used to call the older men and those of 
greatest merit gerontes or " elders." The members 
of the senate were called Conscript ^ Fathers, and 
they retained that name down to my time. This 
council, also, was a Greek institution. At any rate, 
the Greek kings, both those who inherited the realms 

1 The reference is to the praefectiis urbi. ^ i.e. senatus. 

'Literally, "enrolled." For the usual explanation of 
Patres Conscripti see Livy ii. 1, 11. 

347 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

apxas 7Tapa\d^oL€V koI ogovs tj irXrjdvs avrrj 
Karaar-qoaLTO rj-yefiova?, ^ovXevrrjpiov rjv Ik tojv 
KpariGTOJv, CVS "OfJLrjpos re /cat ol TToXaioraroi rajv 
TTOiTfTcov fiaprvpovGL ■ Kal ovx coGTrep iv rol? Kad^ 
rjfJLa? ^(^povoLS avQdheis Kal pLOVoyvojpLoves rjGau at 
Tojv dpxaiojv ^aGiXeojv SwaGrelaL. 

XIII. 'Qs Se KaT€GK€vdGaTo Kal to ^ovXevriKov 
Twv yepovTCjjv Gvvehpiov Ik rayv eKarov dvhpcoVy 
opcbv oirep eiKos ort /cat veorrjros avrw SeT^crct 
Tivo? GuvTerayfJievrj?, fj XPV^^'^^^ (f)vXaKrjs eVe/ca 
Tov Gcof-iaros Kal rrpog rd KareTTeiyovTa tojv epyojv 
vn-qpeGia, TptaKOGLOvg dVSpa? e/c tojv eVK^at'eo-raTajv 

OLKCJV TOUs" ippOJfJL€V€GTdTOVS Tols GCO/JLaGiV eTTiXe^d' 

fxevos, ovs diTehei^av at (ftpaTpac top avTov TpoTTov 
ovTTep Tovs jSouAeuTots", eKdGTTj (jipaTpa Sc/ca viovs} 

2 TOVTOVS Tovs dvSpas del irepl avTov et^^ei^ • oVoyua he 
KOLvov diravTes ovtol eG^ov ^ /ceAeptot, ws {xev ol 
TrXeiovs ypd(f)ovGLV eVi ttjs o^vttjtos tcSv V7Tr)p€Gicov 
{tov£ yap €TOijjLOV? Kal Taxels Trepl rd epya /ceAcpa? 
ol 'PojfxaloL KaXovGLv), a»? 8e OvaXeptos 6 ^AvTtevg 
(f)rjGU' eTrl tov rjyepLOVos avTCJv tovt e^^vTOs tov- 

:J vopia. TjV yap Kal tovtojv -qyepLcbv 6 htacfyaveGTaTO? , 
(L Tpels v7T€Tdyr]Gav eKaTovTap^oi ^ Kal avdig vtt* 
eKeluoLs erepot rctS" UTroSeecrrepa? exovTes dpxds, ot 
/card ttoXlv fikv alxp^oi^opoi t€ aura) Trap-qKoXovOovv 
Kal TOJV KeXevofxevajv VTTrjpeTaL, /card Se Tas GTpa- 
reta? rrpofxaxol re rjGav Kal TrapaGTTiGTai' Kal to. 

^ eKdoTr) . . . I'eovs deleted by Kiessling. 
^ dnaures ovroi coxov B : dnavTes o Kal vvp xareaTT^ue^ ea^ov 
A ; 6.7Tain-€s oaoi cvyKaTcaTTjaav Reiske. 
^Kiessling: €KaTovTdpx(u O. 

318 



BOOK IT. 12, 4-13. 3 

of their ancestors and those who were elected by the 
people themselves to be their rulers, had a council 
composed of the best men, as both Homer and the 
most ancient of the poets testify ; and the authority 
of the ancient kings was not arbitrary and absolute 
as it is in our days. 

XIII. After 1 Romulus had also instituted the 
senatorial body, consisting of the hundred men, 
he perceived, we may suppose, that he would also 
require a body of young men whose services he 
could use both for the guarding of his person and 
for urgent business, and accordingly he chose three 
hundred men, the most robust of body and from the 
most illustrious families, whom the curiae named 
in the same manner that they had named the 
senators, each curia choosing ten young men ; and 
these he kept always about his person. They were 
all called bv one common name, celeres ; according 
to most writers this was because of the " celerity " 
required in the services they were to perform (for 
those who are ready and quick at their tasks the 
Romans call celeres), but Valerius Antias says that 
they were thus named after their commander. For 
among them, also, the most distinguished man was 
their commander ; imder him were three centurions, 
and under these in turn were others who held the 
inferior commands. In the city these celeres con- 
stantly attended Romulus, armed with spears, and 
executed his orders ; and on campaigns thev charged 
before him and defended his person. And as a 
1 Cf. Livy i. 15, 8. 

349 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

noXXa OVTOL Karoipdovv iv rol? ayojai Trpajroi re 
dpXovT€£ p-O-X'l^ '^'^'- T^X^VTOLOi TCtJi' oXXcov d(f)Lard- 
fJi€VOL, LTmels /JL€V evda iTnr'^SeLov et-q irehiov evnr- 

7TOIJLa)(T]GaL, 77€^Ot Sf 07T0V Tpa^V? €17] Kal dvLTTTTOS 
4 T0770?. TOVTO fMOL SoK€L TTapCL AaKeSaip^OVLCOV 

pLereveyKaaOaL to edo? pia6d>v on /cat Trap' eKelvoLg 
OL yewaioTaroL rcjv viojv TpiaKocnoL <J)vXolk€S rjuav 
rcjjv ^aaiXeojv, ol? expojvro Kara tovs rroXepLOvg 
TrapaoTTiGTals , LTTTrevcrL re ovgl Kal Txe^ot?. 

XIV. Karaar-qadpLeuos Srj ravra SieKpive rds 
TLpids Kal rds e^oucrta?, a? iKdarovg i^ovXero ^.^eiv. 
^aGiXel pL€v ovv l^rip-qro rdhe rd yepa ' rrpajTOv pikv 
Upcov Kal dvGLOJv -qyepiovLav €)(€iv Kal Trdvra St* 
eKetvov TrpdrrecrOaL rd rrpos rovs deovg ocna, eVetra 
vopaov re Kal TrarpUov idLapLwu (j)vXaK7]v TTOieZodai 
Kal TravTog rod Kara <^vglv tj Kard GVvdiqKas hiKaiov 
TTpovoelv rd)v re dhiK'qpidrojv rd /xeytcrra pL€v avrov 
hLKdl,€iv, rd 8* iXdrrova roZs ^ovXevrals eVtrpeVetP' 
irpovoovpLevov Iva pnqhev yiyvqrai rrepl rds hiKag 
nXrjpLpLeXe?, ^ovX-qv re Gvvdyeiv Kal SrjpLOv GvyKaXetv 
Kal yvcopLTjs dpx^Lv Kal rd ho^aura rols TrXetoGLv 
eVtreAetv. ravra puev aTreScoKe /SacrtAct rd yepa Kal 
en rrpos rovroLg rjyepioviav ex^Lv avroKpdropa ev 
2 TToXepLO). rep Se ovvebplcp rrjg ^ovXi]? npir)p Kal 
hwaGreiav dvedrjKe roidvhe * Trepl iravros orov dv 
eLGTjyrjraL ^aGiXevg StayivcoGKeLu re Kal iljrj(f>ov inL- 
(jyepeiVy Kal o n dv ho^rj rols vXeloGi rovro viKav • eV 
rrjs AaKOJiLKYJ? TToXireias Kal rovro pLereveyKaptevog. 
ovhe ydp ol AaKehaipLOvicjv ^aGiXels avroKpdropes 
350 



BOOK IT. 13, 3-14, 2 

rule it was they who gave a favourable issue to the 
contest, as they were the first to engage in battle 
and the last of all to desist. They fought on horse- 
back where there was level ground favourable for 
cavalry manoeuvres, and on foot where it was 
rough and inconvenient for horses. This custom 
Romulus borrowed, I believe, from the Lacedae- 
monians, having learned that among them, also, 
three hundred of the noblest youths attended the 
kings as their guards and also as their defenders in 
war, fighting both on horseback and on foot. 

XIV. Having made these regulations, he distin- 
guished the honours and powers which he wished 
each class to have. For the king he had reserved 
these prerogatives : in the first place, the supremacy 
in religious ceremonies and sacrifices and the con- 
duct of everything relating to the worship of the 
gods ; secondly, the guardianship of the laws and 
customs of the coimtry and the general oversight 
of justice in all cases, whether founded on the law 
of nature or the civil law ; he was also to judge in 
person the greatest crimes, leaving the lesser to 
the senators, but seeing to it that no error was made 
in their decisions ; he was to summon the senate 
and call together the popular assembly, to deliver 
his opinion first and carry out the decision of the 
majority. These prerogatives he granted to the 
king and, in addition, the absolute command in 
war. To the senate he assigned honour and author- 
ity as follows : to deliberate and give their votes 
concerning everything the king should refer to 
them, the decision of the majority to prevail. This 
also Romulus took over from the constitution of the 
Lacedaemonians ; for their kings, too, did not have 

351 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

rjaav o tl ^ovXolvto TTpdrreLV, aAA' 7] yepovala ttov 

3 ei;Y^ Tcov koivwv to KpdTO<;. ro) he SrjfjLOTLKqj rrX-qOeL 
rpia ravra eTTerpexjsev ' dp-)(aipe(Jidt,€iv re koL uofiov? 
ETTLKvpovv KOL TTepl TToXefiov SiayLi'CjcTKeLv , orav 6 
/SacrtAeu? ^4^f}, ovhe tovtojv e-)(OVTL t7]v i^ovtJLav 
OLveTTLXrjTTTOv, dv jjLTj Kal rfj ^ovXfj ravrd hoKjj. 
€(f>epe he ttjv iljr}(f)ov ovx dfxa ird? 6 hrj/jio?, dXXd 
Kara rds (jypdrpas avyKaXov/jLevog ■ o tl he rat? 
TrXeioui ho^eie (f>pdTpaLS tovto errl ttjv ^ovXtjv 
dve(f)epeTO. icf)* rj/JLOJv he fjieTdKeiTai to eOos' ov 
yap r) ^ovXr) hiayivcxiGKet Ta il}r](j)ioS evTa vtto tov 
h-qfjiov, Tojv 8* VTTO TTJ? ^ovXrjs yvciXjdevTOjv 6 hrjiJLOS 
eoTi KvpLog • TTOTepov he tcov edcov KpelTTOv, iv 

4 Koivio tlOtjixl Tolg ^oyXofievoL? OKorrelv. eV he Trjg 
hiaipeueu)£ TavTTj? ov pLOvov Ta TToXiTiKa TrpdyfiaTa 
oaxf^povag eXdpL^ave Kal reray/xeVa? tols hiOLKijcreL?, 
dXXd Kal ra TToXepLiKa Ta;^eia? Kal evrreidelg. onoTe 
yap avTcp (jyaveur] GTpaTidv i^dyeiv, ovTe ;^tAtap;^OL>? 
TOTe ehei aTToheiKwaQai /caret (f)vXd? ovTe e/carov- 
Tap;\;ou? ^ KaTa Xoxovs ovTe linTeojv rjyepLovas ovt€ 
e^apidjxeladai re Kal Ao;^t^eCT^at Kal Td^iv eKdaTovg 
TTjv TTpoo-TjKovGav Xapi^dveLv ' dXXd ^aortAeu? p^ev tols 
^LXidpxoL? TTapijyyeXXev , eKelvoL he tols Xoxo^yols' 
TTapd he tovtojv ol heKdhap^OL ^ puadovTes e^rjyov 
Tovs VTTOTeTaypievovs eavTols eKaaTOL, a^' evos re 
KeXevGpLaTOS eLTe Trdaa tj hvvapLLs €LTe pLolpd tls e^ 

^ iKarovTapxovs B : ^Karov-apxcLS R. 
* Sylburg : BeKapxan, A, BeKaBdpxou B. 

352 



BOOK II. 14, 2-4 

arbitrary power to do everything they wished, but 
the gerousia exercised complete control of public 
allairs. To the populace he granted these three 
privileges : to choose magistrates, to ratify laws, 
and to decide concerning war whenever the king 
left the decision to them ; yet even in these matters 
their authority was not unrestricted, since the con- 
currence of the senate was necessary to give effect 
to their decisions. The people did not give their 
votes all at the same time, but were summoned to 
meet by curiae, and whatever was resolved upon by 
the majority of the curiae was reported to the senate. 
But in our day this practice is reversed, since the 
senate does not deliberate upon the resolutions 
passed by the people, but the people have full power 
over the decrees of the senate ; and which of the 
two customs is the better I leave it open to others 
to determine. By this division of authority not 
only were the ci\'il affairs administered in a prudent 
and orderly manner, but the business of war also 
was carried on with dispatch and strict obedience. 
For whenever the king thought proper to lead out 
his army there was then no necessity for tribunes to 
be chosen by tribes, or centurions by centuries, or 
commanders of the horse appointed, nor was it 
necessary for the army to be numbered or to be 
divided into centuries or for every man to be assigned 
to his appropriate post. But the king gave his orders 
to the tribunes and these to the centurions and they 
in turn to the decurions, each of whom led out those 
who were under his command ; and whether the 
whole army or part of it was called, at a single 

353 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avTTjS KXrjdeiy] to. orrXa e)(ov(ja Traprjv etV rov 
OLTToSeLxdevra tottov cvrpeTnjs. 

XV. Terayfjidv'rjv fjLev ovv koL K€KO(Jiirji.L€VT]v Trpog 
elpTJvrjv re dnoxpcovTOj? /cat npos rd TToXefJua eTTLrrj- 
SeLCo? eK rovTcov rcov TToXirev^drajv ttjv ttoXlv 6 
'PojfxvXog dTTeLpydoaro , fieydXrjv Se /cat TToXvdvdpoj- 

2 7TOV e'/c Tcovhe • Trpajrov fiev els dvdyKTjv KareaT-qae 
rovs OLKTjTopas avrris ajTaaav dppeva yevedv eKrpe- 
(j)eLv /cat Ovyarepcov Tas Trpojroyovovg, dTTOKTuvvvai 
he fJLTjSev rdjv yevvajfiercov vecxjrepov rpierov?, ttXt^v 
el TL yevoLTO rraihiov dvdTTTjpov tj repag evOvg dTro 
yovrjs. ravra S' ovk eKcoXvaev eKTidevai rovs yeiva- 
fievovg eVtSet^ayra? vporepoi' Trevre dvhpdcri rots' 
eyyiara olkovglv, edv KdKeivois ovvSoKfj. Kara Se 
rajv puTj TTeiOofievojv rep vofxcp tpqpiias ajpicrev aAAa? 
re /cat rrjs ovalas avrcov rr]v rjpLLGeLav etvat Sr}- 

3 pLoalau. erreira KarajjLaOojv TroAAd? tci)v Kara rrjv 
^ Ir aXiav iroXeuw TTOvrjpoJs eTTirpoTrevofxevas vtto 
rvpavvihojv re /cat dAtyap;^ta)y, rovs e/c rovrojv 
eKTTLTTrovras rd)v TToXeojv GV)(yovs ovras, el p.6vov 
elev eXevdepoL, hiaKpivcov ovre (Tvpi<j)opds ovre rv)(as 
avrcov v7ToSe)(eaOaL /cat fierdyeiv ws eavrov erre- 
X^ipeLy njv re 'Pa»/xatcov hijvapLLV av^ijaac ^ovXrjOels 
/cat Tcts" rcjv rrepLOLKCjjv eXarrcooai ' eVotet Se ravra 
7Tp6(f>aGiv e^evpcjv evTrperrrj /cat et? deov rL/jLrjv ro 

4 epyov dva(f)epojv. ro yap fxera^v ;^a>ptov rod re 
KamrajXlov /cat rrj? a/cpa?, o /caAetrat vvv Kara 
rr]v ' PajpLaccov SidXeKrov fxeOopiov hvelv Spvfjioju 
/cat rjv rore rov a-vix^ef^TjKoros errojwpLOv , uAai? 
d/i(f)LXa(f)ecn /car' djj.(f)orepas rds crvvaTrrovoas rols 

351 



BOOK II. 14, 4-15, 4 

summons they presented themselves ready with arms 
in hand at the designated post. 

XV. By these institutions Romulus sufficiently 
regulated and suitably disposed the city both for 
peace and for war ; and he made it large and populous 
by the following means. In the first place, he obliged 
the inhabitants to bring up all their male children 
and the first-born of the females, and forbade them 
to destroy any children under three years of age 
unless they were maimed or monstrous from their 
very birth. These he did not forbid their parents 
to expose, provided they first showed them to their 
five nearest neighbours and these also approved. 
Against those who disobeyed this law he fixed various 
penalties, including the confiscation of half their 
property. Secondly, finding that many of the cities 
in Italy were very badly governed, both by tyrannies 
and by oligarchies, he undertook to welcome and 
attract to himself the fugitives from these cities, who 
were very numerous, paying no regard either to 
their calamities or to their fortunes, provided only 
they were free men. His purpose was to increase 
the power of the Romans and to lessen that of their 
neighbours ; but he invented a specious pretext for 
his course, making it appear that he was showing 
honour to a god. For he consecrated the place be- 
tween the Capitol and the citadel which is now 
called in the language of the Romans "" the space 
between the two groves," ^ — a term that was realjy 
descriptive at that time of the actual conditions, as 
the place was shaded by thick woods on both sides 

^ ttUer duoa lucoa ; cj. Livy i. 8, 5-6. 

355 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Ao(/>ois' Xayovag eTTLGKiov, Upov dveU davXov LKerai? 
Koi vaov €771 TOVTCp KaraaKevaodix€vos {orcp Se dpa 
decov 7] haifxovujv ovk e;^aj to craves" elTTelv) rols 
Karacj^eijyovGLv els tovto to Upov iKeraLg rod tc 
/jLTjSev KaKov vtt" ixOpcov rraOetv iyyvrjrrj? iyivero 
rrj? et? to delov evae^elag Trpocfydoei kol el ^ovXoivro 
Trap avTO) [xeveiv TToAtTeta? ixereSlSov kol yrjg 
fjLoZpav,^ Tjv KTTjGaiTO TToXe/JiLovs d(f)€X6iJLevo9. ol he 
cruveppeov e/c Travrds rorrov rd olKela (jievyovres 
KaKd Koi ovKeri erepcoae dTravlaravro Tat? KaO^ 
TjfjLepav oixiXiais kol y^dpiGiv vtt^ avrov KarexopLevot. 
XVI. Tpirov -qv en ' PcopLvXov TToXtrevpia, d Trdv- 
rojv pLaXiorra roug "EXX-qvas dorKetv eSet, KparcGTOv 
dTrdvrajv TToXirevpidrajv V7Tdp)(ov, cLg epLrj So^a 
(f)epeL, o Koi rrjg ^e^aiov 'PcopLatOLg eXevdepiag rjpx^ 
Kal Tcov errl rrjv rjyepLOVLav dyovrojv ovk eXa)(LaTr)v 
pLolpav irapioxe, to pi-qre KaracrcftdrreLv rj^rjdov rdg 
aAoi;aa? TToXepLcp TToXeug pii]re dvhpa7To8ii,€a9ai pL-qSe 
yrjv avTcbv dvievai pLrjXo^orov , dXXd KXripov)(OV£ elg 
avrdg aTTOGTeXXeiv eirl pLepeL nvl rrjg ■)^copag kol 
TTOielv dTTOLKLa? rrjg 'PcvpL-qs rd? Kpar-qOelcras, eviais 
2 8e /cat TToXireiag pLeradiddvai. ravrd re Sr] Kal 
rdXXa rovTotg opLoia KaracrTrjadpievos TToXiTevpLara 
pLeydXrjv eV puKpds eTTOtrjae t7]v dTTOLKiav, a>? auTo, 
TO, epya eS-qXajoev. ol pLev ydp cruvoiKLaavTes puer* 
avTov rr^v 'PcopLTjv ov TT-Aetou? rjoav dvSpdjv rpca- 
■)(iXi(jjv 7Tet,OL Kal rpLaKOolcov eXdrrous iTTTTelg]' ol 
Be KaTaXeL(j>9evres vn eKeivov, or cf dv9 pcoTTOjv 
ri^aviodr], iret^ol puev e^aKLaxlXioL irpos rerrapcn 
^ fjLoipav Kiessling: fwipas 0(?); om. Reudler. 

356 



BOOK II. 15, 4-16, 2 

where it joined the hills, — and made it an asylum 
for suppliants. And building a temple there, — 
but to what god or divinity he dedicated it I cannot 
say for certain, — he engaged, under the colour of 
religion, to protect those who fled to it from suflfer- 
ing any harm at the hands of their enemies ; and 
if they chose to remain with him, he promised them 
citizenship and a share of the land he should take 
from the enemy. And people came flocking thither 
from all parts, fleeing from their calamities at home ; 
nor had they afterwards any thought of removing 
to any other place, but were held there by daily 
instances of his sociability and kindness. 

XVI. There was yet a third policy of Romulus, 
which the Greeks ought to have practised above all 
others, it being, in my opinion, the best of all 
political measures, as it laid the most solid foundation 
for the liberty of the Romans and was no slight 
factor in raising them to their position of supremacy. 
It was this : not to slay all the men of military age or 
to enslave the rest of the population of the cities 
captured in war or to allow their land to go back 
to pasturage for sheep, but rather to send settlers 
thither to possess some part of the country by lot 
and to make the conquered cities Roman colonies, 
and even to grant citizenship to some of them. By 
these and other like measures he made the colony 
great from a small beginning, as the actual results 
showed ; for the number of those who joined with 
him in founding Rome did not amount to more 
than three thousand foot nor quite to three hundred 
horse, whereas he left behind him when he disappeared 
from among men forty -six thousand foot and about 

357 



DIO?riSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

fxvpidoiv, LTTTTels S' ov TToXv d7T€)(ovTeg ■x^lXlwv. 
3 €KeLvov 8e dp^avro? tcov TToXtrevfjidTajv tovtcjov ol 
re ^ao-tAet? ol fier^ avrov rjyrjcrdfJLevoi rrjg TToXeoj? 
TTjv avrrjv i(f)vXa^av Trpoalpecnv /cat ol pi€T 
€K€Lvovs rd? ivLavGiovg Xafi^dvovre? dp^d?, eorrtv 
d Kal TrpoGTiQevres, ovt(jj<; coG-re /x^^Sero? cQvovs rod 
SoKovvro? elvai TToXvavOpto-nordTOV tgv 'PojfiaLcxju 
yeveoOai Srjfiov iXdrrova. 

XVII. Td Se ^EXX-qvijuv eO'q rrapd ravTa i^erdt^cjv 
OVK e)(a> TTOjg €7Taiveoa> rd re AaKehaLfioviiov /cat 
rd Tcbv Gr)^aL<jjv /cat rtDi-' jjLeyLOTOv €7ti Gocjyia 
(f)povovvTCxjv lAOrjvacwv, ot ^uAarrovTe? to eyyeve? 
/cat fiTjSevl fieraSiSovre? ei /jltj GTraviois rfjs Trap* 
iavroZs ttoXltc tag {idj ydp Xeyeiv on /cat ^ev7]Xa- 
Tovvreg evioi) npos rco firjSev dnoXavGaL ravTrjg 
rrjs {JLeyaXrjyoplag dyadov /cat rd ixiytGra St' avrrjv 

2 i^Xd^TjGav. ETTapTLarai fxev ye TrraLGavres p-dxj} 
Tjj nepl AevKTpa, iv fj ■)(^lXlov<^ /cat eTrraKOGLOVs 
dvhpas aTTe^aXov, ovKeri ttjv ttoXlv rjSvvrjdr]Gav e/c 
rrj? GVfK^opdg ravrr]? dvaXa^elv, oAA' aTreGTTjGav 
rrjs rjye/xovLas gvv aLG)(vv7]. Orj^aiot Se /cat 
'Ad7]vaLOi e( ivos rod nepl Xaipcoveiav drvx^jpLCiros 
dfxa ir(v re TTpoGraGiav rrjg 'EXXdSog /cat rrjv 
eXevOeplav rrjv rrdrpiov vtto MaKehoucov d(f)r)pe- 

3 Orjoav. rj 8e 'Pojfiaiojv ttoXls iv ^I^rjpla re /cat 
VraAta TToXe/xov? e^ovGa fxeyaXovs EiKeXiai re 
d(f)eGrd)Gav dpaKTCopLevrj /cat Eaphova /cat rcjv iv 
MaKehovia /cat Kara rrjv 'EXXdSa Trpaypbdrcoi iK- 
TTeTToXepLCxipLevcov TTpos avrrjv Kal Kapxq^dvo<; inl 
rrjv rjyefjLOvlav ttoXlv dvLGrafjLein^s Kal rrj? ^IraXias 
ov fjLovov d(f>eGrcoG7]s oXlyov Selu ttclctt^?, oAAd /cat 
358 



BOOK TI. 16. 3-17, 3 

a thousand horse. Romulus having instituted these 
measures, not alone the kings who ruled the eity 
after him but also the annual magistrates after them 
pursued the same policy, with occasional additions, 
so successfully that the Roman people became 
inferior in numbers to none of the nations that were 
accounted the most populous. 

XVII. When I compare the customs of the Greeks 
with these, I can find no reason to extol either those 
of the Lacedaemonians or of the Thebans or of the 
Athenians, who pride themselves most on their 
visdom ; all of whom, jealous of their noble birth 
and granting citizenship to none or to verv few (I 
say nothing of the fact that some even expelled 
foreigners), not only received no advantage from 
this haughty attitude, but actually suffered the 
greatest harm because of it. Thus, the Spartans 
after their defeat at Leuctra,^ where they lost seven- 
teen hundred men, were no longer able to restore 
their city to its former position after that calamity, 
but shamefully abandoned their supremacy. And 
the Thebans and Athenians through the single 
disaster at Chaeronea ^ were deprived by the Mace- 
donians not only of the leadership of Greece but 
at the same time of the liberty they had inherited 
from their ancestors. But Rome, while engaged 
in great wars both in Spain and Italy and employed 
in recovering Sicily and Sardinia, w hich had revolted, 
at a time when the situation in Macedonia and Greece 
had become hostile to her and Carthage was again 
contending for the supremacy, and when all but 
a small portion of Italy was not only in open 

^371 B.C. ^dSS B.C. 

359 



DIOXYSTUS OF HALIC.ARNASSUS 

(jvve7Tayovarj<; tov 'AvvL^iaKov KXTjOevra TToXefiov, 
TOGuvTOi^ TTepLTTeTTj'i yevofjievrj Ku^vvoti Kara tov 
avrop )^p6vov ou;^ otthj^ eKaKOjdiq olol ra? rore 
Ti^;\;a?, clXXo. Kal rrpoaeXa^ev lo-)(yv i^ avrcov ert 
aeiCoua ttJ? irporepaq , ro) TrXrjdei rod crrpaTLwrLKOV 
7rp6? aTraj-'Ta BtapK-q^ y€iop.ev7] rd Setm, dXX ovx 
(jL)G7Tep VTToXapiQavovoL TiV€S evvoia rv)(rj^ )(^p-qaa- 
4 ix€vri eVet ravrrjg ye ;)(dptv w^^'''' ^^ V7TO^pvx(-o? i$ 
iuo? TOV TTepl Kdi'iag Trrcu/xaro?, 6t€ avrfj airo fiev 
i^aKLO\tXiojv LTTTreojv e^SojjiiJKOVTa Kal rpta/cocrtot 
7TepLeXeL(f)9riGav , oltto Se pLvpidhajv oktoj tcov el? to 
KOLuop GTpoLTev/jia KaTaypa<f)eLGa)u oXlyo) rrXelovs 
TpiGXiXiCJi' doojurjGai'. 

XVIII. TavTOL re brj tov dvSpog ctya/xat /cat €TL 
TTpos TOUTOtS" a fJLe^yXoj Xeyeiv, otl tov KaXws olk€L' 
adat TCL? TToXeis aiVta? vnoXa^wv, a? OpvXovat /jl€V 
airavTe'S ol ttoXltikoL, KaTaGKevdl,ovGi 8' oAtyot, 
TTpcjTOv fxev TTju TTapoL T(x)v dewv evvoLav, Tjs TTapovorjs 
drravTa tol? dvdpojTTOts eVt Ta KpeLTTOj orvficjiepeTaL, 
erreLTa Trjv ^ Gaj(f)poGvvr)u re Kal hiKaiOGVPiqv , St' as 

TjTTOV d?^T]XoVS ^XaVTOVTeg pioXXoV OpLOVOOVGl Kal 

TTjU evhaipboviav ov rat? atcr;)(tcrTat? jJieTpovGLV rjSouals 
oAAct TO) KaXo), TeXevTaiau he ttjv €v rot? iroXepLOLs 
yewaLOTTjTa rrjv irapaoKevdl^ovGav elvai Kal rd? 
dXXas dperas rot? e^ovGLv d)(f)eXLfxovs , ovk diro 
ravTOfidTOV TTapayiveGdat tovtojv eKaoTov tojv 
2 dyaOcjv evofxtGeu, dAA' eyvco Stdrt ~ vopLOi GTrovbaloi. 
Kal KaXoJv C,i]Xos eTnTrjhevpidTajv evGe^rj Kal gco- 
<j)pova Kal TOL dcKata doKovGai' Kal rd noXefxta 
360 



BOOK II. 17, 3-18, 2 

rebellion but was also drawing upon her theHannibalic 
war, as it was cailiMl, — though surrounded, I sav, by 
so many dangers at one and the same time, Rome was 
so far from being overcome by these misfortunes that 
she derived from them a strength even greater than 
she had had before, being enabled to meet every 
danger, thanks to the number of her soldiers, and 
not, as some imagine, to the favour of Fortune ; since 
for all of Fortune's assistance the city might have 
been utterly submerged by the single disaster at 
Cannae, where of six thousand horse only three 
hundred and seventy survived, and of eighty thousand 
foot enrolled in the army of the commonwealth 
little more than three thousand escaped. 

XVIII. It is not only these institutions of Romulus 
that I admire, but also those which I am going to 
relate. He understood that the good government of 
cities was due to certain causes which all statesmen 
prate of but fevv succeed in making effective : first, 
the favour of the gods, the enjoyment of which 
gives success to men's every enterprise ; next, 
moderation and justice, as a result of which the 
citizens, being less disposed to injure one another, are 
more harmonious, and make honour, rather than the 
most shameful pleasures, the measure of their happi- 
ness ; and, lastly, bravery in war, which renders the 
other virtues also useful to their possessors. And 
he thought that none of these advantages is the 
effect of chance, but recognized that good laws and 
the emulation of worthy pursuits render a State 
pious, temperate, devoted to justice, and brave 

^TTjv Naber : cm. O, Jacoby. '•' Blotl B : otl R. 

361 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

dyadrjv c^epya^ovrat ttoXlv • <J)v 770AA17V ecr;(6 npo- 
voiav TTjv apxrjv TTOLrjcrdfxevos dno t6jv nepl rd 
dela Koi SaifjLovLa ae^aafiaJv. lepd fxev ovv /cat 
re/JLevrj Kal jSco/xou? /cat ^odvcov tSpucrct? fJLop(f)dg re 
avTcbv Kal crufjiBoXa /cat Swdfiec? /cat Sojpeas", af? to 
yevos TjfjLOJV evTjpyerrjcTav, ioprds re oTTolag nvd? 
€Kdcrra) dewv 7) SaLfjLOVojv dyeadat Trpoa-qKei /cat 
dvGLas, at? ;^atpoucrt yepatpopievoL irpos dvO pioircjv , 
e/ce;^etpias' re au /cat Trav-qyvpeis /cat ttovcov dva- 
TrawAa? /cat Trdvra rd roiavra opLoiojs Kareariqcraro 

3 rots' KpariaroLs rcov nap^ "EXXrjcn vofjLLpLOjv rovs 
Se TrapaSeSo/xeVou? rrepl avrwv pLvOov?, ev ol? 
^Xao^-qp.iai rives eveicri /car' avrchv 7) KaK-qyopiat,^ 
TTOVTjpovs /cat dvaj<f)eXeZs /cat dor)(7]piovas VTToXa^ojv 
etvai Kal ovx on deojv aAA' ovS' dvOpcoTTOjv dy adcov 
d^LOVs, diravras i^e^aXe Kal Trapeo/ceuaoe rov? 
dvdpcoTTOVs rd ^ Kpdriara nepl Oecov Xeyeiv re Kal 
(f)povelv pLTjSev avroi? TTpoadrrrovras dvd^tov eVtri^- 
Seu/xa rrjs pLaKaplag cjiVGew?. 

XIX. Ovre ydp Ovpavog eKrepivopLevos vtto rcov 
iavrov Tralbojv Trapd 'Pcu/xatot? Xeyerai ovre Kpovos 
d<f)aviiC,Ci)v rds iavrov yovdg <f)6Pa) ri]g i^ avrcov cVt- 
Oeaecos ovre Zev? KaraXvojv rrjv Kpovov Swacrretav 
Kal /cara/cActcov ev rtp SeapLajr-qpLOJ rov Taprdpov 
rov iavrov rrarepa ovSe ye -noXepiOL Kal rpavpLara 

2 /cat SeapLol Kal d-qrelai deojv Trap' dvdpojTTOL? ' iopriq 
re ovhepLia Trap' aurots" pLeXavecpLcov t) TrevOipios 
dyerai rvirerovs e^ovGa Kal dp-qvovs yvvaiKcov eirl 
Oeols d(f)aPL<^opLevoL£y a>? Trap' "EXXiqdiv eTrireXelrai 
TTepl re ^epaecjiovrjs dprrayrjv Kal rd Atovvaov Trddrj 
iMeineke : Kar-qyopicu O. ^ to. added by Kiessling. 

362 



BOOK II. 18, 2-19, 2 

in war. He took great eare, therefore, to encourage 
these, beginning with the worship of the gods and 
genii. He estabHshed temples, sacred precincts and 
altars, arranged for the setting up of statues, de- 
termined the representations and symbols of the 
gods, and declared their powers, the beneficent 
gifts which they have made to mankind, the par- 
ticular festivals that should be celebrated in honour 
of each god or genius, the sacrifices with which they 
delight to be honoured by men, as well as the holi- 
days, festal assemblies, days of rest, and everything 
ahke of that nature, in all of which he followed the 
best customs in use among the Greeks. But he re- 
jected all the traditional myths concerning the gods 
that contain blasphemies or calumnies against them, 
looking upon these as wicked, useless and indecent, 
and unworthy, not only of the gods, but even of 
good men ; and he accustomed people both to think 
and to speak the best of the gods and to attribute 
to them no conduct unworthy of their blessed nature. 
XIX. Indeed, there is no tradition among the 
Romans either of Caelus being castrated by his 
own sons or of Saturn destroying his own offspring 
to secure himself from their attempts or of Jupiter 
dethroning Saturn and confining his own father in 
the dungeon of Tartarus, or, indeed, of wars, wounds, 
or bonds of the gods, or of their servitude among 
men. And no festival is observed among them as 
a day of mourning or by the wearing of black gar- 
ments and the beating of breasts and the lamenta- 
tions of women because of the disappearance of 
deities, such as the Greeks perform in commemorat- 
ing the rape of Persephone and the adventures of 

363 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

/cat ocra aAAa roiavra ' ouS' av tSot rt? Trap' aurots", 
KaiTOL SL€(f)dapiJLei'cov 7]Sr) tojv idojv, ov deocjiop-queLS, 
ov Kopv^avriaGixovs , ovk dyvp/Jiovs, ov ^aKx^las /cat 
reXeras aTTopprjrov? , ov hLa7Tawv)(^LGjJiOVS €v Upols 
dvSpojv ovv yvvai^iv, ovk d'AAo rcov TTapaTrXrjGLOJv 
rovTois repaTevfjidTcou ovhev, dAA' evXa^u)? dnavTa 
TTparropLevd re /cat Aeyd/xeva rd Trepl rovg deov?, cog 

3 ovre nap'' "EXX-qcrcv ovre napd ^ap^dpois' /cat o 
TrdvTOJv /xdAto-ra eycvye reOavfiaKa, /catVep pLvpiojv 
ocrojv et? t-j^v TrdAtv iXiqXvdoTOjv idvojv, ot? ttoXXt) 
dvdyKT) oi^cLv rovs Trarpiov? Oeovs rot? OLKoOev 
vofxlfjLOtg, ovSevog els ^rjAoy iXijXvOe rcov ^eviKwv 
eTTiTTjheviJidTOjv Tj ttoXls brjfjLoala, o ttoXXol? tJSt] 
avve^T] Tradelv, dXXd /cat et rtva /card xPV^f^^^^ 
i7T€Lcrr]ydy€TO lepd, rot? iavrrjg avrd rt/xa vojjLLfxoig 
drraaav ixpaXovGa repOpetav pLvdiK-qv, toairep rd 

4 rrj? 'Ihatas deds lepd. dvaias fxev ydp avrfj /cat 
dycjvas dyovuiv dvd irdv erog ol orpanqyoL Kara 
Tovs 'PojfJLaLOjv vopLovs, UpdraL 8e avrrjs dvrjp 0pv^ 
/cat yvvT] 0pvyLa /cat TrepidyovGiv dvd rrfv ttoXlv 



1 The Bacchic rites, introduced into Rome shortly after 
the close of the Second Punic War, were soon being cele- 
brated with such licentious excesses and were accom- 
panied by the plotting of so many crimes that the most 
drastic action was taken by the senate and consuls in 186 
to punish the guilty and prevent all further celebration of 
the rites. An abstract of the decree passed by the senate 
(the Senatvs Coivsulhim de Bacchanalihus), contained in an 
ofificial letter of the consuls to some local magistrates in 
BoiUhern Italy, is still preserved on a bronze tablet and is 
one of our earliest Latin docum-ents. It appears in the 

364 



BOOK II. 19, 2-4 

Dionysus and all the other things of like nature. 
And one will see among them, even though their 
manners are now corrupted, no ecstatic transports, 
no Corybantic frenzies, no begging under the colour 
of religion, no bacchanals ^ or secret mysteries, no 
all-night vigils of men and women together in the 
temples, nor any other mummery of this kind ; but 
alike in all their words and actions with respect to 
the gods a reverence is shown such as is seen among 
neither Greeks nor barbarians. And, — the thinof 
which I myself have marvelled at most, — notwith- 
standing the influx into Rome of innumerable 
nations which are under every necessity of worship- 
ping their ancestral gods according to the customs 
of their respective countries, yet the city has never 
officially adopted any of those foreign practices, as 
has been the experience of many cities in the past ; 
but, even though she has, in pursuance of oracles, 
introduced certain rites from abroad, she celebrates 
them in accordance with her own traditions, after 
banishing all fabulous clap-trap. The rites of the 
Idaean goddess - are a case in point ; for the praetors 
perform sacrifices and celebrate games in her honour 
every year according to the Roman customs, but the 
priest and priestess of the goddess are Phrygians, and 
it is they who carry her image in procession through 

Corpus Inscript. Lat. i. 196 and x. 104, also in F. D. 
Allen's Remnants of Early Latin, pp. 28-31. 

* The official title of Cybele in Rome was Mater Deum 
Magna Idaea, commonly shortened to Mater Magna or 
Mater Idaea. The sacred black stone, which was her 
sjTnbol, was brought from Pessinus in Asia Minor in 204 
B.C., in response to a Sibylline oracle which declared that 
only thus could Hannibal be driven out of Italy. The 
games established in her honour were the Megalesia. 

365 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ovroL fi7]rpayvpTovvr€s , (ZcrTrep avroZs edo?, tvttovs 
re TrepiKeL/jLevoL tol? GTT]9eGL /cat KaTavXav/xevoL 
Trpos Tiov iTTOfxevajv ra /xryrpoia fJLeXrj Kal rvpLTrava 
5 KpoTovvres' ^PwpLaiiov 8e tojv avOiyevajv ovt€ 
/JLT^rpayvprojv rt? ovre KaravXovpL€vos iropeverai 
8ia T7^? TToXecos TTOLKiXrjv evSeBvKOj? gtoXtjv ovre 
6pyLd^€L ^ rrjv Beov rolg 0puyLOLg 6pyiaojJioZ<; Kara 
vojxov Kal^ ijjTJi^Lorfza PovXrjs. ovrcos evXa^ojs r} 
ttoXls €X^l TTpos ra ovk e7TL)(a)pLa eO-q Trepl OecJov Kal 
Trdvra ott ever ai rv(f)OV, ch jjctj Trpooeori ro einrpeTre?. 
XX. Kal jLtTySets" VTToXd^rj jLte dyvoelv on rcov 

^EXXrjVLKOJV fJLvOojV €LGL TtVC? dvOpCOTTOLg -X^prjUipLOl, 

ol fxev eTTLSeLKVvfievoL ra rrjg (f)vo-ea>? epya St' dAXrj- 
yopiag, ol he Trapa/jLvd Lag eveKa avyKeifiei'OL rcjov 
dvOpcjTTeLcov (jVfJL(f)op6jVy ol Se rapaxds i^aipovfievoi 
ijjvxfis Kal Selfjiara Kal Solas' KaOaipovres ^ ou;)^ 
vyiels, ol 8' oXXt]? rivos eveKa crvfJiTrXaGOevreg 
2 (LcfyeXelag. dXXd KacTTep eTTLurdpLevos ravra ovSevog 
X^ipov opLcog evXa^cos hLdKetjiaL irpos avrovs Kal 
Tr]V 'PajfiaLa)v fidXXov a77oSe;\;o/xat deoXoyiav, ev- 
OvpLO-Ufievos on ra puev Ik rcjv * EXXtjvlkcov pLvdcov 
dyaOd puLKpd re eon Kal ov ttoXXovs Svvdfieva 
<Jj(^eXelv, dXXd fiovov? rovs e^iqraKoras cLv eveKa 
yiverai, Grrdvioi 8' elolv ol ixereiXr^^ores ravrrjs 
TTJs (f)LXo(jo(f)La<i. 6 8e TToXvg Kal d(j>iXocr6<f)r^ros 

^ Ambrosch : opym^eiv O. 

2 KoX Kiessling : ^ O. 

' KaOaipovT€s A : KaOaipovvres R, Jacoby. 

366 



BOOK II. 19, 4-20, 2 

the city, begging alms in her name according to their 
custom, and wearing figures upon their breasts ^ and 
striking their timbrels while their followers play 
tunes upon their flutes in honour of the Mother 
of the Gods. But by a law and decree of the senate 
no native Roman walks in procession through the 
city arrayed in a parti-coloured robe, begging alms 
or escorted by flute-players, or worships the goddess 
with the Phrygian ceremonies. So cautious are 
they about admitting any foreign religious customs 
and so great is their aversion to all pompous display 
that is wanting in decorum. 

XX Let no one imagine, however, that I am not 
sensible that some of the Greek myths are useful to 
mankind, part of them explaining, as they do, the 
w^orks of Nature by allegories, others being designed 
as a consolation for human misfortunes, some freeing 
the mind of its agitations and terrors and clearing 
away unsound opinions, and others invented for 
some other useful purpose. But, though I am 
as well acquainted as anyone with these matters, 
nevertheless my attitude toward the myths is one 
of caution, and I am more inclined to accept the 
theology of the Romans, when I consider that the 
advantages from the Greek myths are slight and 
cannot be of profit to many, but only to those who 
have examined the end for which they are designed ; 
and this philosophic attitude is shared by few. 
The great multitude, unacquainted with philosophy, 

1 Polybius twice (xxi. 6, 7 ; 37, 5) refers to the " figures 
and pectorals " of the GalJi, the priests of Cybele ; but 
we have no further information regarding them. 

367 



DIONYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

6)(Ao? eVt TO. x^'-P'^ Xajx^dveiv cfuXel rovs Trepl avTwv 
Xoyov? KOL hvelv Trdox^i- Odrepov, rj Kara^pova. tcov 
Oeojv CO? €v TToWfj KaKohaLjjLOvia KvXtvhoviJievoiv , t) 
TcDv alcrx^ityTcov re kol rrapavopLcurdrcjiiv ovhevos 
OLTTex^TaL Oeols aura TTpoGKeijxeva opaJu. 

XXI, MAA' VTTep jj-kv Tovrojv Tolg avro fioi'ov to 
Oecop'qTLKov Ti]g (^tXoaocjiias fiepog d7TOT€T[xrj[jL€VOLS 
d(f)€La9cu GKOTTelv, TTJs S' VTTo ' PojjjLvXov KaTacTTaOet- 
(rqs TToXiTeias kol raSe -qy-qodpL-qv LGTOplas d^ia. 
TTpcjTOv pL€u, OTL TToXXol? Giop^aGLv dirihcoKe depa- 
7T€V€LV TO SaipiOPLOv . iv yovv dXXr] rroXet veoKTiGTCp 
TOGOVTOvg lepels re kol OepaTrevrdg Oecov evdvs dno- 

2 heL-)(9evTa<£ ovhels av eiTrelv e)(0i. ;^ct)pt? ydp rojv 
i^ovrajv ras" GuyyevLKO'^ Upwovvag ol tol KOLvd irepl 
T-qs 77oAea)? lepd GVVTeXovvTes Kara (j)vXds re Kal 
^paTpas i^riKOVTa KaTeordO-qoav eVt ttjs eKelvov 
dpxrjs' Xeyoj he a TepivTios Ovdppojv iv dpxoLLoXo- 
yiaig yiypa^eVy dvqp tojv Kara ttjv avrrjv rjXLKiav 

3 aKpLaoavTOiv TToXvTTeiporaTOS . eireiTa, otl tcov 
dXXojv (f)avXoj'i 7760? Kal direpiGKeTTTaJS cu? eVt to ^ 

TToXv TTOLOVpidvCOU TO^ alp€G€Lg TOW iTTLGTTjGOpLeVOJV 
TOL? UpoZs Kal TO)V pL€V dpyVpLOV TO TLfJLLOV d^LOVV- 

Tojv d7TOKT]pvTreLv, TCOV Se kXt^po) Siaipovvrajv ,^ eK€L- 
vog ovT€ (I)vr)Td<; ;^/3r]/xaTCo^' irroiiqGe ra? UpojGvvas 
ovTe KXrjpcp pLepLGrdg, dXX* ef iKaGnqs ^parpa? 
ivopLodeT-qoev aTToheLKWodai hvo tovs vnep TrevTiq- 
Kovra err] yeyovoras yevei ^ re rrpouxovrag tcov 

^ TO added by Kiessling. 

2 BiaipovvTOJV B : 8iaipovvTU)v tovs lepels R. 

368 



BOOK II. 20, 2-21, 3 

are prone to take these stories about the gods in the 
worse sense and to fall into one of two errors : they 
either despise the gods as buffeted by many mis- 
fortunes, or else refrain from none of the most 
shameful and lawless deeds when they see them 
attributed to the gods. 

XXI. But let the consideration of these matters 
be left to those who have set aside the theoretical 
part of philosophy exclusively for their contempla- 
tion. To return to the government established by 
Romulus, I have thought the following things also 
worthy the notice of history. In the first place, he 
appointed a great number of persons to carry on the 
worship of the gods. At any rate, no one could 
name any other newly-founded city in which so 
many priests and ministers of the gods were 
appointed from the beginning. For, apart from 
those who held family priesthoods, sixty were 
appointed in his reign to perform by tribes and 
curiae the public sacrifices on behalf of the common- 
wealth ; I am merely repeating what Terentius 
Varro, the most learned man of his age, has written in 
his Antiquities. In the next place, whereas others 
generally choose in a careless and inconsiderate 
manner those who are to preside over religious 
matters, some thinking fit to make public sale of 
this honour and others disposing of it by lot, he 
would not allow the priesthoods to be either pur- 
chased for money or assigned by lot, but made a 
law that each curia should choose two men over 
fifty years of age, of distinguished birth and 

^ yeWt Kiessling : tovs ydvei O, Jacoby. 

369 

VOL. I. O 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

oAAojv /cat dperfj hiacj^opovs koI xp-qfidrajv Trepiovoiav 
exovras dpKovaav kol pnqhkv rjAarrojixevovg tojv irepl 
TO (Tcofxa * TOVTovg Se ovk elg (hpLGp.evov tlvcl xpovov 
rag np^ds era^ev ^xetv, dXXd Std Travrog rod ^lov, 
Grpareccov pLev aTToX^Xvpiivovs hid rr]v rjXLKLav, rcov 
8e /card rrjv ttoXlv oxXrjpdjv Sid rov vopLOV. 

XXII. ^Eirel he kol hid yvvaiKojv eSet rivd lepd 
(rvvTeXetadaL /cat Std TralSajv dpL(j>i9aXa)v erepa, Iva 
/cat ravra yev-qrai /card to KparLcrrov, rds re 
ywat/ca? era^e rcov Upecov tols iavTcov avSpdac 
ovvLepdoOaL, /cat et rt pur] Oepa? rjv vtt* di'Spwv 
opyid^ecrdaL /card vopLov rov i7TLxci)pLOV , ravra? im- 
reXetv /cat TratSa? avrcov rd KaOi^Kovra Xeirovpyelv 
roZs he aTTaiGLV e/c rojv dXXajv o'Ikojv rovg xapieard- 
Tovs KaraXeyevra? e^ eKaurrjs cf)pdrpa?, Kopov /cat 
KoprjVy rov p.ev ecus '^^rjS vir-qperelv eTrl ^ rot? lepols, 
rrjv he Kopiqv oaov dv fj xpovov dyvr] ydpLcav • e/c 
rayv 'EXXtjvlkojv vopLOJv /cat ravra pLereveyKapLevos, 
(Ls eyd) TteidopLai. daa p.ev ydp at Kai"r](f)6poc 
/cat dpprji^opoL ^ Xeyopbevai XeirovpyovGLV eirl rcov 
'EXXrjVLKOJV lepojv, ravra Trapd 'PojpacoL? at rrpocr- 
ayopevopievai rovroXdrai ^ crvvreXovaL Gre^dvais 

^ enl A : om. B. ^ appT](f>6poL ABa : dppr]TO(f)6poi Ba. 

^ ToirroXdraL Kiessling, rovroXai Kostlin : tovto Se . . . A, 
rovTo 8e B. 



^ Pafrimi matrimique. This requirement, very familiar 
in Roman ritual, would not appear to have been so common 
among the Greeks. Allusions to such a ttoIs 6.p.<j>ida\ris are 
extremely rare, and then only in connexion witli festivals 
or, in one instance, a wedding. 

370 



BOOK II. 21, 3-22, 2 

exceptional merit, of competent fortune, and with- 
out any bodily defects ; and he ordered that these 
should enjoy their honours, not for any fixed period, 
but for life, freed from military service by their age 
and from civil burdens by the law. 

XXII. And because some rites were to be per- 
formed by women, others by children whose fathers 
and mothers were living,^ to the end that these also 
might be administered in the best manner, he ordered 
that the wives of the priests should be associated with 
their husbands in the priesthood ; and that in the 
case of any rites which men were forbidden by the 
law of the country to celebrate, their wives should 
perform them and their children should assist as 
their duties required ; and that the priests who had 
no children should choose out of the other families 
of each curia the most beautiful boy and girl, the 
boy to assist in the rites till the age of manhood, 
and the girl so long as she remained unmarried. 
These arrangements also he borrowed, in my opinion, 
from the practices of the Greeks. For all the duties 
that are performed in the Greek ceremonies bv the 
maidens whom they call kanephoroi and arrhephoroi ^ 
are performed by those whom the Romans call 
tutulatae,^ who wear on their heads the same kind of 

2 The "basket-bearers" and the "bearers of the 
symbols ( ? ) " of Athena Polias. But there is great dispute as 
regards both the spelling and the meaningof thesecondword. 

3 Tiitulatae is due to Kiessling's conjecture. The 
feminine form does not occur elsewhere, but the masculine 
tutulati is attested by a gloss in Festus (pp. 354 f.). The 
word was descriptive of those who wore their hair plaited 
up in the shape of a cone (tutulus). This was an ancient 
style of arranging the hair, and was prescribed in the case 
of the flaminica Dialis. 

371 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

KoafJLOViJLevai rag Ke(f)aXdg, otat? KOG/jLelrai ra 
TTJs *E(f)6GLa9 ^AprcfXiSog dcfiLSpvfiara Trap* "EXXrjaLV. 
6<ja Se TTapd Tvpprjvolg Kal ert rrporepov rrapd 
IleXacryols ireXovv eiTi re Kovp-qrajv /cat fieydXajv 
dewv opyiacrpiols ol KaXovfjievot Trpog avrcjv kol- 
hpLiXoi} ravra Kara rov avrov rpoiTOv vnrjperovv^ 
TOts" UpevoTLv ol XeyofievoL vvv vtto 'Poj/jLalajv /ca- 

3 /jLlXol. €tl TTpog rovTOLS era^e pidvriv ef eKdarr]? 
(j)vXrJ5 €va TrapeZvai rol? Upol?, ov r)/ji€LS fiev 
lepoGKOTTOv KoXovpLev, ^Pajjialoi 8e oXiyov tl rrjs 
dpxaias (f)vXdrTovreg ovopLaaias dpovainKa^ npocr- 
ayopevovGLv . aTravrag Be rovg Upelg re /cat 
Xeirovpyovg rojv decov ivop^oderrjcrev drroheLKWuSaL 
pL€v VTTO row (I)parp6jv, eTTiKvpovoOai he vtto rcjv 
i^iqyovp.ivojv rd dela 8id pLavrLKrjg. 

XXIIT. Tavra rtepi rcov OprjGKevovrcov rovg 
deovs Karaarrjudpievos StTJpei ttoXlv, ojs ^<i>r]v, 
Kar eTTLr-qheionqra rals (f)pdrpaLs rd Upd, deovg 
OLTToSeiKvvg eKduroig /cat haipiovas, ovs epueXXov 
del Gefteiv, Kal ra? etV to, iepd Sarrdvag era^ev, dg 

2 exp'qv avrolg Ik rod hrjpLOOLOV StSoa^at. ovvedvov 
re roZs lepevuiv ol (^parpiels * ra? dTTopLepiadeioas 

^ G. Voss : KahoiXoL O. ^ vTTTjpeTovai, Reiske. 

" Lange emended to ava-mKa. 

* ol ^parpiei? Kiessling : ai cf>pa.TpaL els O. 



^ Cadmili is another form resting on conjecture. Else- 
where the word occurs only in the singular, as a proper 
name, Cadmilus (sometimes written Casmilus) was one 
of the Cabeiri worshipped in Samothrace and was identified 
with Hermes. The name was probably of Oriental origin. 

372 



BOOK TI. 22, 2-23, 2 

crowns with whicli the statues of the Ephesian 
Artemis are adorned among the Greeks. And all the 
functions which among the Tyrrhenians and still 
earlier among the Pelasgians were performed by 
those they called cadmili ^ in the rites of the Curetes 
and in those of the Great Gods, were performed in the 
same manner by those attendants of the priests who 
are now called by the Romans camilUr Further- 
more, Romulus ordered one soothsayer out of each 
tribe to be present at the sacrifices. This soothsayer 
we call hieroskopos or " inspector of the vitals," and 
the Romans, preserving something of the ancient 
name, aruspex.'^ He also made a law that all the 
priests and ministers of the gods should be chosen 
by the curiae and that their election should be con- 
firmed by those who interpret the will of the gods 
by the art of divination. 

XXIII. After he had made these regulations 
concerning the ministers of the gods, he again, as 
I have stated,^ assigned the sacrifices in an appro- 
priate manner to the various curiae^ appointing for 
each of them gods and genii whom they were always 
to worship, and determined the expenditures for the 
sacrifices, which were to be paid to them out of the 
public treasury. The members of each curia performed 
their appointed sacrifices together with their own 

2 Tho camilli were free-born youths who assisted in the 
sacrifices of the^^awen DinUs ; in time, however, the term 
came to be appUed to those assisting in otlier religious 
rites. The word was probably introduced from Etruria. 
Varro connected it with Casmilus (or Cadmilus), but most 
scholars to-day reject this derivation. 

3 Ariis-pex or, more properly, hartcspex, meant " inspector 
of the entrails"; but the element haru- is not, as 
Dionysius supposed, a corruption of hiero-, 

*Chap. 21, 2-3. 

373 



DTONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avTotg dvcrlag /cat ovveLcmcJovTO Kara ro.'? eopras 
inl TTJs (bparpiaKTis iorias' eoriaropiov yap rjv 
Kar€(JK€vaG[JL€i'ov CKao-rrj (fipdrpa kol ev avrco 
KaBcoGLOJTO ng, (Lcnrep iv rolg ' EXXrjVLKoXg irpv- 
raveloLSy ecrrta kolvt] tojv (j)parpi€Ojv} ovofia 8e 
/cat rot? eGTLaropLOLs rjv, onep rats ^paTpaig, 

3 KovpLai, /cat fJi^xpL? tJ/xcDv ovtoj KaXovvrai. tovto 
TO TToXiTevfxa So/cet /ulol Xa^elv e/c rrjs AaKeSat- 
jiovLOJv dycoyrjs rrjg Trepl rd (fyihlrLa - /car' €K€lvov 
Tov )(p6vov i7TL-)^cx)pial,ovcrqs , tjv AvKovpyog elcrq- 
yrjoaoBai 8o/cet Trapd KprjTOJV fiaOcov, /cat fieydXa 
rrjv noXiv d)(f)€XrJGaL iv elpijvrj fiev et? evreXeiav 
dyaycbv ^ tov? ^lovs kol GOj(f)pouvviqv ttjs /ca^* 
Tj/jiepav StatTT^S', cv iroXejicp S' els alho) /cat Trpovoiav 
KaTacTTijaas e/cacrrov tov [xtj /caroAtTretv tov rrapa- 
OTaTrjV, cS /cat (tvv€G7T€ig€ kol crvvedv(7€ /cat kolvojv 

4 lepcjv fjL&r€(TX€v. /cat ov [jlovov TTJg nepl raura 
uo(f)Lag X^P'-^ d^Log eVatveto-^at o dv-qp, dXXd /cat 
TTJg evTeXeiag tcov Ovcnojv, alg yepalpeaOai Tovg 
deovs €vofjLodeTr]G€v, Sv at TrAetcrrat hiepievov €ajg 
TTJg KaO^ Tj [xag T^At/cta?, el pLrj /cat Trdaai, /caret 

5 TOV dpxouov eVtreAou/xevat Tponov. eyoj yovv 
id^ao-dpLTjv iv Upalg ot/ctat? SeiTn'a TrpoKeifjieva 
Oeolg iirl TpaTrit^aig ^vXivaig dpxo.'CKaig iv Kdvrjcn 
/cat TTtva/ctcr/cots- /cepa/xeot?, dX(j)LTa)v fidt^ag /cat 
TTorrava kol t^iag /cat Kaprrcov tlvojv dnapxdg /cat 
oAAa TOLavTa Atra /cat evhd-nava /cat irdarjg drreLpo- 
KoXiag d7n]XXayiJi€va ' /cat CTTrovSd? etSoi^ iyKeKpa- 

' Grimni : ^paTpiwv O, Jacoby. 

2 Gelenius : (^tAtVta O. 

^ Biicheler : ayojv B, Jacoby, avdyojv R, 

374 



BOOK II. 23, 2-5 

priests, and on holy days they feasted together at 
their common table. For a banqneting-hal! had 
been built for each curia, and in it there was conse- 
crated, just as in the Greek prytanea, a common 
table for all the members of the curia. These 
banqueting-halls had the same name as the curiae 
themselves, and are called so to our day. This 
institution, it seems to me, Romulus took over from 
the practice of the Lacedaemonians in the case of 
their phiditia} which were then the vogue. It 
would seem that Lvcurgus, who had learned the 
institution from the Cretans, introduced it at Sparta 
to the great advantage of his country ; for he thereby 
in time of peace directed the citizens' lives toward 
frugality and temperance in their daily repasts, and in 
time of war inspired every man with a sense of shame 
and concern not to forsake his comrade with whom 
he had offered libations and sacrifices and shared 
in common rites. And not alone for his wisdom 
in these matters does Romulus deserve praise, but 
also for the frugality of the sacrifices that he 
appointed for the honouring of the gods, the greatest 
part of which, if not all, remained to my day, being 
still performed in the ancient manner. At any rate, 
I myself have seen in the sacred edifices repasts 
set before the gods upon ancient wooden tables, 
in baskets and small earthen plates, consisting of 
barley bread, cakes and spelt, with the first-offerings 
of some fruits, and other things of like nature, simple, 
cheap, and devoid of all vulgar display. I have 
seen also the libation wines that had been mixed, 

* The Spartan name for avaaiT(,a, the public messes. 

375 



DTONYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

fj.€vag ovK ev apyvpols kol xP^^olg ayyeaiv, aXX 
iv ocrrpaKLvaL'^ KvXlcrKaLg ^ /cat 7rp6xoi9, /cat 7rdw 
riydaOr^v TcJbv diSpojv on hiajjievovcnv ev rots' 
TrarploLS edeaiv ovSev i^aXXdrrovreg rcbv dpxci^cov 
6 lepojv els ttjv dAa^oi^a TroXureXeiav. €gtl pkv ovv 
d Koi Nojiag IIoplttlXios 6 fierd 'PojfjLvXov dp^as 
Trjs TToXeojs KarecxTijaaro fxvrjiirjs d^ta kol Aoyou, 
TTepcTTO? TTjv yvcojJLTjv dvTjp ACttt TQ Oela l^iqyrjGaoBaL 
ao<^6g ev oXiyoiSy vuep wv vurepov epw, /cat TvXXos 
'Oo-TtAto? o rpiros diro 'PojpivXov ^acrtXevoas /cat 
TrdvTeg ol pLeT eKtivov yevopevoi ^auLXeZs' aAA' o 
rd GTTeppiara /cat rag dpxdg avrol? Trapaax-JJi' /cat 
TO. KvpLcorara KaraarTrjadpievos rdjv Trepl rd dela 

I'OpLipLOJV 'PojpivXog YjV. 

XXIV. AoKel Se /cat rrjs dXXrjs evKoaplag, fj 
XpcopLevoL 'PcxjpLaloL hLe(f)vXa^av evBaipovovaav ttjv 
ttoXlv eVt TToAAa? yeveds, eKelvos dp^at vopuovs /ca- 
Aous" /cat (JVpL<f>epovTag , dypd(f)ovg piev rovg TrXeLGTOvg, 
ecTTL S' ovg /cat ev ypdppLaoL /cct/xeVous" KaraoTrjcrd- 
pevoSy OJV eyd) rovg piev aAAous" ovSev SeopuaL ypd- 
(f)eLv, ovs Se Trdvrojv /xaAtcrra redavpLaKa /cat e^ 
(Lv v7TeiXr]^a Karacfyavrj /cat Tr]v dXXrjv rov dvhpos 
yevqueadai vopLodecrtav, co? avarrjpd /cat pLLcroTTovqpos 
rjv /cat TToXXrjv e^ovaa rrpog rous rjpcoLKOvg ^lovs 
2 opLOLorrjra, St' oXiyiqs vTropLvijaecog (n]pLavd), togovto 
TrpoeiTTCov, otl pLOi SoKovoTLV aTTavres ol hiard^avTes 
rdg re ^ap^apiKds /cat to,? 'EXX-qviKd? TToXneias rd 
pLev KOLVov opdcjs ISelv, OTL ttoXlv dnaaav e/c TroXXojv 
* KvXlaKaLS B (but corrected to /cv'Ai^i) : KuAi/ctaKaty A, 

376 



BOOK II. 23. 5-24, 2 

not in silver and jiold vessels, but in little earthen 
cups and jugs, and I have greatly admired these men 
for adhering to the customs of their ancestors and 
not degenerating from their ancient rites into a 
boastful magnificence. There are, it is true, other 
institutions, worthy to be both remembered and 
related, which were established by Numa Pompilius, 
who ruled the city after Romulus, a man of con- 
summate wisdom and of rare sagacity in interpreting 
the will of the gods, and of them I shall speak later ; 
and yet others were added by Tullus Hostilius, the 
second ^ king after Romulus, and by all the kings 
who followed him. But the seeds of them were 
sown and the foundations laid by Romulus, who 
established the principal rites of their religion. 

XXIV. Romulus also seems to have been the 
author of that good discipline in other matters by 
the observance of which the Romans have kept their 
commonwealth flourishing for many generations ; 
for he established many good and useful laws, the 
greater part of them unw ritten, but some committed 
to writing. There is no need for me to mention most 
of them, but I will give a short account of those 
which I have admired most of all and which I have 
regarded as suitable to illustrate the character of 
the rest of this man's legislation, showing how aus- 
tere it was, how averse to vice, and how closely it 
resembled the life of the heroic age. However, 
I will first observe that all who have established 
constitutions, barbarian as well as Greek, seem to 
me to have recognized correctly the general prin- 
ciple that every State, since it consists of many 

1 Literally, the " third," counting inclusively. 

377 



DTONYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

oiKCDV ovvecrTOJcrav opd-qv re ^ TrXeiv €lk6? orav ot 
rcov lSlcotojv evaradcbcn ^lol, /cat ^(eLfjLOJva rroXvv 
dyeiv orav KaKujg eKdaroLS exV '^^ tSta, kol otl Set 
TOP vovv e^ovra ttoXltlkov, lav re vofjLoderr]? edv re 
^acrtAeu? fj, ravra voyLoOerelv, a TTOLiqaeL StKaiovs 

3 Kal G(x)cf)pova? rovs rcov lSlojtojv ^lovs. i^ cLv 8' 
av eTTLTrjSev/JLOLTajv Kal St* olcjjv yevoLvro tolovtol 
vojJLCiw, ovKed^ ofjLOLcog aTTavres Sokovgl fxoL cruyiSetv, 
oAA* eviot ye ttoXXov Kal rod iravros, co? etVetv, 
ev rols KvpLcordroLS Kal npcoroLs p^epeuL rrjg vo- 

4 pLoOeuias dpapreZv. avrtKa rrepl ydpiojv Kal rrjg 
TTpos yvvalKas opuXias, a</>' fjs dp)(€GOaL Set rov 
vofjLoderrjv, ojorrep Kal 7] (f)VGL9 dpjxorreiv rovs ^iovs 
rifjiayv rjp^aro, ot {lev dno rcov Oiqpiojv ro TraoaSety/xa 
Xapovres d(f)erovs Kal kolvols rds fiL^eis eTToiiqGav ^ 
ro) dppevL Ttpos ro OrjXv, cos ipajriKcov re olurpcjv 
eXevOepcoaovres rovs ^iovs Kal IpfjXojv dXX-qXoKrovojv 
e^eXovfjievoi Kal ttoXXojv dXXojv aTraXXd^ovres KaKcoVy 
a KaraXafJL^dveL rovs re lSlovs olkovs Kal rds TToXeig 

5 oXas Std yvvalKas ' ol Se ravras fiev e^-qXaGav e/c 
rcjjv TToXeajv"^ rds dyepoj^ovs Kal Q-qpiajheis ovvovaias 
dvhpa ^ cruvapjjLocjavres els ^ yvvaiKa fjLiav, irepl Se 
(f)vXaKrjs yd(jLa>v Kal GOj(j)pocnjvr]s yvvaiKojv vopLO' 
derelv ovre /xet^ov ovr eXarrov ovSeu eTrex^ipiqGav , 

6 dAA' ojs dhvvdrov Trpdypiaros dTTearrjcrav • ol Se 

^ re Biicheler : ye O. 

2 Kiessling : eTTon^aavro O. 

^ €K TCOV TToXeojV B l cV TTJS TToXiCOS R» 

* €va dvSpa Kaj'ser. 
^ eiV O : 7Tp6$ Reiske, 

378 



BOOK TI. 24, 2-6 

families, is most likely to enjoy tranquillity ^ when 
the lives of the indivitlual citizens are untroubled, 
and to have a very tempestuous time when the 
private affairs of the citizens are in a bad way, and 
that every prudent statesman, whether he be a 
lawgiver or a king, ought to introduce such laws 
as will make the citizens just and temperate in their 
lives. Yet by what practices and by what laws 
this result may be accomplished they do not all 
seem to me to have understood equally well, but 
some of them seem to have gone widely and almost 
completely astray in the principal and fundamental 
parts of their legislation. For example, in the 
matter of marriage and commerce with women, from 
which the lawgiver ought to begin (even as Nature 
has begun thence to form our lives), some, taking 
their example from the beasts, have allowed 
men to have intercourse with women freely and 
promiscuously, thinking thus to free their lives 
from the frenzies of love, to save them from mur- 
derous jealousy, and to deliver them from many 
other evils which come upon both private houses 
and whole States through women. Others have 
banished this wanton and bestial intercourse from 
their States by joining a man to one woman ; and 
yet for the preservation of the marriage ties and 
the chastity of women they have never attempted 
to make even the slightest regulation whatsoever, 
but have given up the idea as something im- 

1 Literally, "to sail right," that is, on an even keel. 
Here, as often in Greek writers, the State is likened to a 
ship. 

379 



DTOXYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ovT€ dveyyvovs irroLrjaav caarep evLoi ra)v ^ap^dpojv 
TOL? d(f}poSL(JLOVS fii^eL? ovTC d(f)r]Kav a)cr7T€p AaK€- 
SaifjLOVLOL rag rtDv yvi'aiKOJV (f}vXaKdg, dXXd rroXXovg 
edeaav iir' avral? vofiov? crojcbpoi'LcrTdg. elorl 8' ot 
/cat dpxqv riva KarecrTTjcrav iTniJLeX-qGO/jievrjv ev- 
KOcrfjLLa? yvvaiKow ' ov jjLrjv d-noyipojGd ye r] Trpovoia 
avTcov TTJg r-qprjoeijjs, dXkd fiaXaKajrepa rod Seovrog 
iyevero /cat ovx iKavr) ttjv ^ jutj oTTOvhaia (^vaet 
KeKpafievrji' els dvdyK-qv ^lov Ga)<^povog dyayeZv. 

XXV. '0 Se 'Pcu/xuAo? ovre dvhpl Kara yvvaiKos 
eyKXrjpLara Sovg (f)dap€LGr]g rj rov oIkov dScKcug 
diroXLTTovcr-qs ovre yapLerfj /car' dvSpog alricofievT) 
KaKOJcnv Tj olSlkov dTToXeiifjiv ovre Trepl npoLKo? 
aTTohoGecos rj KopLLhrjs vofxovs Oelg ovre dXXo rcbv 
TTapaTrXrjGLOjv rovrois Scopiaag ouS' oriovv, eva he 
vojjLov ^ VTTep drrdyrcov ev e^ovra, (hs avrd rd epya 
iSi^XajGe, Karaarrjudiievos elg Gaj(f)poavvr]v /cat 
2 TToXXrjv evKOGfjLtav^ rjyaye rag yvvalKag.^ tjv Se 
roioGhe 6 vofjLOS' yvvaiKa yafierrjv rrjv Kara yd- 
fiovs ^ lepovs GVveXdovGav dvhpl kolvcdvov dirdvrojv 
elvai ;^pT7jLtaT6(ji' re /cat lepdjv. eKdXovu 8e rovg 
lepovs /cat vopLLfiov? ol iraXaLol ydjxovs 'Pojfia'CKfj 
7TpoG7]yopia TTepiXapu^dvovreg (j)appaxeLOVS^ irrl rrjg 
KOLViovias rov 4)app6s, o KaXovfiev rjfjielg ^eav. avrirj 

^ rifv Ambrosch : tco B, to A. 

^ vojxov Kiessling : fiovov O. 

^ els €v(f>poavin]i> ndAXov 8e acoc^poavvqv /cat vroAAi^v evKoofiiav 
B, etV (VKOOfiLav /cat ttoXAtju oaxfypoawrjv A. 

* yvvaiKas B : yajxeras li- ^ ydfiovs Sintenis : voijloxjs O. 

^ <f>appaxLovs A, <f)appaYX^^ovs B : <f>appdKia Steph. The 
correct form would seem to be either <f>appaKtovs or 
(ftappaKiovs- 

380 



BOOK 11. 24, 6-25, 2 

prarticalilc. Others have neither permitted sexual 
intercourse without marriage, like some barbarians, 
nor neglected the guarding of their women, like the 
Lacedaemonians, but have established many laws 
to keep them within bounds. And some have even 
appointed a magistrate to look after the good con- 
duct of women ; this provision, however, for their 
guarding was found insufficient and too weak to 
accomplish its purpose, being incapable of bringing 
the woman of unvirtuous nature to the necessity 
of a modest behaviour. 

XXY. But Romulus, without giving either to 
the husband an action against his wife for adultery 
or for leaving his home without cause, or to the wife 
an action against her husband on the ground of 
ill-usage ^ or for leaving her without reason, and 
without making any laws for the returning or re- 
covery of the doAVTy, or regulating anything of this 
nature, by a single law which effectually provides 
for all these things, as the results themselves have 
shown, led the women to behave themselves with 
modesty and great decorum. The law was to this 
effect, that a woman joined to her husband by a 
holy marriage should share in all his possessions 
and sacred rites. The ancient Romans designated 
holy and lawful marriages by the term " farreate," ^ 
from the sharing of far^ which we call zea ^ ; for 

^ The term can also mean the mismanagement of her 
property. 

2 Farraciu^'i ov farraceus is an adjective, " of spelt." It 
is not used by any extant writer in connexion with 
marriages ; but we do find the participles farreatud and 
confnrreatus thus used, and especially the noun confarreatio. 
See note 2, p. 383. 

^ Both words mean " spelt," a coarse variety of wheat. 

381 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

yap rjv dpxala Kai fJiexpi- ttoXXov ow^Orjg aTracnv 
avroLS rj Tpo(f)ij • (j^ipei he TToXXrjv /cat KaXrjv -q 'Poj- 
fialajv yrj ttjv C,€av} Kal wanep rj/jLels ol- "EXXiqves 
Tov KpiOivov Kaprrov dpxoLi-OTaTov VTToXaix^dvovres 
eTTL Tcjv OvuLCjv Kpidals KarapxojjLeOa o u Acts' ^ avrds 
KaXovvres, ovrco 'Pco/xatoi TifJucaraTov re Kapnov 
Kal apxatorarov elvai vofiL^ovres rd? l,eas hid 
TOVTCov dirdcrris efxirupov Ovular Kardp^ovrai. pievei 
ydp en Kal ov pLeraTTeTTrajKev elg TToXureXearepas 

3 d77ap;^as'^ to e9og. to hrj kolvojvovs rijs lepcjordrr)? 
re Kal TrpcLrrfs Tpo(f)rjg yeveadai yvvaiKag di'hpddt 
Kal eirl rfj dXrj ^ cruveXOelv rvxij ttjv fiev eTTLKXriGiv 
rrjs KOLVojvlas rod (f)app6? ^^X^^> ^^^ ovvheorpLov 8* 
dvayKalov oiKeLorrjTos e<l>epev dhiaXyrov , Kal to 

4 hiaiprjcrov rovs ydjjLOVs rovrovg ovhev -^v. ovrog 6 
vofjLo? rds re yvvalKas rjvdyKaGe rds yafierdg, ota 
hrj fjLrjhe/jLiav exovoas erepav d7TO(jrpo(j)7Jv, rrpog eva 
rdv rod yeyapLTjKoros t,rjv rporrov, Kal rovs dvhpas 
cu? dvayKaiov re Kal dvacfyatperov Kr-qfiaros rrjs 

5 ywaiKos Kparelv, oaxjipovovua fiev ovv Kal rrdvra 
rw yeyapLrjKori TreLdopLevrj yvvr) Kvpia rod oIkov 
rdv avrov rpoirov riv, ovrrep ^ 6 dv-qp, Kal reXevr'q- 
aavros dvhpos KXrjpovopLos eyivero rcjv ;^p7]/>taTcov, 
CO? Bvydr-qp Trarpos, el fiev arrat? re Kal fjbrjhev 
hiadejJLevos drroOdvoi Trdvrojv ovaa Kvpia rcov diro- 
Xei<J)devra)v, el he yevedv e^oi rols Traiolv loopLOLpos 

* TTjv t,€av deleted by Reudler, Jacoby. 

2 17/Mets ol added by Reiske. ^ oOAas B : oXas K. 

* aTTapxas Steph. : dpxas O. 
^ T^ oXrj Reiske : ttoXX^ O. 

382 



BOOK II. 25. 2-5 

this was the ancient and, for a long time, the ordinary 
food of all the Romans, and tlieir country produces 
an abundance of excellent spelt. And as we Greeks 
regard barley as the most ancient grain, and for that 
reason begin onr sacrifices with barley-corns which 
we call oulai, so the Romans, in the belief that spelt is 
both the most valuable and the most ancient of grains, 
in all burnt offerings begin the sacrifice with that.^ 
For this custom still remains, not having deteri- 
orated into first-offerings of greater expense. The 
participation of the wives with their husbands in 
this holiest and first food and their union with them 
founded on the sharing of all their fortunes took its 
name - from this sharing of the spelt and forged the 
compelling bond of an indissoluble union, and there 
was nothing that could annul these marriages. This 
law obliged both the married women, as having 
no other refuge, to conform themselves entirely to 
the temper of their husbands, and the husbands 
to rule their wives as necessary and inseparable 
possessions. Accordingly, if a w ife was virtuous and 
in all things obedient to her husband, she was mistress 
of the house to the same degree as her husband w as 
master of it, and after the death of her husband she 
was heir to his property in the same manner as 
a daughter was to that of her father ; that is, if 
he died without children and intestate, she was 
mistress of all that he left, and if he had children, 
she shared equally with them. But if she did any 

^ The mola salsa. 2 Confarreatio. 

® oi'TTcp 13 : oi'TTep Kac R, Jacoby. 

383 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

6 yLVOfievY). afjuaprdvovaa Sd n SLKaorrrjv tov olSlkov- 
fievov iXd[JL^av€ Kal rod (xeyedov? rrj? rt/xoipia? 
Kvptov. ravra 8e ol crvyyevel? fierd rod di^Spo? 
ehiKat^ov €V oh rjv (f)9opd orcu/Ltaro? /cat, o Travrcjov 
iXdxi-crrov dfjiapTr][jLdrojv"EXXr]GL So^eievdv vTrdpx^LV, 
e'l TLS olvov evpeOelrj TTiovaa yvvrj. dixcj^orepa yap 
ravra Oavdro) tpr^iiiovv avvexcxjpriGev 6 'Pco/xuAo?, 
to? dfiapTTjiJidTOJV yvvaiKeiojv ecrxoLra,^ (f)dopdv fxev 

7 dnovoLag dpxqv vofxtGag, fjbedrjv 8e (puopds. Kai 
fJLfXP^ TToXXov hiepieive xpovov ravr dii(j)6r€pa irapd 
'PajfialoL? aTTapaiTTiTov rvyxdvovra opyrj?. jjidprvg 
Se Tov KaXo)^ ^X^^^ '^^^ TTepl rcov yvvaiKcbv vopLOv o 
TToXvs ;\;povo?. oiioXoyelrai yap evros irojv eLKom 
Kal TTevraKOGLwv /xT^Set? ev 'PwfJLrj XvdrjvaL ydpLOS' 
Kara Se rrjv i^SopLTiv iirl Tat? rpidKovra Kal eKarov 
oXvfJLTndcnv virarevovrajv MdpKOV TJoimTTajVLOV Kal 
Fatov UaTTLpLOV TTpwTO^ drToXvaai Xeyerai rrjv 
iavrov yvvaiKa UnopLO? KapoviXiog ^ dvrjp ovk 
dcfiavqg, dvayKa^ajjievos vtto tojv TLpL-qrchv ofJLoarai 
T€Kvwv ev€Ka yvvatKi avvoLKelv [rjv 8' avrco ureipa 
•q yvv-q), OS iTTL rep €pycp tovtco KairoL hi dvdyK-qv 
yevofxevo) fjLLcrovfJLevos vtto tov Si^fiov StereXeaev. 

^ eaxara O : alaxtaTa Grasberger, Jacoby. 
^ KapovtXvos Ambrosch : koX poviXios AB. 



1231 B.C. 

* Gellius (iv. 3), Valerius Maximus (ii. 1, 4) and Plutarch 
{Thes. et Rom. 6) give this same tradition regarding 
Carvilius, but differ widely as to his date. Gellius is in 
virtual agreement with Dionysius, but Valerius gives 

384 



BOOK IT. 25, 6-7 

wrong, the injured party was her judtje and deter- 
mined the degree of her pui)ishnient. Other offences, 
hoivcver, were judged bv her relations together with 
her husband ; among them was adultery, or w liere it 
was found she had drunk wine — a thing which the 
Greeks wouhl look upon as the least of all faults. 
For Romulus permitted them to punish both these 
acts with death, as being the gravest offences women 
could be guilty of, since he looked upon adultery as the 
source of reckless foil v. and drunkenness as the source 
of adultery. And both these offences continued for 
a long time to be punished by the Romans with 
merciless severity. The wisdom of this law concern- 
ing wives is attested by the length of time it was in 
force ; for it is agreed that during the space of five 
hundred and twenty years no marriage was ever dis- 
solved at Rome. But it is said that in the one 
hundred and thirty-seventh Olympiad, in the con- 
sulship of Marcus Pomponius and Gains Papirius,^ 
Spurius Carvilius, a man of distinction, was the 
first to divorce his wife,^ and that he was obliged 
by the censors to swear that he had married for the 
purpose of having children (his wife, it seems, was 
barren) ; yet because of his action, though it was 
based on necessity, he was ever afterwards hated 
by the people. 

604 B.C. and Plutarch 524. Moreover, Valerius states 
elsewhere (ii. 9, 2) that L. Annius repudiated his wife in 
307/6, a date confirmed by Livy (ix. 43, 25). It seems 
most probable that Dionysius and Gellius are wrong in 
their date. Scholars who accept this late date admit an 
earlier voluntary dissolution of marriatje or assume that 
the ancient authors were thinking of different forms of 
marriage or of different grounds for divorce. 

385 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

XXVI, *A fikv ovv els yvvaLKa? ev e^ovra 6 
Poj/jLvXog evojjLoderrjaev, i^ a)v Koafxiajrepas irepl 
TGVS avSpa? avrag aTreipyaoaro , ravr icrriv, a 8' 
els alSu) /cat SLKaLoavviqv Traihcov, Iva cre^ojcn rou? 
Trarepa? airavra TrpdrrovTe? re Kal Xiyovres oaa dv 
eKelvoL KeXevcxjGLV , en rovrojv tjv aefivorepa Kal 
fxeyaXoTTpeTTeGTepa Kal noXX^qv e^ovra irapa rovs 

2 rjfierepovs vopLovs hia(f)Opa.v. ol pukv yap ras 'EX- 
XrjVLKOLS KaTaarrjodfJievoi TToXireias ^pa)(vv nva 
KOfxiSfj )(p6vov era^av dp)(€adaL rovs TralSag vtto 
tCov Trarepcov, ol fxev ew? rpirov ^ eKTrXrjpcoGCJcnv 
d(f)^ Tj^-qs eros, ol he ocrov dv -x^povov rjlOeoi pLevojaiv, 
OL Se fJ-expL rrj? elg rd dpy^ela rd SrjiJLOcna iyypa(f)'r]g, 
OJS eK T7]s UoXojvos Kal UiTTaKov Kal XapwvSov 
uo/jLodeaias efxaOov, ols ttoXXtj pLapTvpelrai GO(j)ia • 

3 rLpLOjpias re Kard tojv TralScov era^av, edv dTreidcoGL 
rots TTarpdcnv, ov ^apeias, e^eXduai ri]g otVta? 
eTnTpeifjavres avrovs Kal XPVH-^'^^ H'V f^OLTaXiTreLV , 
TTepaLTepo) 8e ovSev. elal 8' ovx iKaval KaracrxeLV 
dvoLav veorrjTos Kal avddSecav rpoTTCov ovS* els to 
Ga)(f)pov dyayelv rovs rj/neXrjKoras rcxyv KaXdyv at 
/jLaXaKal TLpLcoptaL • roiydproi TToXXd ev "EXXtjglv 

i VTTO reKvojv els rrarepas dG^'^p^ovelrai. 6 Se rcov 
'PojfjLalwv vofjLoOeTYjs drraGav cos elnelv e8a>Kev 
e^ovG lav rrarpl Kad* vlov Kal Trapd rravra tov rod 
f^LOV xpoi'ov, edv re elpyeiv, edv re fxaGriyovv , edv 
re SeGfjLLOV enl rojv Kar dypov epyojv Karexetv, 
edv re dTTOKrivvvvai irpoaiprjraL, Kdv rd TToXtriKd 
TTpdrrojv 6 iraXs yjSr) rvyxdvrj Kav ev dpxoi^S rals 

^ devTepov Biicheler. 
386 



BOOK II. 26, 1-4 

XXVI. These, then, are the excellent laws which 
Romulus enacted concerning women, by which he 
rendered them more observant of propriety in re- 
lation to their husbands. But those he established 
with respect to reverence and dutifulness of children 
toward their parents, to the end that they should 
honour and obey them in all things, both in their 
words and actions, were still more august and of 
greater dignity and vastly superior to our laws. 
For those who established the Greek constitutions 
set a very short time for sons to be under the rule 
of their fathers, some till the expiration of the third 
year after they reached manhood, others as long 
as they continued unmarried, and some till their 
names were entered in the public registers, as I 
have learned from the laws of Solon, Pittacus and 
Charondas, men celebrated for their great wisdom. 
The punishments, also, which they ordered for dis- 
obedience in children toward their parents were not 
grievous : for they permitted fathers to turn their sons 
out of doors and to disinherit them, but nothing 
further. But mild punishments are not sufficient 
to restrain the folly of youth and its stubborn ways 
or to give self-control to those who have been heed- 
less of all that is honourable ; and accordingly 
among the Greeks many unseemly deeds are com- 
mitted by children against their parents. But the 
lawgiver of the Romans gave virtually full power 
to the father over his son, even during his whole 
life, whether he thought proper to imprison him, to 
scourge him, to put him in chains and keep him at 
work in the fields, or to put him to death, and this 
even though the son were already engaged in public 
affairs, though he were numbered among the highest 

387 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

lieylarais i^era^ofievos kolv Slol rrjv el? ra Kowa 
6 (f)LXorLfXiav iTzawovfJievo? . Kara tovtov ye tol rov 
vo^xov dvSpes imcjiaveis h-qix-qyopia'^ Sie^tovre? errl 
Tojv efJL^oXcxJv ivavrtas jxev rfj ^ovXfj, K€-)(^a-pLGii€vas 
he Tols hrjixoTLKols , kol o^ohpa evSoKLjJLOvvres eirl 
ravrais, KaraaTraadevreg dno rod /Srjyuaro? oltt- 
rj)(9iqGav vtto tcop Trarepcov, rjv dv eKeu'Ois ^avfj 
Tip.(jjpiav v(f)€^ovT€S ' oijg array ofiivovs hid TTJg 
dyopdg ovSels rcov Trapovrojv e^eXeodai Svvaros rjv 
ovre VTraro? ovre hrjjjLapxos ovre 6 KoXaKevojjievos 
VTT* avTaJv Kal ^ Trdoav i^ovoiav iXdrrco rrjg IB las 
(j elvaL voiJLL^a>v oxXo?. id) ydp Aeyetv daov? aTT- 
€KT€Lvav ol Trarepeg dvSpas dyaOou? vtt" dperrjs /cat 
TTpoOvpLLas erepov tl hLaTrpd^aodai yevvaiov epyov ^ 
7rpoa)(6evTas o pbrj Trpocjera^av avrols ol narepeg, 
Kaddrrep IttI MaXXiov TopKovdrov Kal ttoXXCjv 
dXXojv TTapeiX-qcfiapiev , VTrep (Lv Kard rov OLKelov 
Kaipov ipdj. 

XXVII. Kal ouS' ivravda earrj rrjs i^ouala? 6 
T(i)v ' PajfiaLOjv vopLoderrj?, dAAa Acat TrajXelv €(f)rJK€ 
Tov vlov rd) TTarpi, ovhev i7norpa(l)elg ei tls djpLov 
VTToXtjiJjeTaL TO avyxd)prj/jLa Kal ^apvrepov rj Kara 
rr^v (f)VGLKr)v GvpL/rddeiav. Kal o Trdvrcov judXidra 
dav/jbdoetev dv ng vtto rols ' EXXi^vlkols rjOeai tois 

^ Kal Reiske : Kara O. 

^ yewalov epyov R : epyov yewalov B, Jacoby. 



^ The son of the Manhus Torquatus who was corisuJ in 
340 B.C. Just before the battle with the Latuis at the 
foot of Mt. Vesuvius the consuls issued strict orders that 
no Roman should engage in single combat with a Latin on 

388 



BOOK TI. 26, 4-27, 1 

magistrates, and though he were celebrated for his 
zeal for the commouwealth. Indeed, in virtue of this 
law men of distinction, while delivering speeches 
from the rostra hostile to the senate and pleas- 
ing to the people, and enjoying great popularity 
on that account, have been dragged down from 
thence and carried away by their fathers to undergo 
such punishment as these thought fit ; and while 
they were being led away through the Forum, none 
present, neither consul, tribune, nor the very popu- 
lace, which was flattered by them and thought all 
power inferior to its own, could rescue them. I 
forbear to mention how many brave men, urged 
by their valour and zeal to perform some noble 
deed that their fathers had not ordered, have been 
put to death by those very fathers, as is related 
of Manlius Torquatus ^ and many others. But con- 
cerning them I shall speak in the proper place. 

XXVII. And not even at this point did the Roman 
law^giver stop in giving the father power over the 
son, but he even allowed him to sell his son, without 
concerning himself whether this permission might 
be regarded as cruel and harsher than was com- 
patible with natural affection. And, — a thing which 
anyone who has been educated in the lax manners 
of the Greeks may wonder at above all things and 

pain of death ; but this youth could not resist the taunts 
of a Tusculan foo, and accepted his challenge. When he 
returned triumphantly with the spoils of his enemy, 
his father ordered his death. The portion of the Anti- 
quities in which this incident was related is no longer 
extant. 

389 



DIOXYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

€KXeXvil4\>OLS 7pa(f>€lg (!}£ TTlKpOV KOL TVpaVVLKOV, 

KOL Tovro cruvey^wp-que rep Trarpi, pLexpt- rpinqs 
TTpdaeoj? acj)' vlov xprj/iariaacrdaL, [xell^ova Sou? 
i^ovoiav Trarpi Kara TrajSo? rj Seo-TroTrj Kara 8ov- 

2 Xcov} depaTTovTCjv pLev yap '^ 6 tt pad els aira^, 
67T€LTa TTjv IXevdepiav evpofievo? avrov to Xolttov 
rjSrj Kvptog ecmv, vlo? 8e Tzpadel? vtto rod Trarpo? 
€L yivoiTO iXevdepog vtto toj narpl ttoXlv iytvero, 
Kal ^ TO hevrepov dTT€p.TToXrjdeLg re Kal eXevOepajBels 
SouAo? axjrrep i^ ^PXl^ "^^^ Trarpog rjv • /jLerd Se 

3 Tr]v rpLTTjv Trpdau' aTnjXXaKTO rod Trarpo?. tovtov 
Tov vopLOv iv dpxo.LS [JL6V ol ^acTiXels ic^vXarrov etre 
yeypapjjievov elre dypa(f)ov [ov yap €-)(Cjj to (Ta(f)€S 

€LTr€Lv) CLTTaVTCOV KpaTLOTOV rjyOVp.€VOi VOfJLOJv} KaTa- 

Xvdeio'qs he Trjg /JLOiapxio.? , ore TrpcvTov e(f)dvrj 
'PcofiaLOtg ciTravTeg tovs TrarpLovg edtafiovs re /cat 
vofiovg dpta TOL£ eTTeKjaKTOLS ev dyopa Oelvai ^ave- 
pov? aTTaui Tols TToXtTaLs, Iva firj ovpL/JLeTaTTLTTTr) Ta 
Kotvd SiKaia Tai? Tcxtv dpyovTcuv e^ovoiaig, ol Xa^ov- 
reg Trapd tov St^/jlov ttjv e^ovaiav Trjg crvvayajyrjg t€ 
Kal dvaypa(j)rig avTCjv SeKa dvSpeg dfia Totg dXXoLS 
dveypaipav vofioig, Kal eGTiv ev ttj TeTdprr) tcx)V 
Xeyofievcov ScoheKa SeXrojv, dg dvedeaav iv dyopa. 

4 OTL 8' ovx ol BeKa dvhpeg^ ol TpiaKoaLOig eTeoriv 
VGTepov dTToheLydevTeg errl ttjv dvaypa(f)rjv tcov vopLcov 
TTpojTOL TOVTOV etG-qyTjoavTO TOV vopLov 'PcD/xat'ot?, 
dXX eK TToXXov Ket/Jieuov TrapaXa^ovTeg ovk eroA- 
pLTjoav dveXelv, eK ttoXXcov piev Kal dAXa>v Kara- 

^ BovXojp B : BovXov A. ^ yap Reudler : ye O. 

^ Kai Kayser : nay 0, * vofiajy B : vofxov A, Jacoby. 

390 



BOOK TI. 27, 1-4 

look upon as harsh and tyrannical, — he even gave 
leave to the father to make a profit by selling his 
son as often as three times, thereby giving greater 
power to the father over his son than to the master 
over his slaves. For a slave who has once been sold 
and has later obtained his liberty is his own master 
ever after, but a son who had once been sold by 
his father, if he became free, came again under his 
father's power, and if he was a second time sold and 
a second time freed, he was still, as at first, bis 
father's slave ; but after the third sale he was freed 
from his father. This law, whether written or 
unwritten, — I cannot say positively which, — the 
kings observed in the beginning, looking upon it as 
the best of all laws ; and after the overthrow of 
the monarchy, when the Romans first decided to 
expose in the Forum for the consideration of the 
whole body of citizens all their ancestral customs 
and laws, together with those introduced from 
abroad, to the end that the rights of the people 
might not be changed as often as the powers of 
the magistrates, the decemvirs, who were authorized 
by the people to collect and transcribe the laws, 
recorded it among the rest, and it now stands on the 
fourth of the Twelve Tables, as they are called, which 
they then set up in the Forum. And that the de- 
cemvirs, who were appointed after three hundred 
years to transcribe these laws, did not first introduce 
this law among the Romans, but that, finding it 
long before in use, they dared not repeal it, I infer 
from many other considerations and particularly 

^ ot ScKa dvbpes Cobet ; oi dvbpis 64Ka 0. 

391 



DTONYSIUS OF HAI TCARNASSUS 

XajjL^dvofjiaL, jJidXiara 3' €k rwv Nofxa TIoixTTiXiov 
Tov fiera. 'Poj/jlvXou dp^avrog vofxcov. iv ots Kal ovros 
yeyparrTai ■ " 'Edv irar-qp via) avy^ajprjcrrj yvvatKa 
dyayeodai kowojvov ioopLiv-qv Upcov re Kal xpr^pid- 
rojv Kara rovs vopiovs, fjur^Keri ttjv i^ovoiav elvai 
TO) TTarpl TTcoXeli' rov vlov • '' oirep ovk dv eypaipev el 
/jLT) Kara rovg —porepovs vofiovg drravra? ^i'^^ "^^ 

5 TTarpl TTOjXelv rov? vlovs. oAA' VTrep fiev rovrojv 
dXi?, f^ovXofjLai hk Kal rov dXXov inl Kecj^aXaiajv ^ 
hieXOelu KoopLOv, oj rov? rd)p iSiajrajv 6 ' PtopLvXos 
eKoopLTjoe ^LOV? . 

XXVIII. ' Opdjv yap ort ro aaxfypovco? Crju drrav- 
Ttts Kal rd StKaia npo rdav KephaXeojv alpelcrOai 
Kaprepiai' re rr^v irapd rov? ttovov? duKelv Kal p.r]8ev 
V7ToXo.pL^dveiv )(^prjp.a npLLCorepov dperrj? ov Xoyojv 
ScSay^fi TTapaylveadaL rot? TToXtrLKol? TrXiqdeaL rrecjiv- 
Kev, ev olg ro rrXelov eon ^vodyoyyov , oAA' epyojv 
edLGpLotg rcov -npos eKaarriv dperrjv dyovrcxiv, vtt* 
dvdyKTj? re fxaXXov tj Kara yvwpuqv eV avrd rovs 
TToXXovs TTapayivo/jievov? ,- el 8e pnqhev eir) ro koj- 
Xvaov errl rrfV (f)VGLv oXiGdaivovras elhcos, eVtSt^ptou? 
piev Kal ^avavGOVS Kai npoaayajyovs emdvpLtujv 
aLGXpoJV re-)(ya?, ws d(/>ai^t^oi;cra? Kal XvpLatvopLei'as 
rd re oojpara Kal rd? ipvxo-? tcop pberaxeLpit.opievojv , 
hovXoi? Kal ^evoL? drreSajKe pLeOoSeveiv • Kal 8te- 
pLeivev ecus ttoXXov rrdvv )(p6vov St' alaxvvrj? dura 
'PajpLatoL? rd roiavra epya Kal utt' ov8eu6? rdjv 

2 avdiyevdiv eTTtrrjSevopLeva. Svo Se pLova rots iXevdd' 



^ Sylburg ; /<€0aAcua» O. 

^ napayofievov^ Kiessling, Hyrtlem. 



392 



BOOK II. 27. 4-28, 2 

from the laws of Niima Pompilius, the successor of 
Romulus, among which there is recorded the fol- 
lowing; " If a father gives his son leave to marry 
a woman who by the laws is to be the sharer of his 
sacred rites and possessions, he shall no longer have 
the power of selling his son." Now he would never 
have written this unless the father had by all former 
laws been allowed to sell his sons. But enough has 
been said concerning these matters, and I desire also 
to give a summary account of the other measures 
by which Romulus regulated the lives of the private 
citizens. 

XXVIII. Observing that the means by which the 
whole body of citizens, the greater part of whom are 
hard to guide, can be induced to lead a life of modera- 
tion, to prefer justice to gain, to cultivate persever- 
ance in hardships, and to look upon nothing as more 
valuable than virtue, is not oral instruction, but the 
habitual practice of such employments as lead to 
each virtue, and knowing that the great mass of 
men come to practise them through necessity rather 
than choice, and hence, if there is nothing to restrain 
them, return to their natural disposition, he appointed 
slaves and foreigners to exercise those trades that 
are sedentary and mechanical and promote shameful 
passions, looking upon them as the destroyers and 
corrupters both of the bodies and souls of all who 
practise them ; and such trades were for a very 
long time held in disgrace by the Romans and were 
carried on by none of the native-born citizens. The 
only employments he left to free men were two. 

393 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

poL9 eTTiTrjSevfJLara /carcAiTre to. re fcard ^ yecopylav 
Kal TO. /caret iToXefxovs , opcov on yacrrpog re dv- 
dpwTTOL yivovrai hid rovrovs rovs ^lov<; iyKparels 
dfj^pohiGLOLS re rjTTOv aAiGKovrai TrapavofiOLS irXe- 
ove^lav re ov ttjv ^Xdnrovaav dXXrjXovs Sicokovglu, 
dXXd Tr]v aTTO rdjv TroXepLLCov TTepLTTOLOvfieviqv rds 
(h^eXeias. dreXr] he rovrwv eKarepov rjyovfievos 
eivat rGiv ^iojv ^^mpi'Qopuevov darepov Kal ^iXairLov, 
ovx erepoi^ fxev tlolv aTrehajKev ipydt^eadai rrjv yrj^, 
irepoLS Se rd TToXepLccov (f)epeiv re Kal dyecv co? 6 
rrapd AaKehaipLOviois el\e vojjios, oAAd rovs avrovs 
rov re TToXe/juKov Kal rov yeajpyiKov era^e ^iov 
trjv • el fiev elp-qviqv dyoiev errl roXs /car' dypov 
epyoLS eOLt,cjjv drravras fievetv, nXrjv ei irore Serjdelev 
dyopdg, rore 8' et? darv cruviovrag dyopdC,eLV ; ivdrrjv 
opil^ajv rjiJLepav rats dyopal^' ore 8e TToXepios Kara- 
Xd^oL orpareveaOaL SiSdaKcov Kal pur] 7Tapa)((x>pelv 
crepoLS p-TJre row ttovojv pLrjre rcov cx)(f)eX€L(x}v. htr^pet 
ydp avrols €^ Icrov yrjv re dcrqv dv d(f)eXoLro ^ TroXe- 
fiLOVS Kal di'SpdrroSa Kal xp'^f^o.ra, Kal rrapeoKevat^ev 
dyaTnrjrcjg Sex^crOau rd? or par etas. 

XXIX. Td)v 8' els dXXrjXovs dScKrjjjLdrojv ov 
Xpoi'Lovs dXXd raxeias eVotetro rds Kpioeis rd fiev 
avros Siaircbv, rd S' dAAot? eTnrpeTTOjv, Kal rds 

^ KoriXnTk TO. re koto. Ambrosch : KaToAeiTreTOu to. Kara O 
^ d^e'AoiTo B : a.(f)iXoi,vTo R. 

^ The Spartan masters were the warrior class and the 
Helots were primarily tillers of the soil. Nevertheless, 
each Spartan soldier was accompanied to war by several 
Helots, who fought as hght-armed troops. 

394 



BOOK II. 28. 2-29, 1 

agriculture and warfare ; for he observed that men 
so employed become masters of their appetite, are 
less entangled in illicit love aliairs, and lollou that 
kind of covetousness only which leads them, not to 
injure one another, but to enrich themselves at 
the expense of the enemy. But, as he regarded 
each of these occupations, when separate from the 
other, as incomplete and conducive to fault-finding, 
instead of appointing one part ot the men to till 
the land and the other to lav waste the enemy's 
country, according to the practice of the Lace- 
daemonians,^ he ordered the same persons to exercise 
the employments both of husbandmen and soldiers. 
In time of peace he accustomed them to remam 
at their tasks in the country, except when it was 
necessary for them to come to market, upon which 
occasions they were to meet in the city in ordei to 
traffic, and to that end he appointed every ninth ^ 
day for the markets ; and when war came he taught 
them to perform the duties of soldiers and not to 
vield to others either in the hardships or advantages 
that war brought. For he divided equally among 
them the lands, slaves and money that he took from 
the enemy, and thus caused them to take part cheer- 
fully in his campaigns. 

XXIX. In the case of wrongs committed by 
the citizens against one another he did not permit 
the trials to be delayed, but caused them to be held 
promptly, sometimes deciding the suits himself 
and sometimes referring them to others ; and he 

* " Every ninth day," reckoning Laclusively, means 
every eighth day by modern reckoning. The name of 
these market-days was nundinae, from novem and diea. 

395 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Tifxwpiaq avTcov irpos to. fieyedri tcx)v afxapriqixdr ojv 

i7TOl€LTO. OLTTOTpCTTeLV T€ CLvd pdjTTOVS ttTTO TTai^TO? 

epyov TTOi Tjpov rov (j)6^ov fidXicrra Swdfjievov opwv 
TToXXd 61? TOVTO TTapeoKevdoaro , ^(wpiov re, ev co 
Kadel^ofJLevo? iSiKai^ev, iv toj (^avepajrarco Trjg 
dyopds, Koi crrpaTLajTow, ot Trap-qKoXovOovv avro) 
rpiaKOOTLOL rov dpiQiiov ovres , KaraTTXrjKrLKOjrdr-qv 
TTpoGoijjLi',^ pdB8ov<; re /cat TreAeVet? utt' dvSpcov 
SojSeKa (f)epoixevovs , oh ^ tovs p-ev d'f la fxaarLyoju 
SeBpaKcrag e^aivov iv dyopa, raJv 6e rd /zeytcrra 
rjBLKriKOTajv rov? rpaxfjXov? direKOTrrov ev ro) 

2 j)avepa) . tolovto? fiev Brj ri<? 6 Koufio? rjv rrj? 
KaTacrKevaadeLcrqs vno 'Poj/jLvXov TToXtTelag ■ dTTOXpr) 
yap Ik tovtojv koi irepl tojv dXXojv etVacrat. 

XXX. Al 6e dXXat 7Tpd$€L? at re /card rovs 
TToXe/xovs VTTO Tov dvBpo? yevo/xevai /cat at /card 
ttoXlv,^ cov dv TLs /cat Xoyov * TTonjcraLTO iv laropias 

2 ypa4>fj, TOiavrai rives Trapahihovrai. ttoXXcjv 
TrepcoLKOvvTOjv rrjv 'PcopLrjv idvcov fieydXajv re /cat 
rd TToXepaa dXKLficjjv, (Lv ov^ev rjv rols 'PajfiacoLS 
(jiiXiOV, OLKeLcuaaodat ravra ^ovXrjdei? imyafxiais, 
oanep ihoKei rols rraXaiols rpoiros elvai /Se^atd- 
raros rcou crvvanrovrajv (fyiXias, ivdvp^ovfievog 8c 
on povXoiJLevaL fJLev at TrdAet? ovk dv cruveXOoiev 
avrols dpri re crvvoLKL(,opLevots /cat ovre XprniacrL 
hvvaroLS ovre XafXTrpov epyov dTToheheiyixevois ^ 
ovhev, BiacjBeloai he e'l^ovuLV el fxrjbefXLa yevoiro 

^ KaTi^TrXriKTiKajTaT-qv Trpoaoijjiv R : KaraTrXr^KTiKajTaToi ttjv 
iTpoaoipiv B, Jacoby. 
■' ols B : ol R. 
* Kara iroAiv O : Kara r-qv noAiv Ambrosch, Jacoby. 

396 



BOOK ri. 29, 1-30, 2 

proportioned the punishment to the magnitude ol 
the crime. Observing, also, that nothing restrains 
men from all evil actions so effectually as fear, he 
contrived many things to inspire it, such as the 
place where he sat in judgment in the most con 
spicuous part of the Forum, the very formidable 
appearance of the soldiers who attended him, three 
hundred in number, and the rods and axes borne 
by twelve men,^ who scourged in the Forum those 
whose offences deserved it and beheaded others in 
public who were guilty of the greatest crimes. Such, 
then, was the general character of the government 
established by Romulus ; the details I have men 
tioned are sufficient to enable one to form a judtr- 
ment of the rest. 

XXX. The 2 other deeds reported of this man, both 
in his wars and at home, which may be thought 
deserving of mention in a history are as follows. 
Inasmuch as many nations that were both numerous 
and brave in war dwelt round about Rome and none 
of them was friendly to the Romans, he desired 
to conciliate them by intermarriages, which, in the 
opinion of the ancients, was the surest method of 
cementing friendships ; but considering that the 
cities in question would not of their own accord 
unite with the Romans, who were just getting settled 
together in one city, and who neither were powerful 
by reason of their wealth nor had performed any 
brilliant exploit, but that they would yield to torce 

^ The lictors ; cj. Livy i. 8, 2-3. 
^For chaps. 30-31 cf. Livy i. 9. 

* /cat Xoyov Steph. : KaToXoyov O. 
^Garrer: iTiihebeiy^^vois O, Jacoby. 

397 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

rr€pL rrjv avdyKTjv v^pi?, yvcL>{xriv ecrx^v, fj Kal 
NejULerajp 6 ttolttttos avTOV TrpoaeOero, 8t' apTrayfjs 
napOevcov aOpoas yevopievT)^ iTOLrjGacyOai ras cVt- 

3 yajJLLas. yvovg Se ravra deep pkv evxo,S TideraL 
npaJTOP aiTopprjTwv ^ovXevjxa.Tcov rjyepLOVL, eav rj 
irelpa avroi x^^PV^ Kara vovv dvaias Kal eopra? 
d^etv Kad^ c/cacTTov eviavrov • ^Treira ro) avveSpLcp 
TTJ? yepovGLa? aveveyKas tov Xoyov, eVetS?] KaKeivois 
TO ^ovXevpia rjpedKev, eoprrjv TrpoelTre Kal TTavqyvpiv 
d^€LV TIooeihchvL Kal TrepirjyyeXXev els ras eyytcrra 
TToAets" KaXojv T0V9 ^ovXopiivovs dyopds re peraXap,- 
^dv€LV Kal dycjvojv • Kal yap dyojvas e^eiv efieXAev 

4 L7T7TCOV re Kal dvSpoJv navroBaTTovg . o-vveXdovTOJU 
8e 7T0?[Xa)v ^evcov els ttjv eoprrjv yvvai^lv dpa 
Kal reKvois, eTreihr^ ras re Qvuias eTrereXecre rep 
IJoaeiS(x>VL Kal rovs dyojvas, rfj reXevraia rwv 
'qpiepajVy fj hiaXvoeiv epeXXe rrfv TravrjyvpLV, irapdy- 
yeXfxa StScucrt rots veois, rjviK av avros dprj ro 
OTjfielov dpirdt^eLv ras napovaas eirl rrjv Seav vap- 
devovs, at? av eTTirvxcocrLv eKaaroi, Kal ^vXdrreiv 
dyvds eKeivrjv ttjv vvKra, rfj S' f'^'^S" rjpepa npog 

5 eavTov dyeiv. ol pev Srj veoi Siaardvres Kara 
(7VGrpo(f)dsy eTTetSrj ro avvB-qpa dpdev elhov rpi- 
novrai irpos rrjv rcjv irapdevcov dpTrayijv, rapax^j 
Se rcbv ^evcDV evOvs eyevero Kal (f)vyrj peZt^ov n 
KaKov v(f)opa>peva)v rfj 8' e^rjs rjpepa TrpoaxOeKJcov 
rcov irapdevojv, TrapapLvdriodpievos avrwv rr)i' dOvplav 
398 



BOOK II. 30. 2-5 

if no insolence accompanied such compulsion, he deter- 
mined, with the approval of" Numitor. his grand- 
father, to bring about the desired intermarriages by 
a wholesale seizure of virgins. After he had taken 
this resolution, he first made a vow to the god ' who 
presides over secret counsels to celebrate sacrifices 
and festivals every year if his enterprise should suc- 
ceed. Then. ha\ang laid his plan before the senate 
and gaining their approval, he announced that he 
would hold a festival and general assemblage in 
honour of Neptune, and he sent word round about to 
the nearest cities, inviting all who wished to do so to 
be present at the assemblage and to take part in the 
contests ; for he was going to hold contests of aD 
sorts, both between horses and between men. And 
when many strangers came with their wives and 
children to the festival, he first offered the sacrifices 
to Neptune and held the contests ; then, on the last 
day, on which he was to dismiss the assemblage, he 
ordered the young men, when he himself should raise 
the signal, to seize all the virgins w ho had come to the 
spectacle, each group taking those they should first 
encounter, to keep them that night without \'iolating 
their chastity and bring them to him the next day. 
So the young men divided themselves into several 
groups, and as soon as they saw the signal raised, fell 
to seizing the virgins ; and straightway the strangers 
were in an uproar and fled, suspecting some greater 
mischief. The next day, when the virgins were 
brought before Romulus, he comforted them in 

^ CJonsus. See p. 403 and note 1 (end). 

399 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

o 'PcjjJLuXos, djs ovK €(^' ujSpet TTJs OLpTTayrj? oAA' eVt 
ydfjLOJ yevoii^v-qs , ' EXk-qviKOV t€ Kal dpxcitov oltto- 
(^aivojv TO edos xal rpoTTov ^ crujjLTTdvrajv Ka9' ov? 
cruvoLTTTOvrat ydjJLOL rals yvvaL^lv i7Ti(f>avd(TraTov, 
ri^LOV arepyeiv rovs hoOevra^ avral? dvhpas vtto 

6 T7J? Tvxri? ' K^'^ pierd rovro Stapi^/xrjcras- ra? Kopaq 
i^fiKOGia^ re Kal oySorjKOvra Kal TpeZs cvpeOeicrag 
KardXe^ev av6i? 6k tcjv dydfiajv avSpa? LGapiOpLovg, 
OL? avTCi? (jvvrjpijLorre Kara rov<; rrarpiovs eKdarrj? 
idiGpiOVS, irrl kowcovlo. nvpog Kal vSarog iyyvcov 
rovg ydpLovs, co? Kal p-^xpi- tcov Ka9' rjpLag eVt- 
reXovvrai xpovojv. 

XXXI. Tavra 8e yevdoBai TLves fJLev ypd<hovGi 
Kara rov rrpajrov iviavrov rrjg 'Pajp.vXov dpxrjg, 
Fvalos Se FeXXios Kara rov reraprov o Kal jjidXXov 
eIkos- vdov yap OLKL^ofievqs TroXecog -qyejiova rrplv 
Tj KaraorrjaaaOaL rrjv TroXirelav epyw rrjXiKovrcp 
iTTLX^Lpelv OVK exec ^ Xoyov. rrjg 8e dpTTayrjg rrjV 
alriav ol pev et? orrdvLV yvvaiKcov dva(f)€povuLV, 
oi 8' et? d(f>oppirjv noXepLov ol 8e rd -mdavcorara 
ypd(j)ovres, oh Kaych crvyKareddpirju, elg ro mjvdiljaL 
(fnXorrjra rrpos rds 7TXr]Gioxa)povg TToXets dvayKaiav. 

2 rriv Se rore vtto 'PatpivXov ^ KaOtepojOeLGav ioprrjv 
ert Kal els epuk dyovres 'PojpLaloi SLereXovv 

^ TpoTTOv A : TpoTTOjv B, Jacoby. 
"Biicheler: eiV O. 

* VTTO pCO/iuAoU B : TO) pujfivXuj A. 

400 



BOOK II. 30, 5-31, 2 

their despair with the assurance that they had been 
seized, not out of wantonness, but for the purpose 
of marriage; for he pointed out that lhi^ was an 
ancient Greek custom ^ and that of all methods of 
contracting marriages for women it was the most 
illustrious, and he asked them to cherish those 
whom Fortune had given them for their husbands. 
Then counting them and finding their number to 
be six hundred and eighty-three, he chose an equal 
number of unmarried men to whom he united them 
according to the customs of each woman's country, 
basing the marriages on a communion of fire and 
water, in the same manner as marriages are performed 
even down to our times. 

XXXI. Some state that these things happened 
in the first year of Romulus' reign, but Gnaeus 
Gellius says it was in the fourth, which is more 
probable. For it is not likely that the head of a 
newly-built city would undertake such an enterprise 
before establishing its government. As regards the 
reason for the seizing of the virgins, some ascribe 
it to a scarcity of women, others to the seeking of a 
pretext for war ; but those who give the most 
plausible account — and with them I agree — attribute 
it to the design of contracting an alliance with the 
neighbouring cities, founded on affinity. And the 
Romans even to my day continued to celebrate the 
festival then instituted by Romulus, calling it the 

1 It is to be regretted that Dionysius did not see fit to 
cite some specific instances of this practice from the Greek 
world. But probably he mereJy inferred such an early 
custom from some of the marriage rites of a later day. such 
as the procedure of the Spartan bridegrooms described by 
Plutarch {Lycurg. 15). 

401 

VOL. I. p 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

KcovGovdALa KaXovvres , iv f) ^w/xos re VTToyeiog 
iSpvficvo? TTapa rco fieyiaro) tojv LTTTToSpoiJLwv 
TTepLGKa^eLGTis rrj? yrjs Ovalais re /cat v-nepTTvpois 
OLTTapxalg yepalperai, /cat Spofios Ittttojv il,€VKTcov re 
/cat dCevKTOjv iTTLreXelrai. /caAetrat he 6 deos, <^ 
ravr eTTireXovcn, KaJvaos vtto 'PcopLaicov, ov i^ep- 
fjLiqvevovres els Trjv rjpLerepav yXwrrav UoGeihcova 
EeiOL-)(0ovd (f)aGLi' elvai rives /cat hid rovro vnoyeiip 
reTLfXTJadaL ^oj/jlo) Xeyovcnv, on rrjv yrjv 6 deos 
ovros ^X^*" ^y^ ^^ '^*^^ erepov olha Xoyov olkovcov, 
COS" rrjs fi€v iopTrjs rw iJoo-etSojvt dyopLevr^s koL tov 
SpofJLOv T(x)v Ittttojv ^ rovro) ro) deep yivopuevov, rov 
8e Karayeiov ^ojpLov Sai/xovt dpp'qroj rivl ^ovXev- 
fjidroDV Kpv(f)iojv rjyefjLovL /cat </»L'Aa/ct Karao-Kevaadev- 
Tos varepov • Tloaeihojvi yap dcf)avrj ^ojp.6v ovbapLodt 
yrjs ovd^ V(f)^ *EXXiqvojv ovd^ vtto ^ap^dpojv Kad- 
iSpvoOaL • ro 8' diXrjOes ottojs e^et ;\;aAe77oy eiTrelv. 

XXXII. 'Qs 8e Sie^oijOrj rd Trepl rrjv dpTTayrjv 
TOJV TTapOevojv /cat rd Trepl rovs ydpLOVS els rds 
TTXrjaioxcopovs TroXecs, at fiev avro ro TTpaxOev Trpos 
opyrjv iXdfjL^avov, at 8' a^' rjs eTTpdxOrj hiaOeueajs 

^ Ittttojv Sylburg : iTTTrewv O. 



^ The Consualia was in origin a harvest festival held in 
honour of Consus, an ancient Italic god of agriculture. 
His altar was kept covered with earth except at these 
festivals (c/. Plutarch, Rom. 14, 3), perhaps to commemo- 
rate an ancient practice of storing the garnered grain under- 
ground or else to symbolize the secret processes of nature 
in the production of crops. At the Consualia horses and 
mules were given a holiday and crowned with flowers, as 
we have already seen (i. 33, 2). Because of the races held 

402 



BOOK II. 31, 2-32, 1 

Consualia,* in the course of which a subterranean 
altar, erected near the Circus Maximus, is un- 
covered by the removal of the soil round about it 
and honoured with sacrifices and burnt-offerings of 
first-fruits and a course is run both by horses yoked 
to chariots and by single horses. The god to whom 
these honours are paid is called Consus by the 
Romans, being the same, according to some who 
render the name into our tongue, as Poseidon 
Seisichthon or the " Earth-shaker '' ; and they say 
that this god was honoured with a subterranean 
altar because he holds the earth. ^ I know also from 
hearsay another tradition, to the effect that the 
festival is indeed celebrated in honour of Neptune 
and the horse-races are held in his honour, but 
that the subterranean altar was erected later to a 
certain divinity whose name may not be uttered, 
who presides over and is the guardian of hidden 
counsels ; for a secret altar has never been erected to 
Neptune, they say, in any part of the world by either 
Greeks or barbarians. But it is hard to say what 
the truth of the matter is. 

XXXII. When,^ now, the report of the seizure of 
the virgins and of their marriage was spread among 
the neighbouring cities, some of these were incensed 
at the proceeding itself, though others, considering 

on his festival the god came to be identified with Poseidon 
Hippies. The name Consus is evidently derived from the 
verb condere{'' to store up " ) ; but the Romans connected it 
with consilium and thought of him as a god of counsels 
and secret plans. 

2 Or " upholds the earth." Compare his Greek epithet 
Fat-qoxos (" Eai-th-u|)holding "). 

» For chaps. 32-36 c/. Livy i. 10 ; 11, 1-5. 

403 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Kal els o reAo? exc^p'rjcrev di^aAoyt^o^ei^at /xerpCoj^ 
avTO €(f)€pov, KaT€OKr]ip€ 8' ovv dva \p6vov els 
TToXefiovs Tovs piev dXXovs evTrerels, eva he rov 
TTpos UaPlvov? pLeyav Kal ;)^aAeTrop' • of? airactL reXos 
eTTTjKoXovOrjaev evrvx^s, cjoirep avro) ra fiavrevpuara 
TTpoeOeGTTLcre irplv e7TL)(€Lp7]aaL rep epyco, novovs piev 
Koi KLvhvvovs pLeydXovs TrpoorrjpLalvoi^Ta, rds Se 

2 reXetrras avrojv ecread at KaXds. rjuav he at Trpcorat 
TToXeis apfacrat rod TTpos avrov iroXepLov KaLvlvr] 
Kal "AvrepLva Kal KpovaropLepia, irpoc^aGLv pLev 
TTOiovpievai rrjv dpTrayrjv rojv Trapdevwv Kal ro pLrj 
Xapelv VTTep avrcoi^ hcKas, (Ls he raXrjdes ef^ev 
dxdopLevai rfj Kriaei re Kal av^rjcrei rrjs 'Pa)pLr)s 8t* 
oXlyov TToXXfj yevopLevT) Kal ovk d^iovaai Trepuhelv 
KOLVov eirl rots TrepioiKOLs aTracri KaKov (f>v6pLevov. 

3 reojs ptev ovv npo? ro Za^ivojv eOvos aTToareXXovaai 
TTpeo^eis eKeivovs rj^tovv rrjv rjyepLOviav rov iroXepLov 
TrapaXa^eZv lcr)(vv re pLeytor-qv e^ovras Kal p^prJ^Ltaat 
TrXelcrrov ^ hwap^evovs dpxeiv re d^iovvras ru)V 
irXiqcno'xojpojv Kal ovk eXd^LGra rojv dXXojv nepi- 
v^LOpLevovs ' rcbv yap rjpTTaapLevcov at irXeiovs rjaav 
eKeivoiv. 

XXXIII. 'EiTel 8' ovhev eTripaivov avriKadiGra- 
fxevcov avrals rcjv napd rov ' PojpLvXov Trpea^etcji^ 
Kal depairevovdiov Xoyois re Kal epyois ro edvos, 
dx^opLevaL rfj rpt^fj rod xP^vov, pLeXXovrcuv del ra)v 
Zla^ivajv Kal dvaf^aXXopLevcvv elg XP^^^^^ pLaKpovs 

^ nAeiarov Cobet, nXelov Steph.^ : TrAetoat O. 

404 



BOOK TT. :^2. 1-33. 1 

the motive from which it sprann; ami the outcome to 
which it led. bore it with moderation ; but, at any 
rate, in the course of time it occasioned several 
wars, of which the rest were of small consequence, 
but that against the Sabines was a great and difficult 
one. All these wars ended happily, as the oracles 
had foretold to Romulus before he undertook the 
task, indicating as they did that the difficulties 
and dangers would be great but that their outcome 
would be prosperous. The first cities that made 
war upon him were Caenina, Antemnae and Crus- 
tumerium. They put forward as a pretext the 
seizure of the virgins and their failure to receive 
satisfaction on their account ; but the truth was 
that they were displeased at the founding of Rome 
and at its great and rapid increase and felt that they 
ought not to permit this city to grow up as a com- 
mon menace to all its neighbours For the time 
being, then, these cities were sending ambassadors 
to the Sabines, asking them to take the command of 
the war, since they possessed the greatest military 
strength and were most powerful by reason of their 
wealth and were laying claim to the rule over their 
neighbours and inasmuch as they had suffered from 
the Romans' insolence quite as much as any of the 
rest : for the greater part of the virgins who had been 
seized belonged to them. 

XXXIII. But when they found they were accom- 
plishing nothing, since the embassies from Romulus 
opposed them and courted the Sabine people both 
by their words and by their actions, they were 
vexed at the waste of time — for the Sabines were 
forever affecting delays and putting off to distant 

405 



DTONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TTjv 7T€pl Tov TToXe/jLov ^ovXijv , avTal KaO^ iaVTO.? 
kyvcoaav rots ' PcofiaioL? TToXefxelv, a.7TO)(prjv olofMevaL 
TTjv oLKetav hvvafXLv, el Kad^ ev at rpel? yevoivro^ 
fjLLav dpaorOai ^ ttoXlv ov fieydXrjv. e^ovXevaavro 
fjiev ravra, (rvveXdelv 8' ovk €(f)dr)Gap €ls ev airacraL 
GTparoTTeoov TTpoe^avaoravrajv 7Tpo)(€Lp6Tepov tojv 
€K TTJ? KaiVLvrjSy olirep kol fxaXtara ehoKovv rov 
2 TToXejJLOv ev'dyeLv. i^earparevpuevajv Se rovr ojv /cat 
hrjovvrojv ttjv opiopov, e^ayaywv rrjv hvvapnv 6 
'Pojp.vXog dcf)vXdKTOLg ovaiv ert rot? noXepiLOLs 
aTTpoGhoKrjTOJS eTTiriBerai /cat tov re ^(dpaKos 
avTCJv dprlajs iBpvpLevov yiverai Kvpio? rols re 
^evyovGLV els r-qv ttoXlv e/c noSog eTTopLevog, ovSeTTO) 
TOJV ei'Sov TTeTTVGpLevoji' TTjv irepl tovs Gcj^erepovs 
ovpL(f)opdv, relxds re d(f)vXaKrov evpojv /cat TTvXas 
aKXeloTovg alpel rrjv ttoXlv e^ icfyohov /cat rov jSacrt- 
Xea rcbv KatviVLrajv VTravrrjuavra ovv Kaprepa 
X^f-p'f- poLxdpLevos avrox^Lpla Kreivei /cat rd onXa 
a^atpeirat. 

XXXIV. Tovrov he rov rpoirov dXovaris rrjg 
TToXeojs rd oirXa TrapaSovvat rovg dXovras KeXevaas 
/cat TratSa? et? opL-qpeiav, ovs e^ovXero, Xa^ojv eirl 
rovs ^Avrepvdras i)((x)peL. yevopLevos Be /cat 7~^s" 
eKeivcov hvvdpLeoJS eGKeSacrpLevqs en Kard rds 
TTpovopids rfj Trap' eXTTtSag e(f)6Scp Kaddrrep /cat 
rrjs TTporepas eyKparrjg /cat rd avrd rov? dXovra? 
BtaOels dTrrjyev eV olkov rrjv hvvapLiv, dycov orKvXd 

^ apaadai Cobet : alpeiodax A, alprjiadax Ba, alp-qaeip Bb, 
aiprjaaL R. 

406 



BOOK TI. 33. 1-34. 1 

dates the deliberation coneernino the war — and 
resolved to make war upon the Romans by them- 
selves alone, beheving that their own strength, if the 
three cities joined forces, was sufTicicnt to conquer 
one inconsiderable city. This was their plan : but 
they did not all assemble together promptly enough 
in one camp, since the Caeninenses, who seemed to be 
most eager in promoting the war, rashly set out ahead 
of the others. When these men, then, had taken the 
field and were wasting the country that bordered 
on their own, Romulus led out bis army, and un- 
expectedly falling upon the enemy while they were as 
yet off their guard, he made himself master of their 
camp, which was but just completed. Then follow- 
ing close upon the heels of those who fled into the city, 
where the inhabitants had not as yet learned of the 
defeat of their forces, and finding the walls unguarded 
and the gates unbarred, he took the town by storm ; 
and when the king of the Caeninenses met him with 
a strong body of men, he fought with him, and 
slaying him with his own hands, stripped him of his 
arms. 

XXXIV. The town being taken in this manner, 
he ordered the prisoners to deliver up their arms, 
and taking such of their children for hostages as 
he thought fit, he marched against the Antemnates. 
And having conquered their army also, in the same 
manner as the other, by falling upon them un- 
expectedly while they were still dispersed in foraging, 
and having accorded the same treatment to the 
prisoners, he led his army home, carrying with him 

407 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

T€ OLTTO TCOV TreTTTCOKOTCxJV ^ KaTOL TTjV ^d)(rjV Kal 

aKpodivia Xacbvpcjtjv Oeol?, Kal ttoXXol': d/ia Tovroig 

2 dvuias cVotT^craro. TeXevraLO<; Se ttj'^ TrofJLTrrjg av- 
ro? eTTopevero eoOrjra fiev ri/j.cf)LeG/jLevog dXoupyrj, 
hd^vT] he KareGTefxjJLevog rd? KOfia'? Kai, Iva to 
^aoCXeLOv d^LOjfJLa aiv^rj, redpiTTTTOj 7Tape/j,p€^7]Ka)g. 
T) 3' dXXrj SvvaixLS avro) TraprjKoXovOeL iret^cov re 
Koi iTTTTecou K€KOG(jLrjfi€vrj Kard reXr] Oeovg re 
Vfivovaa Trarpiois (l)hais Kal rov rjye/jiova KvSal- 
vovaa 7TOLT]iJLaGLv avrocrxeSloLs. ol S' e'/c rrjs 
TToXecos VTrrjurcov avrol? d/uLa yuvai^i re koi reKvoug 
nap* dfjL(t>a) rd fJLeprj ri]s oSov rfj re i^lkt) crvvr)86' 
fievoL Kal rr]V dXXrjv drraoav evheiKvvfievoi <1>lXo' 
(j)po(Jvvriv . cos he TraprjXdeu rj 8uVa/xt? els ttju ttoXlv 
KparrjpGi re errervyx'^^^^ olvo) KeKpafxevois Kat 
TpanelaLS rpo<f)rjS -naiToias ye/JLovaaLs , at irapd rds 
e7Ti(j>ave(jrdras rwu oIklcov eKeivro, Iva e/jL(f)opeL(TdaL 

3 Tols'^ povXoixevois fj. rj fiev ovu emviKios re koX 
Tpo7raLO(f)6pos TTOfXTTr] Kal dvuia, rjv KaXovGi 'Pco/xatot 
dpiafji^ov, VTTO 'PojfjLvXov TTpcorov KaraaradelcTa 
roiavrr] ns rjv ev he rco KaO^ rjfJids jStoj TToXvreXrjs 
yeyove Kal aXal,<jjv els nXovrov fxaXXov eVtSet^tt' t} 
hoKTjGLv dperrjs entrpayajhov/JLeur} kol Kad* drraaav 

4 Iheav eK^e^-qKe rrjv dp;^atai' evreXeiau. fxerd he 

1 Tf^-jmuKOTOiv Biicheler, airodavovrcov or aXovrwv Steph.*, 
owoAojAoTcov Reiske, TT^aovrcov Kiessling: a-noiKojv O. 
■'' in.4>op€iaO(u Tols Biicheler : toIs dfj^opeladau O. 

408 



BOOK II. 34, 1-4 

the spoils of those ^vho had been slain in battle 
and the choicest part of the booty as an offering 
to the gods ; and he offered many sacrifices besides. 
Romulus himself came last in the procession, clad 
in a purple robe and wearing a crown of laurel 
upon his head, and, that he might maintain the 
royal dignity, he rode in a chariot drawn by four 
horses.^ The rest of the army, both foot and horse, 
followed, ranged in their several divisions, praising 
the gods in songs of their country and extolling 
their general in improvised verses. They were met 
by the citizens with their wives and children, who, 
ranging themselves on each side of the road, con- 
gratulated them upon their victory and expressed 
their welcome in every other way. When the army 
entered the city, they found mixing bowls filled to 
the brim with wine and tables loaded down with all 
sorts of viands, which were placed before the most 
distinguished houses in order that all who pleased 
might take their fill. Such was the victorious pro- 
cession, marked by the carrying of trophies and 
concluding with a sacrifice, which the Romans call 
a triumph, as it was first instituted by Romulus. 
But in our day the triumph has become a very 
costly and ostentatious pageant, being attended 
with a theatrical pomp that is designed rather as 
a display of wealth than as the approbation of 
valour, and it has departed in every respect from 
its ancient simplicity. After the procession and the 

1 Plutarch {Romulus 16) corrects Dionysius on this point, 
claiming that the first Tarquin, or, according to some, 
Publicola, was the first to use a chariot in the triumphal 
procession. 

409 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TT^v TTOfjLTnjv T€ Kol OvGLOV veojv Kara(TK€vd(ias 6 
^PojfivXos i-nl rrjg Kopv(f)rj? rov KaTTircoXiov ^ J to?, 
ov iTTiKaXovGi 'Paj[JLaloL 0epeTpiov, ov [xeyav {en 
yap avTov crcL^eraL to dpxoiiop 'Ix^o? iXdrrovas rj 
TTevre ttoSojv /cat SeVa rd? fxei^ovg TrXevpds e^or), 
€v TOVTCp KaOiepojae rd GKvXa rod KaLviviTcov 
^aatXeoj^, ov au7o;!^et/3ta KareLpydcraro . tov he 
Ala rov 0ep€TpLov, cL rd OTrXa 6 'PajfivXas 
dvedrjKev, eire /SouAerat rL<£ TponaLovxov eire 

EKvXo<^6pOV KaXeZv CO? d^iOVGL TLVe? €W\ OTL 

TrdvriDV V7T€p€)(€L Kal Trdcrav ev kvkXco TTepieLXrjcfie 
rrjv rd)v ovrojv cf)vuLV re Kal Kivrjcnv, 'Yrrepcjieperrji--, 
ovx dpLaprtjaerat rrjs dX-qdetag. 

XXXV 'Qg S' drrehcoKe roc? deols 6 ^aacXevg 
rd^ XapLGTrjpLOV? dvalag re /cat dirap-^ds, irplv rj 
rcjv dXXojv ri hiarrpd^aodai ^ovXr]v erroielro Trepl 
Taiv KparrjdeKjdjv TToXecxjv, dvriva XP'^^'^^^v avrals 
rpoTTov, avTO? ^v VTreXdjJLJiave KparLGrrjv elvat 
2 yvojixrjv TrpdJros dTToSeL^dfxevo?. ojs Se 77acrt rot? 
ev ro) (TVvehpLOj TrapovGiv rj re dachdXeia rojv 
^ovXevfjidrajv rov -qyepbovo'^ rjpeorKe /cat rj Xajmnpo- 
rr]? rd re dXXa doa e^ avrojv yevrjcrerai rfj noXei 
Xprjcri-p^OL ovK ev rw TTapaxprjpLa fiovov oAAct /cat 
els drravra rov dXXov ;(povoi^ eTTTjveZrOy orvveXdeTv 
KeXevoas to,? yvvalKas ocrat rod re ^AvrepLvarcjv 
/cat rov Kaa-LVLrcov ervy^avov ovoai yevovg, rjpTTa- 
GfievaL 8e dfia rals dXXats, eVet he- avvrjXdov 6Xo(f)vp6- 
fxevai, re Kal rrpoKvXLOfJLevat Kal rds rdJv Trarpihcov 

^ X6<f>ov after KaTn-wXiov deleted by Kiessling. 
* eWi §€ Kiessling: irreiSr] O. 

410 



BOOK II. 3t. 4-35, 2 

sacrifice Romulus built a small temple on the summ'l 
of the Capitoline hill to Jupiter whom the Romans 
call Feretrius ; indeed, the ancient traces of it still 
remain, of which the longest sides are less than fifteen 
feet. In this temple he consecrated the spoils of 
the king of the Caeninenses, whom he had slain with 
his own hand. As for Jupiter Feretrius, to whom 
Romulus dedicated these arms, one will not err from 
the truth whether one wishes to call him Tropaiouchos^ 
or Skylophoros, as some will have it. or, since he 
excels all things and comprehends universal nature 
and motion, Hyperpheretes.^ 

XXXV. After the king had offered to the gods 
the sacrifices of thanksgiving and the first-fruits of 
victor^S before entering upon any other business, 
he assembled the senate to deliberate with them in 
what manner the conquered cities should be treated, 
and he himself first delivered the opinion he thought 
the best. When all the senators who were present 
had approved of the counsels of their chief as both 
safe and brilliant and had praised all the other ad- 
vantages that were likely to accrue from them to the 
commonwealth, not only for the moment but for 
all future time, he gave command for the assembling 
of all the women belonging to the race of the 
Antemnates and of the Caeninenses who had been 
seized with the rest. And when they had assembled, 
lamenting, throwing themselves at his feet and 
bewailing the calamities of their native cities, he 

1 These three Greek words mean, respectively, " Bearer 
(or Receiver) of Trophies,'' " Bearer of Spoils,'" and 
" Supreme." Dionysius obv-iously derived Feretrius from 
ferre ("to bear"'); but modem scholars agree with Pro- 
pertius (iv. 10, 46) in connecting it with ferire (" to 
strike "). 

411 



DIONYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

dra/cAaioucrat tvxol?, €7tlg)(€'li> rcov ohvpfichv Ka\ 

3 (TLCoTTrjcraL KeXevaas eXe^e ■ ''Tot? fxev vfjierepoig 
TTarpdoL Kol dSeA^ots- /cat oAat? rals TToXeaiv v/jlwv 
dnaura rd Seim ot^eiXe-ai TraSelv, on TroXejxov 
durl (f)iXias ovre dvayKatow ovt€ KaXou dveCXovro • 
rjfjiels §€ TToXXdJi^ ev€K€v iyvojKafJLev /xerpta XPV' 
aaaOaL yvojjxr] TTpos avrovs dewu re vefieaLv v(l)opoj- 
fX€VOL Trjv drraGL rols vrrepoyKois iviurapLev-qv Koi 
dvdpomojv (f)d6vov SeStore? eXeov re kolvwv KaKwv 
ov piLKpov epavov elvai uopLL^ovTeg , c6? Kav ^ avrol 
TTore rod Trap* irepcov Serjdevre?, v[.uv re ov ^e/xTrrat? 
virapxovGais P-^XP'- '''ovSe irepi rovs iavrwv dV8pa? 
ov pLLKpdv ol6pL€voi ravrTjv ecrecr^at npur^v kol xdp^v. 

4 TTapUfiev ovv avrois rr]v dpcaprdha ravrrjv d^'qpnov 
Kal ovre eXevdeplav ovre KrrjoLV ovr dXXo ra)V 
dyaOuJv ovhkv rovs TToXtras vpidjv d(f)aLpovpLe6a. 
ecjiUpLev Se rolg re pLeveiv yXixopuevotg eKel Kal rots 
puereveyKacrdaL ^ovXopLevois rds oiKijcreLS dKLvSvvov 
re Kal dpLerapLeXr^rov rrjv alpeatv. rod 8e pirjSev 
en avrovs e7Te^ap.aprelv pir^h^ evpeOrjval n XPVH-^' 
o TTOL-qaei rds TroXeig hLaXvcracrOat rrjv TTpds rjpLas 
<j)iXiav, <^dpp.aKov -qyovp^eOa Kpdnarov etvaL rrpos 
evho^iav re Kal rrpds dG(j)dXeiav rd avrd XPV^^I^ov 
dpL(f)orepoLS, el TTOirjoaipiev drroiKLas rrjg ^PojpLrjS 
rds TToXeis Kal gvvoikovs avrals TrepupaLpLev avroQev 
rovs LKavovs. dmre ovv dyadrjv exovaai SidvoLav 
Kal SiTrXaGLOiS rj vporepov dGTrd^eGde Kal npidre 
rovs dvhpas, v(f>* (Lv youels re vpLoJv eGajdrioav Kal 

* Kav Kiessling: /cat O. 
412 



BOOK II. 35, 2-4 

commanded them to cease their lamentations and 
be silent, then spoke to them as follows : " Your 
fathers and brothers and your entire cities deserve 
to suffer every severity for having preferred to our 
friendship a war that was neither necessary nor 
honourable. We, however, have resolved for many 
reasons to treat them with moderation ; for. we not 
onlv fear the vengeance of the gods, which ever 
threatens the arrogant, and dread the ill-will of men, 
but we also are persuaded that mercy contributes 
not a little to alleviate the common ills of man- 
kind, and we realize that we ourselves may one 
day stand in need of that of others. And we be- 
lieve that to you, whose behaviour towards your 
husbands has thus far been blameless, this will be 
no small honour and favour. We suffer this offence 
of theirs, therefore, to go unpunished and take from 
your fellow citizens neither their liberty nor their 
possessions nor any other advantages they enjoy ; 
and both to those who desire to remain there and 
to those who wish to change their abode we grant 
full liberty to make their choice, not only without 
danger but without fear of repenting. But, to prevent 
their ever repeating their fault or the finding of any 
occasion to induce their cities to break off their 
alliance with us, the best means, we consider, and 
that which will at the same time conduce to the 
reputation and security of both, is for us to make 
those cities colonies of Rome and to send a sufficient 
number of our own people from here to inJiabit them 
jointly with your fellow citizens. Depart, therefore, 
with good courage ; and redouble your love and 
regard for your husbands, to whom your parents 

413 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

dS€X(f)OL Kal TrarptSes" eXevdepai dcf)L€PTaL.^' at jjikv 
8r] yvvaLK€S co? TaOr' rJKOVcrav TT^piy^apeis yevofxevaL 
Kal TToXXd SaKpva vcf)^ rjSovrjg d(f>€LGaL fieTearrjaav 
eK rrjs dyopds, 6 Se 'PcxjpivXos rpiaKocrLov? piev 
dvSpa? €LS iKaripav dnoLKov? aTrecrretAev, otg 
ehoaav at rroXeis rpir-qv KaTaKXripovxTjaai pLoZpav 
rrjg iavrcbv yrJ£. KaivtvLTCx)v he Kal ^AvrepLvarcJjv 
rovg ^ovXopievov? pLeraOeadat ttjv oiKYjcrLv els 
'PiopLrjv yvvai^lv dpua Kal reKvois pLerijyayov kXt]' 
povs re Tovs eavrojv exovras Kal ;\;p7j^aTa (j)epo- 
pievovg ocra eKeKTTjvro, ovs evOvs els (j>vXds Kal 
(j) par pas 6 ^ao-iXevs Kareypaijse} rpto^ tAtcDV ovk 
eXdrrovs ovras, cucrre rovs aupLTravras e^aKLaxiXlovs 
Tre^ovs 'PcopLaloLs rore npcorov eK KaraXoyov ye- 
veaOai. KaLvivrj p.ev Sr] Kal "Avrepuva iroXeis ovk 
dcriQpLOL yevos exovaac ro ^ EXXtjvlkov , A^opiylves 
yap avrds d(j)eX6p,evoi rovs SiKeXovs Kareo^ov, 
Olvwrpcou pLotpa rojv e^ ApKaStas d^LKopievtov , a»? 
etpT^rai. pLOL Trporepov, puerd rovBe rov noXepLov 
dnoLKiai 'PcopLalan' yeyevqvro. 

XXXVI. '0 he 'PcopLvXos ravra SiaTTpa^dpLevos 
enl KpovorropLepLVOvs iidyet rrjv Grpandv irapeoKev- 
acTpievovs dpLetvov rcov rrporepajv ' ovs e/c rrapa- 
rd^eojs re Kal reixopLaxlcLS TrapaGrrjadpievos dvSpas 
dyadovs Kara rov dycova yevopuevovs ovhev en 
hLaOeZvai KaKov rj^lojcrev, dXXd Kal ravrrjv eTTOtrjaev 
diTCKKou 'Pojpiaicov rrjv rroXiv axjirep rds nporepas. 
-qv he ro KpovGropieptov AX^avojv dnoKrcGLS ^ 



^ Biicheler: KaT€ypa(l>€ O. 

^ diTOKTiois ABa : aTroLKrjaLS Bb. 



414 



BOOK TI. 3S, 5-:^6, 2 

and brothers owe their preservation and your coun- 
tries their liberty.' The women, hearing this, were 
greatly pleased, and shedding many tears of joy, 
left the Forum ; but Romulus sent a colony of three 
hundred men into each city, to whom these cities 
gave a third part of their lands to be di\ ided among 
them by lot. And those of the Caeninenses and 
Antemnates who desired to remove to Rome they 
brought thither together with their wives and 
children, permitting them to retain their allotments 
of land and to take with them all their possessions ; 
and the king immediately enrolled them, numbering 
not less than three thousand, in the tribes and the 
curiae, so that the Romans had then for the first 
time six thousand foot in all upon the register. Thus 
Caenina and Antemnae, no inconsiderable cities, 
whose inhabitants were of Greek origin (for the 
Aborigines had taken the cities from the Sicels and 
occupied them, these Aborigines being, as I said 
before, part of those Oenotrians who had come out 
of Arcadia ^), after this war became Roman colonies. 
XXXVI. Romulus, having attended to these 
matters, led out his army against the Crustumerians, 
who were better prepared than the armies of the 
other cities had been. And after he had reduced 
them both in a pitched battle and in an assault upon 
their city, although they had shown great bravery 
in the struggle, he did not think fit to punish them 
any further, but made this city also a Roman colony 
like the two former. Crustumerium was a colony of 

li. 13. 

415 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TToXXolg TTporepov rfjg 'PatjJL'qs aTToaraXeZoa )(p6voL?. 
SLayyeXXovcrrjs 8e rrjs ^Tjix-qs ttoXXols TToXeat -rqv re 
Kara iroXefiov? yevvaiOT'qTa rod rjyefJLOvog /cat rrju ^ 
Trpos" Tovs KparrjOevTa? eTneiKecav dvSpes re avTCo 
TTpooeridevTo ttoXXoI kol dyaOol SwafMei? a^ioxpiovg 
TTavoLKLO. jJL€Tavi(jrafJL€va? eTTayojJLevoi, cov e^' ivo? 
rjyefxovos eV Tvppiqvias iXdovrog, (h KaiXios ovofia 
rjv, Tcjv X6(j)(xiv TLS, ev d) KadiSpvOrj, KalXtos els 
ToSe -x^povov KaXelraL • xat noXeis oAat TrapehlhoGav 
iavrag oltto rrj? MeSvXXlvcov ap^dpLevat kol iyivovro 
3 PcopLaicov OLTroLKLaL. Ua^LPOL 8e ravra opcJovres 
rjx^ovTO Kal 8l^ atrtas" dXX'^Xov? el^ov, on ovk 
dpxo{jLev7]P TTji' ' Poj/JLaLcov laxpv eKCjXvoav, oAA* 
€776 fMeya TTporjKovcrrj orvpLcpepeGdaL epLeXXov, eSd/cet 
re auTOi? eTTavopOajGaoBai ttju irporepav dyvoiau 
d$LoX6yov SvvdpLeojs dTToaroXrj. Kal fierd rovro 
dyopdv 7TOLr]adpL€voL crvfiTravres ev rfj pLeyiGTrj re 
TToXet Kal TrXelarov d^ttu/xa ixovcrr] rod edvovs, fj 
KvpLS ovofia riv, ilfrjcjiov vrrep rod noXepiov ^L-qveyKau 
dTTohei^avres rjyepiova rrjs Grparids Tlrov, o? erre- 
KaXelro Tdrios, ^aotXea Kvptroiv. Za^lvoL pLev 
hr) ravra ^ovXevadp^evoi Kal hiaXvdevres Kara rds 
TToXeis rd TTpos rop voXepLOi- ■qvrpeTril.ovrOy ojs els 
vecora eirl rrjp 'Pcopi-qv ttoXXtj x^^P'' ^Xduovres . 

XXXVII. 'Ev rovrcp 8e Kal 6 'PcopLvXos dvri- 
7TapeGKevdl,€ro rd KpartGra, cLs dpLVvovpievos duSpag 
rd TToXepLta aXKipbOVSt rod pLCV IJaXariov ro relxos 
CO? docj^aX^Grepov elvai rols evhov vijjrjXorepois ipv~ 
jxaGLV eyeipajv, rovs Se TrapaK^ipLevovs avro) X6(f)ous 
^ T-qv Ainbrosch : om. O, Jacoby. 

416 



BOOK TI. 36, 2-37, 1 

the Albans sent out many years before the founding 
of Rome. The fame of the general's valour in war 
and of his clemency to the conquered being spread 
through many cities, many brave men joined him, 
bringing with them considerable bodies of troops, 
who migrated with their whole families. From one 
of these leaders, who came from Tyrrhenia and whose 
name was Caelius, one of the hills, on which he 
settled, is to this day called the Caelian, Whole 
cities also submitted to him, beginning with Meduilia, 
and became Roman colonies. But the Sabines, 
seeing these things, were displeased and blamed one 
another for not having crushed the power of the 
Romans while it was in its infancy, instead of which 
they were now to contend with it when it was greatly 
increased. They determined, therefore, to make 
amends for their former mistake by sending out 
an army of respectable size. And soon afterwards, 
assembling a general council in the greatest and 
most famous city of the nation, called Cures, they 
voted for the war and appointed Titus, surnamed 
Tatius, the king of that city, to be their general. 
After the Sabines had come to this decision, the 
assembly broke up and all returned home to their 
several cities, where they busied themselves with 
their preparations for the war, planning to advance 
on Rome with a great army the following year. 

XXXVII. In the meantime Romulus also was 
making the best preparations he could in his turn, 
realizing that he was to defend himself against 
a warlike people. With this in view, he raised 
the wall of the Palatine hill by building higher 
ramparts upon it as a further security to the in- 
habitants, and fortified the adjacent hills — the 

417 



DIOrsYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TOV T€ AveVTLVOV KOI TOV KaTTLTOjXlvOV vvv Aeyo" 

fjLevoi aTToracjypevcxiv Kal ^apaKOJiiaGL Kaprepols 
77 e piXa^jL^dvcuv , ev ols to. noLfivLa Kal tov? yecopyovs 
avXlieodaL ras vvKrag CTrera^ev €)(€'yyva) <j>povpa 
KaraXa^ojv eKarepov, Kal ct tl d'AAo ^atpiov da(f)d- 
XcLav avTOLS rrapi^eiv e/xeAAev aTToracjipevajv Kal 

2 TT€.pLGravpcov Kal Sid cfivXaKrjs €xco^- ^>ce 8e avTCo 
Tvpprji'ojv eTTiKovpiav LKavrjv dywv eV EoXoiviov ^ 
TToXews di'Tjp hpaorrjpLo^ Kal rd noXefjua- SLa(f)avrjS, 
AoKOfJiwv ouofjLa, cfyiXog ov upo ttoXKov yeyovcog, Kal 
Trap" ^AXPavcov dvSpe?, ovs 6 Trdmros eTrepLijiev avrto, 
ovxyol orparLOiTaL re Kal inqperai Kal Te-)(ylrai 
TToXefJLLKCov epycjv , alros re Kal oirXa Kal ooa tov- 
TOLS TipoG^opa rjv iKavojs ^ dnavra i7T€)(opr)yelTo. 

3 ijrel 8' eV eroipicp rd irpos tov dycova rjv eKarepois, 
eapos dpxofievov fieXXovres i^dyeiv ol ZaptvoL rds 
hwdpLEiS eyvwGav dTTOoreiXai TTpeG^eiav npajrov (hs 
roijs TToXefjLLOvg rds re yvvaiKas d^idoGOVGav diro- 
Aa/Setv Kal hiKas vnep avrchv alrrjGovGav rrjg 
dpTTayrjS, Iva Brj St' di^dyKTjV Sokcoglv dv€LX'q<f)€vaL 
TOV TToXefJLOV ov rvy)(^dvovTes riop hiKaicjv, Kal rovg 

4 KT]pvKag eTTepLTTOv iirl ravra. ' PojpivXov Se dL^Louv- 
Tos rds pi€v yvvaiKas, iTreihr) ouS' aural? dKovoats 

^ OvoXaiviov O. Miiller. OviToKwviov Cluver, JloTT^atviov 
Casaubon. 

^ (pya after -rroXcfjiia deleted by Ambrosch. 
^ iHai<Zs Sinteiiis : xal ols AB. 

418 



BOOK II. 37, 1-4 

Aventine and the one now called the Capitoline — 
with ditches and strong palisades, and upon these 
hills he ordered the husbandmen with their flocks 
to pass the nights, securing each of them by a sufli 
cient garrison ; and likewise any other place that 
promised to afford them security he fortified wifch 
ditches and palisades and kept under guard. In the 
meantime there came to him a man of action and 
reputation for military achievements, named Lucumo. 
lately become his friend, who brought with him 
from the city of Solonium ^ a considerable body of 
Tyrrhenian mercenaries. There came to him also 
from the Albans, sent by his grandfather, a goodly 
number of soldiers with their attendants, and with 
them artificers for making engines of war ; these 
men were adequately supplied with provisions, 
arms and all necessary equipment. When every 
thing was ready for the war on both sides, the Sabines. 
who planned to take the field at the beginning ol 
spring, resolved first to send an embassy to the 
enemy both to ask for the return of the women and 
to demand satisfaction for their seizure, just so 
that they might seem to have undertaken the war 
from necessity when they failed to get justice, 
and they were sending the heralds for this purpose. 
Romulus, however, asked that the women, since 
they themselves were not unwilling to live with 

i Solonium was an ancient city about twelve miJes from 
Rome, near the Ostian Way. It disappeared at an early 
date, but its name survived in the Soloniu.^ ager. The 
statement ot Uioriysius is coutirmed by Propertius iv. 1. 
31, where the latest editions, followiriti the Neapolitan 
MS., read hinc Titien Ram7iee<que v%ri Lucere«que i^otori' 
(instead ot coioni). 

419 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

o fJLCTa. Tcjv dvSpojv ^Los r)v, edv Trapd rols yeyai^L-q- 
KOGL [xeveLv, el 8e' nvos dXkov heovrai, Xafi^dvetv 
CO? TTapd (f)LXaji>, ttoAc'/xou Se /jltj dp-)(^eLv, ovhevl 
Twv d^iovyi€voji' vrraKOVcravres e^rjyov rrjv arparidv 
7r€C,ovg [Jiev dyovres nevraKLcrxi-XiOVS eirl Suo fJLvpid- 

5 GLV, L7T7T€L5 Se oAtyou SeovTa? xiXiojv. rjv Se /cat 
rj ^ TCJV 'PcofxaCcov 8wa/it? ov ttoXv ttjs Sa^ivojv 
diToheovaa "^ hvo fxev at rwv rret^ajv /JLupidSes, oKra- 
KoatOL 8' iTTTTels, Koi 7rpoeKd6r]TO rrjs noXecxJ? Si)(fj 
SLTjp-qjJLevY], jjLia jxev fjLolpa rov 'EctkvXlvov Karexovcra 
X6(f)oVy €(/>' 77? avrds 6 'PojfjLvXo? rju, irepa 8e rov 
Kvpiviov ovTTO) ^ ravr-qv * exovra rrju TTpocrrjyopiav, 
rJ9 6 Tupp-qvos rjv AoKOfJioJU rjyefxcjv. 

XXXVIII. MaBojv he TTjv TTapaGKevTju avTCJV 
TdTios ^ 6 Tcjjv Za^ivojv ^acnXevs vvktos dvaaTqaa? 
rov cnparov rjye Bid rrjs X^P^^ ovSev GLvofJuevog^ 
rcjv Kard rov? dypovs kol nplv dvareZXat rov 
tJXlov /xera^v rov re Kvptvlov Kal rod KaTnrcoXiov 
rl9r)GLv ev ro) TreSico rov xdpaKa. 6pd)v 8e da(f>aXeL 
irdvra (f>vXaKfj KarexojJieva rrpos rojv TToXefxicov ^ 
G(f)iGL 8e ovSev ;^a»ptov' drroXenroixevov oxvpov elg 
TToXXrju eveTTLTTrev diroplav ovk excov o n ;^p7ycreTat 

2 rfj rpL^fj rov xpo^ov. dfirjxoL'^ovvrL Se avrw Trapd- 
So^os evrvx^o. yiverai irapaSoOevros rov Kparlarov 
rd)v ox^pi^f^drcov Kard roidvSe rwd crvvrvxtav. 
rrape^iovrag ydp rrjv pil,av rov KainrajXiov rovg 
Za^ivov? els eirioKeijjiv , ei n fxepos evpedeirj rod 

^■fj added by Ambrosch. ^Cobet: Seovaa O, 

^ ovTTco Ambrosch : ov-nw re A, ovTrarre B. 
*Sylburg: avTrjv O. 
* Steph. : TUTis A Tiros B (and so elsewhere). 

420 



BOOK II. 37, 4-38. 2 

their husbands, should be permitted to remain with 
them ; but he offered to grant the Sabines anvthinf' 
else they desired, provided they asked it as from 
friends and did not begin war. Thereupon the 
others, agreeing to none of his proposals, led out 
their army, which consisted of twenty-five thousand 
foot and almost a thousand horse. And the Roman 
army was not much smaller than that of the Sabines, 
the foot amounting to twenty thousand and the 
horse to eight hundred ; it was encamped before the 
city in two divisions, one of them, under Romulus 
himself, being posted on the Esquiline hill, and the 
other, commanded by Lucumo, the Tyrrhenian, on 
the Quirinal. which did not as yet have that name. 
XXXVIII. Tatius,^ the king of the Sabines, being 
informed of their preparations, broke camp in the 
night and led his army through the country, without 
doing any damage to the property in the fields, and 
before sunrise encamped on the plain that lies be- 
tween the Quirinal and Capitoline hills. But ob- 
serving all the posts to be securely guarded by the 
enemy and no strong position left for his army, he 
fell into great perplexity, not knowing what use to 
make of the enforced delay. While he was thus at 
his wit's end, he met with an unexpected piece of good 
fortune, the strongest of the fortresses being delivered 
up to him in the following circumstances. It seems 
that, while the Sabines were passing by the foot of the 
Capitoline to view the place and see whether any part 

i For chaps. 38-44 c/. Livy i. 11, 6-12, 10. 



aivofievos Bb : olv(6fj.€vos Ba, olofxevos A. 

421 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

X6<j>ov kXotttj X-qcjjd'qvai hvvarov rj ^ta, Trapdevo^ rt? 
ano Tov fierecopov KarecrKOTret, Ovydrrip avhpos 
e7TL(f)ai'ov?, d) rrpouiKeiro rj tov xcupiov (f)uXaK'q, 

3 TapTTEia ovofjLa • Kal avTTjv, ojs fi^v ^d^iog re Kal 
KlyKLos ypd(f>ov(TLv, epojs et(7ep;)^erai rcov ipeXXlojv,^ 
d TTepl rols dpLCTTepoL^ ^paxtodLv i(f)6povv, Kal rcov 
SaKTvXlcov ■ )(pv(70(l)6pot yap rjcrau ot Ua^lvoL Tore 
Kal Tvppiqvcbv ovx rjTrov d^poSiatroL • cos Se IleLcrajv 
AevKLOs 6 TLfjLTjTLKos LdTopel, KaXov TTpdyfiaTo^ im- 
dvpLLa, yvjJLVovg rcov GKerraGTripicov ottXojv Trapa- 

4 B jVvaL roLS TToXiraLS rovs TToXe/jLLOus . oirorepov 8e 
TovTOjv dXiqOicjTepov e'crrti' e'/c rcav vorepov yevofievajv 
€^e(jTLV eLKdl,eiv. TripLifjacra S' ovv tcov depaTraivlZojv 
TLvd hid TTvXihos, Tjv ouSet? e/xa^ev dvoiyofjievrjv, 
rj^Lov TOV jSaatAea tojv Eaj^ivajv iXdelv avTrj St^a 
Tojv dXXcjjv els Xoyovs, d>s iKeivco hiaXe^opLevrj nepl 
TTpdyfJLaTOS dvayKalov Kal pLeydXov. he^afxevov Se 
Toi) TaTLov TOP Xoyov /car' iXTrlSa irpohooias Kal 
avveXdovTOs €ls tov dirohei-^OevTa tottov, npoeX- 
Oovoa els ecfjLKTOV rj napdevos i^eXrjXvdevai fiev 
vvKTog eV TOV ^povpiov tov naTepa avTrjs e(f)7) 
)(peLas TLvds eveKa, Tds §€ KXels avTT] ^vXdTTeiv 
T(x)V TTvXdjv Kal TTapahcjcjeiv avToZs to epvfia vvktos 
d(f)LKO/JLevoLS pllgOov TTJs TTpohooias Xa^ovaa Ta 
^opry/xara tCjv Sa^ivojv, d rrepl tols eva>vvfjLoi,s 

^ ijj^XXiojv Bb : ijjaXiojv Alia. 
422 



BOOK TT. 38. 2-4 

of the hill could be taken either by surprise or 
by force, they were observed from above by a 
maiden whose name was Tarpeia, the (lauo;hter of a 
distinguished man who had been entrusted with the 
guarding of the place. This maiden, as both Fabius 
and Cincius relate, conceived a desire for the bracelets 
which the men wore on tlifMr left arm'? and for their 
rings ; for at that time the Sabines wore ornaments 
of gold and were no less luxurious in thoir habits 
than the Tyrrhenians.^ But according to the ac- 
count given by Lucius Piso. the ex-censor, she was 
inspired by the desire of performing a noble deed, 
namely, to deprive the enemy of their defensive 
arms and thus deliver them up to her fellow citizens. 
Which of these accounts is the truer may be con- 
jectured by what happened afterwards. This girl, 
therefore, sending out one of her maids by a little 
gate which was not known to be open, desired the 
king of the Sabines to come and confer with her in 
private, as if she had an affair of necessity and im- 
portance to communicate to him. Tatius, in the 
hope of having the place betrayed to him. accepted 
the proposal and came to the place appointed ; and 
the maiden, approaching within speaking distance, 
informed him that her father had gone out of the 
fortress during the night on some business, but that 
she had the keys of the gates, and if they came in 
the night, she would deliver up the place to them 
upon condition that they gave her as a reward for 
her treachery the things which all the Sabines wore 

^ It need hardly be pointed out how inconsistent this 
description of the Sabines is with the traditional view of 
their character as given below at the end of chapter 49. 

423 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

5 el^ov arravres ^pa)(LOGLV. evhoKovvTOS Sc rov 
Ta-Lov Xa^ovaa rag TTLareis St' opKcov Trap' avrov 
/cat avrr^ hovaa rod fii] i/jevSecrOai ra? ojJLoXoyias 
TOTTOV re dpicracra, e^' ov eSet rovs Ua^u'ov? iXdeXv^ 
rov i)(vpa)rarov ^ kol vvKrog ojpav rrjv a(j>vXaKro- 
rdrrji' arrrjeL kol rovs evhov eXaOe. 

XXXIX. Mixpi- p-^v ^'TJ rovrojv gv iJL<j>epovr ai 
Trdures ol ' PcopLatajv avyypa(j)€Lg , eV Se rotS" vcrrepov 
XeyopuevoLg ov)( opuoXoyovcn . IJeiGcov yap 6 rifxr)- 
TLKos, ov Kat TTporepov ipLvrjoQ-qv, dyyeXov (f>rjcnv 
VTTO rrjs Taprreias aTTOcrraXrji'aL I'VKrwp €K rov 
)(OjpLOV hrjXojGovra raJ 'Poj/jlvXco rd? y€vop.€vas rfj 
Kopr] TTpo? rovs Ua^ivovs OfMoXoylas, on fieXXoL 
rd GK€7Taur'qpLa Trap* ^ avrojv alrelv orrXa hid rrjs 
KOiv6rr]ros rwv opioXoyLUJV TrapaKpovaapLevrj , Svva- 
fjLLu re d^LWGovra TrefXTreLv errl ro (f>povpLov irepav 
jwKros, CO? avro) Grparr^Xdrrj TrapaXrjijjojJLevr^v ^ rovs 
TToXepLLOVS yvpivovs rcov ottXojv • rov §6 dyyeXov 
avrofJioX-qGavra irpos rov -qyepiova rwv Za^ivojv 
Karriyopov yeveadat raJv rrjs Taprreias ^ovXevfid- 
rcov. ol Se rrepl rov (Pd^tov re kol KiyKLOv ovhev 
roLovro yeyovevai Xeyovatv, dXXd (fivXd^at rrjv Koprjv 
hia^ef^aiovvrai rds rrepl rrjs rrpoSoaias orvvdiJKas. 

2 rd S' e^rjs diravres ttoXlv oixoiojs ypd(f)ovcri. <f)aaL 
ydp on TtapayevopLevov gvv ra> Kpariarcp rrjs 
arpands /xepet rod ^auiXecos rd)v Ua^tvoju (f>vXdr- 
rovoa rds U77oa;(ecret? rj Tdpireia rots p-ev TToXepLiois 



^ Tov exvpcoTarov Kiessling : roii' ixvpajTaTajv A13. 
2 Trap' B : om. K. 



424 



BOOK II. 38, 5-39, 2 

on their left arms. And when Tatiiis consented to 
this, she received his sworn pledge for the faithful 
performance of the agreement and gave him hers. 
Then having appointed, as the place to which the 
Sabines were to repair, the strongest part of the 
fortress, and the most unguarded hour of the night 
as the time for the enterprise, she returned without 
being observed by those inside. 

XXXIX. So far all the Roman historians agree, 
but not in what follows. For Piso, the ex-censor, 
whom I mentioned before, says that a messenger 
was sent out of the place by Tarpeia in the night to 
inform Romulus of the agreement she had made 
with the Sabines, in consequence of which she pro- 
posed, by taking advantage of the ambiguity of 
the expression in that agreement, to demand their 
defensive arms, and asking him at the same time to 
send a reinforcement to the fortress that night, 
so that the enemy together with their commander, 
being deprived of their arms, might be taken 
prisoners ; but the messenger, he says, deserted 
to the Sabine commander and acquainted him with 
the designs of Tarpeia. Nevertheless, Fabius and 
Cincius say that no such thing occurred, but they 
insist that the girl kept her treacherous compact. 
In what follows, however, all are once more in 
agreement. For they say that upon the arrival 
of the king of the Sabines with the flower of his 
army, Tarpeia, keeping her promise, opened to the 



^ TTapaXrupoiiivy^v Reiske (and Lapus in his translation): 
TrapaXrjiljofievov O, Jacoby. 

425 



DIONYSIUS OF HALTCARNASSUS 

dvecp^e ttjv avyKeijJLeinqv TrvXiSa, rovg S' iv rep 
)(CjpLcp (f>vXaKa? dvaGTijaaora Slol ra\e(jjv crcoteLv 
iavTovs Tj^LOV Ka6^ erepas i^oSovs rot? TroAe/xtots' 
d(f)av€l?, oj? KaT€)(^6vTa)v rjSrj twv Ea^ivojv to 

3 (fypovpLov hia(j)vy6vTCx}v he tovtojv tov? puev Za- 
Pivovs dvecpyfxdvas evpovra? rds irvXag Karacrxetv 
TO (l)povpLov eprjpLOv tojv (jyvXaKCxiv , ttjv Se TdpTreiav 
ws TO. Trap' iavrrj? ocra cruvedeTO Trapeax'^P'evrjv 
d^Lovv Tovg pLiaOovs TrJ9 TrpohoGias Kara tov? 
opKovs dnoXapelv. 

XL. "EneLra ndXiv 6 fxev Tleiaayv <f>7jaL twv 
^a/Stvcov Tov xp^crov iroipLOJv ovrojv hihovai rfj Koprj 
Tov Tvepl TOL? dpiorepols /Spa;^tocrt rr^v TdpTreiav ov 
Tou Kocrfxov dXXd rovs Ovpeovs Trap* avrcbv atVetv. 
Taricp he dvfJLov re elaeXdeZv IttI rfj e^aTrdrr) /cat 
XoytopLOP rod jJLrj Trapa^rjvaL rds opioXoylas. So^ai 
8' ovu avro) hovvau fiev rd OTrXa, axjrrep -q iraZs 
Tj^uxjo-e, TTOLTJcraL S' OTTCDS avroZs fi-qSev Xa^ovaa 
Xp-qaeraL,^ /cat avriKa hiareivapievov c6? pidXiora 
Icrxvos etxe pli/jat rov Ovpeov Kara rrjg Koprjs /cat 
TOiS dXXoig TTapaKeXevcracrdaL ravro ^ TTOielv. ovtio 
Srj Pa/\XofjLevr)P Trdvrodev rqv TdpTretav vtto ttXtJOovs 
re /cat loxvos ra)u irX-qyuiv TreaeZv /cat TrepLorojpev- 

2 OeZuav vtto tcjv dvpeoJv diToOaveZv. ol he rrepl rov 
0dPiov errl roZs Ea^ivoig ttoiovol ttjv tcov opLoXoyLajv 
dTrdrrjv' heov yap aurous" rov XP^^^^> oiorrep ^ 
TdpTT eia rj^iov, Kara rds opLoXoyias dirohihovai^ 
XaX^TTaivovras eVt ro) pLeyedei rov paodov rd 
OKeTTaGrripia /car' avrrfs /SaAetv,^ d>s ravra 6r€ 

426 



BOOK II. 39, 2-40, 2 

enemy the gate agreed upon, and rousing the garri- 
son, urged them to save themselves speedily by 
other exits unknown to the enemy, as if the Sabines 
were already masters of the place ; that after the 
flight of the garrison the Sabines, finding the gates 
open, possessed themselves of the stronghold, now 
stripped of its guards, and that Tarpeia, alleging 
that she had kept her part of the agreement, in- 
sisted upon receiving the reward of her treachery 
according to the oaths. 

XL. Here again Piso says that, when the Sabines 
were ready to give the girl the gold they wore on 
their left arms, Tarpeia demanded of them their 
shields and not their ornaments. But Tatius re- 
sented the imposition and at the same time thought 
of an expedient by which he might not violate the 
agreement. Accordingly, he decided to give her 
the arms as the girl demanded, but to contrive that 
she should make no use of them ; and immediately 
poising his shield, he hurled it at her with all his 
might, and ordered the rest to do the same ; and 
thus Tarpeia, being pelted from all sides, fell under 
the number and force of the blows and died, over- 
whelmed by the shields. But Fabius attributes this 
fraud in the performance of the agreement to the 
Sabines ; for they, being obliged by the agreement 
to give her the gold as she demanded, were angered 
at the magnitude of the reward and hurled their 
shields at her as if they had engaged themselves 



Meineke : ;^p7;crryTai O. ^Sylburg: tovto O. 

^ fiaXelv Reiske : ^oAAeiv O. 



427 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

wfimjcrav avrfj Scocreiv VTTecjx-qfxivovs , €olk€ 8e tol 
fiera ravra yevo/jieva ttjv Fleiaajvos aKrjdearipav 

3 7TOL€lv 6.Tr6(j)a(7Lv } rd(j)ov re yap evOa €7T€G€v 
rj^iojraL rov lepcorarov rrjs iToXeojs Karexovaa Ad- 
<f)0Vt Kal xooL? avrfj 'PajfialoL KaO" eKao'TOV imavrov 
eTTiTeXovGi (Ae'ycu 8e a Fleioajv ypd<f>€L), ojv ovSevos 
€lk6s avrrjv, el TrpoSLSovaa rrjv Trarpiha rols noXe- 
fjLLOLg aTTedavev, ovre Trapd rcbv TrpohoBevTcov ovt€ 
TTapd ra)v aTTOKreivdvTOJV rvx^^v, dXXd /cat et rt 
XeLifjavov avrrjg rjv rod crco/xaros' dva<7Ka(f)€v e^oj 
pL(j)TJvaL ovv XP^^V (j)6^ov re Kal d-norpoTrrjg ^ evcKa 
Tojv ixeXXovTcov rd o/xota 8pdv. dAA' vnep fxev 
TOVTCov KpLvercu ris djs ^oijXerai. 

XLI. '0 Se Tdrios Kal ol Ea^voi (l)povpLov 
y€v6[JL€voL Kaprepov KvpLOL Kal rd TrXelara rrjs 
'Pcofxaiajv dTTOo-Kevrjg djJLoxOel TTap€iXr)(l>6re£ Ik rod 
dcr^aAou? rjhri rdv TToXepLOv hU^epov. iroXXal puev 
ovv avrojv eyivovro Kal hid TToXXds rrpo(f>d(j€is 
TTapearparoirehevKorcov dXXrjXoLS St' oXiyov Trelpal 
T€ Kal ovfMTrXoKal ovre Karopdcopiara jxeydXa 
eKarepoj (jyepovorat. rcou orparev/Jidrajv ovre ^ (T(f)dX- 
fjiara, fieyLarai S' eK Trapard^ecos oAats" rat? 
Swdfieo-L TTpds dAAi^Aa? fjidxciL Sirral Kal (j)6vos 

2 eKarepojv noXvs. eXKOfxevov ydp'^ rod xP'^^o^ 
yvcjjpL7]v dfJL(i)6repoL rrjv avrrjv eorxov oXoux^peZ 
KpZvai rov dyojva p^dxjj, Kal npoeXOovres els ro 
jjiera^v rcov orparoTrehcov ;j^a>ptot' 'qyepLoveg re 

^ aTT6(f)aaiv L. Dindorf : aTTOKpiaiv O; om. Jacoby. 
^ aTTOTpovris Steph. : irporpoirfis O. 
^ oure Reudler : ovre ra O. 
* yap Ambrosch, 817 Kiessling, Jacoby : Se O. 
428 



BOOK II. 40, 2-41, 2 

by their oaths to give her these. But what followed 
gives the greater appearance of truth to the state- 
ment of Piso. For she was honoured with a monu- 
ment in the place where she fell and lies buried on 
the most sacred hill of the city and the Romans 
every year perform libations to her (I relate what 
Piso writes) ; whereas, if she had died in betraying 
her country to the enemy, it is not to be supposed 
that she would have received any of these honours, 
either from those whom she had betrayed or from 
those who had slain her, but, if there had been any 
remains of her body, they would in the course of 
time have been dug up and cast out of the city, in 
order to warn and deter others from committing 
the like crimes. But let everyone judge of these 
matters as he pleases. 

XLI. As for Tatius and the Sabines, having 
become masters of a strong fortress and having 
without any trouble taken the greatest part of the 
Romans' baggage, they carried on the war thereafter 
in safety. And as the armies lay encamped at a 
short distance from each other and many occasions 
oflfered, there were many essays and skirmishes, 
which were not attended with any great advantages 
or losses to either side, and there were also two very 
severe pitched battles, in which all the forces were 
opposed to each other and there was great slaughter 
on both sides. For, as the time dragged along, they 
both came to the same resolution, namely, to decide 
the issue by a general engagement. Whereupon 
leaders of both armies, who were masters of the art 

429 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

dpLGTOL TO. TToXifxia KOL OTparLa)Tai TToXXayv iddhes 
ayojvcjv d^ta Xoyov epya OLTTeSeLKVuvro €7Tl6vt€S 
T ^ aXXriXoLs Koi rov? iviovra? Se;)(o/Ltevot Kal i$ 

3 V7TO(TTpO(f)rj9 €LS LCTOV av8i^ KadiCTTdfieVOL . ol 8* 

eTTL rojv epvpLarajv iurajre? luoppoTTOv vearai 
dyojvo? Kal dapLivd iKarepcoae fxeraTTLTTTOVTOS rep 
fjL€v KaropOovvTL Tcov G<^€.r€pwv €TnKeXevG€L re kol 
TTatavKT/jLO) TToXXrjv eTTOLOvv TTjP els TO evipvxov 
irTihoGLVy TO) Se KapLvovrL kol SiajKOfievcp SerjcreLS 
T€ Kal olfxajyas TrpoiefievoL KcoXvral rod els reXos 
dvdvSpov iylvovTO • u0' a)v a/x^orepojv rjvayKdt,ovTO 
Kal TTapd SvvapLLv V7to/jL€V€LU rd Seivd. iKeivqv fxev 
ovv TTjP rjfjiepav ovrco hieveyKavres dyxojfxdXcog -rqv 
pidx'rjv, (JKOTOVS ovTos rjSrj, dapLevoi els rovs olKelovg 
eKdrepoL x^paKas dmrjXXdGOovro . 

XLII. Tals S' e^i]s rjfJLepaLS rac/xx? TTOLrjadfievoL 
rcov veKpcjv Kal tovs KeK/jL-qKoras vtto rpavpidrojv 
dvaKT-qadfjievoL hwdp-ets re TrapaoKevdoavres dXXas, 
eTTeibr] ebo^eu avrols avOis erepav crvvdijjaL pidxqVy 
els TO avro roj Trporepco ;^a>ptov avveXdovTes d^pt- 
2 VUKTOS epidxovrq. ev ravrrj^ rfj fJidxi) 'Pcxjfialwv 
dfJi4>OTepoLs eTTLKparovvrcxJv rols Kepaoiv [elxe he 
rod he^iov rrjv -qyepLovlav auro? o 'PcopivXos, rod 
Se dpiarepov AoKOfJLCOV 6 Tvpprjvos) , rod he fieorov 
fi-qSe-TTCJ KpiGLV exovTOS, o KOjXvGas TTjv els reXos 
Tojv Zajiivojv TjTTav Kal els dvriTraXa KaraaTqaas 
avBis rd XeiTTopLeva rols vlkoxtlv els dvrjp eyevero 
Memos ^ Kovpnos dvojxa pajpuqv re oojjj.aros 

1 T added by Kiessling. 
430 



BOOK II. 41, 2-42, 2 

of war, as well as common soldiers, trained in many 
engagements, advanced into the plain that lay 
between the two camps and performed memorable 
feats both in attacking and receiving the enemy as 
well as in rallying and renewing the fight on equal 
terms. Those who from the ramparts were spec- 
tators of this doubtful battle, which, often varying, 
favoured each side in turn, when their own men had 
the advantage, inspired them with fresh courage 
by their exhortations and songs of victor^', and when 
they were hard pressed and pursued, prevented 
them by their prayers and lamentations from 
proving utter cowards ; and thanks to these shouts 
of encouragement and entreaty the combatants 
were compelled to endure the perils of the struggle 
even beyond their strength. And so, after they had 
thus carried on the contest all that day without a 
decision, darkness now coming on, they both gladly 
retired to their own camps. 

XLII. But on the following days they buried their 
dead, took care of the wounded and reinforced their 
armies ; then, resolving to engage in another battle, 
they met again in the same plain as before and 
fought till night. In this battle, when the Romans 
had the advantage on both wings (the right was 
commanded by Romulus himself and the left by 
Lucumo, the Tyrrhenian) but in the centre the 
battle remained as yet undecided, one man prevented 
the utter defeat of the Sabines and rallied their 
wavering forces to renew the struggle with the 
victors. This man, whose name was Mettius Curtius, 

2 Kiessling : avrfj O. 

^ Kiessling : fidrTos A, /xdaTos (?) B. 

431 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TToXvs ^ Koi Kara x^^P^ yevvalos, ixaXtora S' eVt 
TW fXTjheva OKvelv (f>6^ov r) Kivhvvov €v8oKLfX(jJV. 

3 OVTOS 8' irdxOr] fxev -qyetoOaL rojv Kara jjl€(T7)V 
ayojvLt^ojjiivcxJv rrju (j)dXayya /cat rovs dvrir^ra- 
yii€vovs ivLKa, ^ovXrjdels Se Kal rd Kepara rtov 
Za^iviov jjLoxOovvra rjSrj Kal i^atdovjjLeva et? ro 
laov AcaracTTT^crat,^ TTapaKeXevadfjLci'o? rolg dfjL(j)* 
avrov ihitoKe rovs (j)evyovra<s rojv TToXcfilajv iuK€- 
SaGfiei'ovs Kal fJ^^XP'- ''"^^ nvXcov avrov? rjXacrev, 
ware rjvayKdadr] KaraXiTTCJV rjfjLLreXrj rrjv vLKiqv 6 
'Pa>fxvXos iinarpe^ai re Kal inl rd viKU)vra rojv 

4 TToXepLLCJv (jjaaoOai p-eprj. ro p.kv Srj KdpLVOv rcbv 
Ea^ivojv p,€pos iv ro) luoj irdXiv rju aTTeXOovarjs 
rrjs /JL€rd ' PcopLvXov hvvdp.eojs , 6 Se Kivhwo? aVa? 
irepl rov Kovpriov Kal rovs crvv iKeivcp VLKcavras 
iyeyovei. XP^^^^ h^^ ^^^ rtva ol Ea^lvoi Se^a- 
puevoL rods ' Pa>pLalovs XapLTrpojs r^yojviaavrOy eVetra 
TToXXibv in avrovs (JVVLOvrcov iueKXiudv re Kal 
Ste'croj^op' eavrovs enl rov x^P^^^> ttoXXt^v rod 
Kovpriov rrapexovros avrols els ro fXTf hLioKeodai 
rerapaypevojs ^ dXXd ^dbrju aTTOXOjpelv dG(j>dXeLav. 

5 avrds yap elariqKeL piaxdpevos Kal rdv 'PatpLvXov 
iniovra eSexero,'^ yiverai re rcov rjyepLovojv avrcjv 
avpTTeaovrcjv dXXr]XoLS p-eyas Kal KaXds dywu. 
e^aipLos §€ ojp rjdrj Kal Kara^eXrjs 6 Kovprtos 
VTrfjei Kar oXiyov, Kal avrdv e/c rcjv Karomv 

^ dvTjp after ttoAvs deleted 
^ Sylbuxg : KaTaarijvai O. 

432 



BOOK II. 42, 2-5 

was of great physical stronglh and courageous in 
action, but he was famous especially for his contempt 
of all fear and danger. He had been appointed to 
command those fighting in the centre of the line and 
was victorious over those who opposed him ; but 
wishing to restore the battle in the wings also, where 
the Sabine troops were by now in difficulties and 
being forced back, he encouraged those about him, 
and pursuing such of the enemy's forces as were 
fleeing and scattered, he drove them back to the 
gates of the city. This obliged Romulus to leave the 
victory but half completed and to return and make 
a drive against the victorious troops of the enemy. 
Upon the departure of Romulus with his forces 
those of the Sabines who had been in trouble were 
once more upon equal terms with their opponents, 
and the whole danger was now centred round Curtius 
and his victorious troops. For some time the 
Sabines received the onset of the Romans and 
fought brilliantly, but when large numbers joined 
in attacking them, they gave way and began to 
seek safety in their camp, Curtius amply securing 
their retreat, so that they were not driven back 
in disorder, but retired without precipitation. For 
he himself stood his ground fighting and awaited 
Romulus as he approached ; and there ensued 
a great and glorious engagement between the leaders 
themselves as they fell upon each other. But at last 
Curtius, having received many wounds and lost much 
blood, retired by degrees till he came to a deep lake 

^ Sylburg : rerapayfidvoLS O. 
* eSex^TO Bb : Se;^eTat ABa. 

433 

VOL. I. Q 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

VTTeSex^TO Xl/uLVT] Padela, -r^v TTcpieWelv fxev x^^^'^ov 
rjv 7T€pLK€xyfieva>v TTavraxoOev rcbv TroAe/xtcov, SteA- 
deiv he vtto re IXvos ttXtjOovs, tjv ra Trepi^ reXfiara 
€Lxe, Koi ^ddovs vSaros rod Kara jjiecn^v avrrjv 

6 avvecrrojTOS dnopov. ravrr] TrXrjcnddag eppn/jev 
eavTOV els to vdfia ovv roZs ottXol^, /cat o *PojpivXos 
COS" avTLKa Srj rod dvSpos ev rfj Xl/jlvt) htacjidapr]- 
aofxevov (/cat a/xa ^ dSvvarov rjv Kara reXfxarog re 
avrov Kal St' vSaro? 770AA0L' SicuKeLv) eirl rovs 
dXXovs Ea^ivovs rpeTrerai * d he Kovpnos TToAAa 
fjioxOrjcras (Tvv XP^^'V ocjt^erai re eV rrjs Xl/jlvt)? rd 
onXa exojv Kal els tov ;)^apa/<:a dndyerai. ovros 
6 roTTOs dvaKexoJO'raL fiev rjhrj, KoXelraL 8* i^ 
CKeivov rod irddovs Kovpnos XdKKOs, iv fieao) 
fidXicrra cjv rrjs ^Pajfialcov dyopds. 

XLIII. ^PojfJLvXos he rovs dXXovs hicoKcov eyyvs 
yevopuevos rod KairirajXiov Kal 77oAAas" eXnihas ex^J^v 
alp'qoeLv rd (j^povpiov dXXois re ttoXXoZs rpavp,acn 
KaraTTOVTjOels Kal hi] Kal Xidov TrX-qyfj e^aioio) Kara 
Kpord(f)OV ivexOevTog eV ra>v dvojOev KapojOels,^ 
alperai re Trpds rwv Trapovrojv r]p.Ldai>r]s Kal els rd 

2 ret;^os" dnocfieperaL. rols he 'Poj/xatot? heos epu- 
TTLTrrei rdv rjyepiova ovKeri opcocrL, Kal rpeirerai rd 
he^idv Kepas els (f>vyTJv ol 8* ev ra> evwvvfio) 
rax^evres o/xa rw AoKOfxajvL recos p-ev dvreixov 
VTTO rod TjyepLovos dvadappviopLevoi, XapLnpordrov 
rd TToXepua dvhpds Kal TrXelara epya Kard rodrov 
rdv TToXepiov drrohei^apievov ' enel he KaKelvos 



^ dfj.a B : dfj.a eVet R. 

* Naber : KaKcvd^is O, Jacoby. 



434 



SOOK IT. t2. 5-43. 2 

in his rear which it was diflicult for him to make his 
way round, his enemies being massed on all sides of 
it, and impossible to pass through by reason of the 
quantity of mud on the marshy shore surrounding 
it and the depth of water that stood in the middle. 
When he came to the lake, he threw himself into 
the water, armed as he was, and Romulus, supposing 
that he would immediately perish in the lake, — 
moreover, it was not possible to pursue him through 
so much mud and water, — turned upon the rest 
of the Sabines. But Curtius with great difficulty 
got safely out of the lake after a time without losing 
his arms and was led a^ay to the camp. This 
place is now filled up, but it is called from this 
incident the Lacus Curtius, being about in the middle 
of the Roman Forum. ^ 

XLIII. Romulus, while pursuing the others, had 
drawn near the Capitoline and had great hopes of 
capturing the stronghold, but beingweakened by many 
other wounds and stunned by a severe blow from a 
stone which w as hurled from the heights and hit him 
on the temple, he was taken up half dead by those 
about him and carried inside the walls. When the 
Romans no longer saw their leader, they were seized 
with fear and the right wing turned to flight ; but 
the troops that were posted on the left with Lucumo 
stood their ground for some time, encouraged by 
their leader, a man most famous for his warlike 
prowess and who had performed many exploits 
during the course of this war. But when he in his 

1 C/. Livy i. 13, 5. 

435 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

iXadel? Slol tcov nXevpajv aavvlcp rrjs Svud/uLeco? 
VTToXLTTOVcrqg eiTecrev ouS' avrol Sie/uieLvav, 6vyrj Se 
fxera rovro Travrojv avrojv eyivero, kol ol Ea^lvoi 

3 reOapprjKOTes iBlajKOV ay(^pi rrjg ttoXeoj?. rjSr] Se 
7TXriGLOLC,ouT€9 TOLS TTuAat? dTTrjXavvovTo TTJ? veo- 
Tiqros iTTe^eXOovcrr]? avrols aKpai^vovs , fj rd TeL-)(r] 
(j)vXdrT€LV 6 ^acnXevs iveTpeipe, Kal rod 'PojfivXov, 
paov yap rjSrj €l)(ev Ik rod rpavfjiaros,^ iK^or^dyjaav- 
ro9 (1)9 et^e rdxovg, eyivero re dyxicn'po(f)o? rj rod 
dywvog t-u^xtj /cat noXXrjv e)^ovaa nqv eTrl ddrepa 

4 ixera^oX-qv. ol fxev ye (jyevyovreg co? rov 'qyejJLova 
eK rod aTrpocrSoKijrov (^avevra elSov dvaXa^ovreg 
eavrovs eK rod irporepov Seovg els rd^cv Kadiaravro 
Kal ovKeri dve^dXXovro fxr] ovx ofjLoue rot? e)(dpoLS 
■)(ci}pelv • ol he recog Kareipyovreg avrovs Kal jjLrjSe- 
jjLLav OLOfjLevoL fxrj)(ai'r]v etvat ro fjurj ov Kara Kpdros 
avrrjv "^ rrjv ttoXlv dXajvai, eVetSi^ to al^vihiov re 
Kal rrapdho^ov eBedoavro rrjg [xera^oA-qg , nepl 
acorTjplag avrol ri^g eavrojv euKOTTOVv . rjv Se av- 
rolg ovK ^ evTTerrjg -q TTpog rov ;)(apaK:a dvaxcoprjaig 
Kad^ ^ vifjTjXov re "x^ajpiov Kal Sta KOLXrjg 68ov 
hicoKOjievoig , Kal iroXvg avraJv 6 (f)6vog ^ iv ravrr) 

5 yiverai rfj rponfj. eKeivqv fxev ovv rr)v rqpLepav 
ovrojg dyxojfxdXajg dyajvLod^evoi Kal elg rvxo-g 
TTapaXoyovg diJL(f)6repoL Karaardvreg tjXlov rrepl 
Karoijiopdv ovrog rjhr) hieKpi6r]Gav. 

^ paoi« yap rjhr] e«;^ev eK rov TpavfiaTos Kiessling, paov yap rjSrj 
eK Tov Tpavfiarog elxev Sylburg : paov yap elx^ rov rpau/Liaros B, 
pacov riv yap eK t.^{5 rpavpLaros A. 

^ avTTjv Kiessling:: avrcLv B, rijv ttoXlv avTcov R. 

2 OVK added by Casaubon. 

43b 



BOOK II. \3. 2-5 

turn was pierced through the side with a javelin and 
fell through weakness, they also gave way ; and there- 
upon the whole Roman army was in flight, and the 
Sabines, taking courage, pursued them up to the 
city. But as they were already drawing near the 
gates they were repulsed, when the youths whom 
the king had appointed to guard the walls sallied 
out against them with their forces fresh ; and 
when Romulus, too, who by this time was in some 
degree recovered of his wound, came out to their 
assistance with all possible speed, the fortune of the 
battle quickly turned and veered strongly to the 
other side. For those who were fleeing recovered 
themselves from their late fear on the unexpected 
appearance of their leader, and reforming their lines, 
no longer hesitated to come to blows with the enemy ; 
while the latter, who but now had been dri\ang the 
fugitives into the city and thought there w as nothing 
that could prevent them from taking the city itself 
by storm, when thev saw this sudden and unexpected 
change, took thought for their own safety. But 
thev found it no easy matter to retreat to their 
camp, pursued as they were down from a height and 
through a hollow way, and in this rout they sustained 
heavy losses. And so, after they had thus fought 
that day without a decision and both had met with 
unexpected turns of fortune, the sun now being near 
his setting, they parted. 



* Ko^' Casaubon, d-rro Kiessling : oltto Kad' R, dno . . . B. 

* voXi/s avTajv <f>6vos Ambroseh, ttoAi)? avTcJv 6 (f)6vos Jacobv 
^in note), ov noXvs avruiv ^otos Reiske, 6 ttoXvs ainwv c^ouos O. 

437 



DTONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

XLIV. Tal? 8' €^rj? rjfiepais ot re ZaPlvoi ev 
^ovXfj eyivovro vorepov aTrd^ovGiv ^ eV oIkov ra? 
8vvdjjL€Lg, oaa Svvavrat rrj^ ;^c/jpa? tojp TToXefJLLcov 
KaK(jL)Gavn-€S y r] rr poo ^eTaTT^ynlsovr at ^ OTparidv eVe- 
pav OLKodev Kal 7Tpoorfi€vovGL ^ XiTTapovvres ews to 

2 KaXXiGTOV €77 idrjcrovaL rep TToXefxa) reAos".* 7TOvr)p6v 
Se avroLS koI to OLTTtdvaL fxer aloxuvqs rrjg dvpaKTOv 
ava^^copijoeoj^ icf^alvero etvai Kal to fxeveiv ovSei'os 
o<f)iaL )(OjpovvTOS Kar iXTrlSa. Gvpu^daeajs he irepi 
TO ^ hLoXiyeodai irpos tovs i-)(dpovg, rjVTrep ehoKovv 
elvai fjLovrjv evTrpeTrrj rod noXefiov aTraXXayrji' , ov)(^ 
iavroLS ixaXXov r) 'PwjJiaiOLg dpfiorreLV vneXafx- 

3 ^avov. 'PcofMatoL 8e ovSev ^rrov aAAa Koi jiaXXov 
rwv Ea^ivojv ecV TToXXrjv aTTopiav iveTTLirrov 6 re 
■X^prjGaLvro rols TrpdypiaGLv. ovre yap a7roSt8di/at 
TO? yvvaiKag rj^lovv ovre Karex^^^ ' '^^ ^^^ rjrrav 
ofJLoXoyovjjLevTjv oiKoXovdeli^ olopevot Kal dvayKalov 
a(f)i(nv iooiievov Trdv 6 ri av dXXo imraxdojcrt-v 
V7T0fjiev€iv, ro) Se TToXXd Kal hetvd iTTihelv ;!^cupa? re 
TTOpdovjJievrjg Kal veoriqros rrjs Kpariorr]? dnoX- 
XvfjLevT)? • irepl ^lAta? re el hiaXeyoivro irpos rovs 
Ea^Lvovs, ovhevog VTTeXdfx^avov rev^eodai rcov 
fjierplojv Sto. 77oAAd fxev Kal aAAa, jJidXiara o ore 
rat? avdaSelaLS ov fierpLor-qs yiverai TTpog ro din-c- 
TraXov errl 6 e pane lag rpairo^evov aXXd Papvrrjs. 

^ dnd^ovoLv Cobet, d-noXvaovaLv Kiessling. dvLcuaiv Naber : 
aTToiaovaiv O, Jacoby. 

^ Sylburg : -TrifxTTOvrai O, -nenTTcovrai Jacoby. 

^Sylburg: -fjLeivcjoL B (?), -fxevoiaL R(?), Jacoby. 

* Kiessling : KpaTos O. ^ ro deleted by Reiske. 

43b 



BOOK IT. 14. 1-3 

XLIV. But duriiiii the lollowing days the SabinpR 
were taking counsel whether they shouUl lead their 
forces back home, after doing all possible damage 
to the enemy's country, or should send for another 
army from home and still hold out obstinately until 
they should put an end to the war in the most 
honourable manner. They considered that it would 
be a bad thing for them either to return home with 
the shame of having effected nothing or to stay there 
when none of their attempts succeeded according 
to their expectations. And to treat with the enemy 
concerning an accommodation, which they looked 
upon as the only honourable means of putting an 
end to the war. they conceived to be no more fitting 
for them than for the Romans. On the other side, 
the Romans were not less, but even more, perplexed 
than the Sabines what course to take in the present 
juncture. For they could not resolve either to 
restore the women or to retain them, believing that 
the former course involved an acknowledgment of 
defeat and that it would be necessary to submit to 
whatever else might be imposed upon them, and 
that the alternative course would necessitate their 
witnessing many terrible sights as their country 
was being laid waste and the flower of their youth 
destroyed ; and, if they should treat with the Sabines 
for peace, they despaired of obtaining any moderate 
terms, not only for many, other reasons, but chiefly 
because the proud and headstrong treat an enemy 
who resorts to courting them, uot with moderation, 
but with severity. 

439 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

XLV. Ev CO Se dfJicfiorepOL ravra 8La\oyL^6fj€voL 
KOI ovre (JLO-xris dp^eiv ToXixwvres ovre nepi (/)iAtas' 
8taAeyo/ievo( napelXKOu roi^ )(p6poVy at 'Pco/jLaLOJU 
yvvaiKe^ ouai tov EaBivojv €TV'y)(avov ovoai yevovs, 
hi a? o TToXejjLOs cruveiGTTjKeLy ovveXdovGat Srj^a tojv 
di'Spcot et? €v ■)(a)piov /cat Xoyov eaurat? Souaat 
yvojpurjv eTTOLTjoavro crvijL^aTrjpLOjp dp^at irpos dfx- 

2 (f)OT€pov^ avral ^ Xoycou. rj Se tovto elcn^yrjaaiJLevrj 
TO ^ovXevjjLa rals yvvat^lv ' EpotXia ^ /xev eVaAetro, 
yei/ous" S' ouK d(f)auov? rjp ev Ea^ivois. ravrrfv 8' ot 
fxev (f)aGi. yeyafjLTjfieprjv rjSrj ovu rals d'AAat? dp- 
TTaaOrjvaL Kopai^ ws rrapdevov, ol Se rd TnOavo)- 
rara ypd<f)OPTe<; eKOVoav VTrofxelvaL Xeyovai fxerd 
dvyarpos ' dpTTaaOrjuaL yap Si) KdKeiviqs Ovyarepa 

3 piovoyevrj. a>? Se ravrrjv €.(T)(ov rrjv yvajpuqv at 
yvvaiKes, fjKOV eTrl to cruveSpLOv koI rvxovoat Xoyov 
fiaKpdg i^erecvap herjaeis, iTnrpoTTTjv d^iovoaL Xa- 
p€iv Trj<; TTpds Tovs uvyyevels e^oSov, iroXXd? /cat 
dyaOds cATrtSaj €;)(€tv Xeyovaat nepl tov ovvd^eLV 
els €p Ta edvT] /cat TTOLrjGetv ^tAtav.^ co? he Tavr* 
TfKOVGav ol (jvvehp€VovTes to) jSacrtAet o(f>6hpa re 
rjydaOrjaai' /cat nopou a»? ev dfjLr))(dvoLS 7Tpdyp.a(n 

4 tovtov VTieXa^ov elvai jjlovov. ytVerat Srj [leTa 
TOVTO Soy/Lta TotovSe ^ovXrjs ■ oaat tov Ea^ivojv 
yevovs rjaav exovaat TeKva, rawrat? e^ovcriav elvax 
KaToXiTTovoaLS rd T€Kva irapd toIs dvBpdcn rrpe- 
ofjevecv cvs tovs ofioedveis , ocrat 6e rrXeLovajv TraCSajv 

^ Ambrosch : avrau B, om. R. 

'^ epaiMa A. epatAeta B (and so regularly). 

* <^lAta^ Bb : (f)tAi(j Ba. ^t'Ata A. 

440 



BOOK II. 45, 1-4 

XLV. While ^ both sides were consuming the time 
ill these coiisick^rations, neither daring to renew the 
fight nor treating for peace, the wives of the Romans 
who were of the Sabine race and the cause of the 
war, assembUng in one place apart from their hus- 
bands and consulting together, determined to make 
the first overtures themselves to both armies con- 
cerning an accommodation. The one who proposed 
this measure to the rest of the women was named 
Hersilia, a woman of no obscure birth among the 
Sabines. Some say that, though already married, 
she was seized with the others as supposedly a 
virgin ; but those who give the most probable 
account say that she remained with her daughter of 
her own free will, for according to them her only 
daughter was among those who had been seized. 
After the w omen had taken this resolution they came 
to the senate, and having obtained an audience, they 
made long pleas, begging to be permitted to go out 
to their relations and declaring that thev had many 
excellent grounds for hoping to bring the t^v o nations 
together and establish friendship between them. 
^ hen the senators who were present in council with 
the king heard this, they were exceedingly pleased 
and looked upon it, in view of their present diflfi- 
culties, as the only solution. Thereupon a decree 
of the senate was passed to the effect that those 
Sabine women who had children should, upon leaving 
them with their husbands, have permission to go 
as ambassadors to their countrymen, and that those 
who had several children should take along as many 

1 For cliaps. 4o-47 c/. Livy i. 13. 

441 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

fJLTjrepe? -qoav iTrdyecrdac fjiolpav i^ avrcov ocrrjv- 
h-qriva kol Trpdrretv ottojs €tV (fiiXiav cruvd^ovcri ra 
eOvrj. perd tovto i^jjeoav icrOijras exovaat irevdi- 
fiovs, TLi'€£ Se avTOJV Koi reKva vrjina cVayo/xevat. 
COS" S' etV Tov xdpaKa tojv Ha^lvcou TrporjXdov o^vpo- 
jjievaL re /cat TTpocrTTLTrTOVcrai rots' rcov drravrojvrojv ^ 
yovacri ttoXvv oIktov €K rcov opojvrojv iKivqaav, /cat 
TO, SaKpva Karex^-Lv ouSets iKavds rjv. arvvaxOevros 
8e avraZs rod crvveSplov tcjv -npo^ovXojv /cat /ceAeu- 
GavTos rod /3acriAea>? virep atv rJKOvai Xiyeiv rj tov 
/SouAeu/jaros dp^aaa /cat rrjv rjyepoviav e^ovGa rrjg 
TTyoecj^etas 'EpoiXia pLaKpdv /cat av/JTradrj Sce^rjXde 
SerjGLV, d^LOvaa ;YCtpto'acr^at ttjv elp'qvrjv rats SeOjLte- 
i^at? vnep raJv dvSpojv, St as e^ei^i'e;)(^at rov rroXe- 
fjiov aTTe^ati'ey e^' ots" Se yevriGovrai hiKaioL? at 
StaAt'CTets, rovs rjyefJLova? avrovs cruveXdovras i(f>^ 
iavrojp hiopoXoyrjaaadaL rrpos ro Koivfj (jvpL^epov 
opcbvras. 

XLVI. ToLavra elTTOvuai TrpovTreuov drrauaL rcov 
rod ^aGiXcojs yovdrojv a/xa rots tIkvols kol hiepevov 
ippLfJLfievaL recos dv€G~r]Gav auras c/c rrjg yrj? ot 



TTapovres avavra TTOL-qoeLV ra /xerpta /cat ra 



hv- 



vara VTrLGX^ovpievoL. fieraGrrjGdfievoL Se auras' 
€K rov GVveSpLov /cat (SovXevGdpLevoL Kad^ iavrovs 
€Kpivav rroL€LGdaL rds StaAAaya?. /cat yivovrai rot? 
'idveGLi> iK^x^ip^ai fiev Trpcbrov • eVetra GVveXdovrcov 
2 ra>p ^aGiXeojv GVvOrjKai rrepl (juXias. r]v he rd 
GWopLoXoy-qdevra rols dvhpdGi, Trepl cLv rovs opKOVS 

^ Tols TcDv dTTavrcovTOJv Reiske : rots aTrdi'TCov O. 

442 



BOOK II. 45, 4-46, 2 

of them as they wished and endeavour to reconcile 
the two nations. After this the women went out 
dressed in mourning, some of them also carrying their 
infant children. When they arrived in the camp of 
the Sabines, lamenting and falling at the feet of 
those they met, they aroused great compassion in all 
who saw them and none could refrain from tears. 
And when the councillors had been called together 
to receive them and the king had commanded 
them to state their reasons for coming, Hersilia, 
who had proposed the plan and was at the head 
of the embassy, delivered a long and pathetic 
plea, begging them to grant peace to those who 
were interceding for their husbands and on whose 
account, she pointed out, the war had been under- 
taken. As to the terms, however, on which peace 
should be made, she said the leaders, coming to- 
gether by themselves, might settle them with a view 
to the advantage of both parties. 

XLVI. After she had spoken thus, all the women 
with their children threw themselves at the feet of 
the king and remained prostrate till those who were 
present raised them from the ground and promised 
to do everything that was reasonable and in their 
power. Then, having ordered them to withdraw 
from the council and having consulted together, 
they decided to make peace. And first a truce 
was agreed upon between the two nations ; then 
the kings met together and a treaty of fiiend- 
sliip was concluded. The terms agreed upon by the 
two, which they confirmed by their oaths, were as 

^ rd added by Jacoby. 

443 



DIOXYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

€7Tonjaai'TO, roidSe ' /SacrtAea? fjiep etvai 'Pcofxauvv 
'PojfAvXov Kal Tdriov L(7oipy](f)ov? ovrag /cat nfjid? 
KapTTOVfiivovs rds 'icraSy KaXelcrdai Se rrji' ixev ttoXlv 
Ittl rod KTLGavTO? TO avTo cfyvXarrovGav ovofxa 
'PwfjLiqv, Kal eVa eKaarov tojv iv avrfj ttoXltojv 
'PojfJLaloi^, COS" rrporepoVy rov? Se cru/iTravra? irrl rrj? 
Tarlov TTarpihos kolvjj TreptAa/x/Saro/xeVou? KX-qGei 
Kvpiras ' TToXtreveiv Se tovs ^ovXopiivovs Ea^ivcov 
iv 'Paypr) lepd re uvveveyKapevovs /cat etV (f>vXdg 
/cat et? ^pdrpas iTTihoOevras. ravra ofiooavres 
/cat ^ojpovs €7tI Tols opKOis^ Ihpvcjdpevoi Kara 
pLecrrjv pdXcara rrjv KaXovixivqv lepdv ohov ovve- 
K€pda9r](jav aAAT^Aot?. /cat ol fjtev dXXoi rd? Sv- 
vdpeis dvaXa^ovres rj-yefioves aTrrjyov ctt' olkov, 
Tdrtos 8e d ^aaiXevg Kal gvv avro) rpeZs dvhpes 
OiKCov row hia<\)ave<jrdr(x>v VTrefieLvav ev 'Pcop'p Kal 
rip a? eaxov, as ro dir^ avrchv iKap-nodro yivos, 
Ov6XoGUO£ ^ OvaXepios Kal TdXXos Tvpdwio? ^ 
eTTLKX-qGLV Kal reXevralos Memos Kovpnos, 6 rrjv 
XlpvYji' Gvv rots ottXols Stavq^dpLevos , ols rrapepeivav 
iralpol^ re Kal avyyeveis Kal TreAarat, row eVt- 
yojpiojv dpidpLov ovk eXdrrovs. 

XLVII. Karaurdvrojv Se ro)v iTpaypLdrojv eSo^e 
rot? jiaaiXevGiv , erreihrj ttoXXtjv eTTiOootv els o^xXov 
TrXrjdos T] ttoXls etA7y</>et, StTrAaatoy rov nporepov 

^ Reiske proposed to read Spots, Xaber opiois. 
2 Kiessling: ^ovXoaaos O ; ovoXeaaos early editors. 
^Perizonius: rvpawos O. By a typographical error 
Jaooby citefl and adopted Tvpdwws as Perizonius' reading, 
* eraipoL Bb : erepot BaR. 

444 



BOOK IT. 46, 2-47, 1 

follows : that Romulus and Tatius -hould 1 c kinps 
of the Homans with ecjual authorily and should 
enjoy equal honours ; that the city, pn servinj: its 
name, should from its founder be called Rome : 
that each individual citizen should as before be 
called a Roman, but that the people collectively 
should be comprehended under one general appella- 
tion and from the city of Tatius ^ be called Quirites, 
and that all the Sabines who wished might live in 
Rome, joining in common rites with the Romans and 
being assigned to tribes and curiae. After thev had 
sworn to this treaty and, to confirm their oaths, 
had erected altars near the middle of the Sacred 
Way, as it is called, they mingled together. And all 
the commanders returned home with their forces 
except Tatius, the king, and three persons of the 
most illustrious families, who remained at Rome and 
received those honours which their posterity after 
them enjoyed; these were Volusus ^ Valerius and 
Tallus, surnamed Tyrannius. with Mettius Curtius, 
the man who swam cross the lake with his arms, 
and with them there remained also their com- 
panions, relations and clients, no fewer in number 
than the former inhabitants. 

XLVII. Everything being thus settled, the kings 
thought proper, since the city had received a great 
increase of people, to double the number of the 

^ Cures ; see chap. 36, 3 ; 48. Dionysius is giving the 
ordinary Roman derivation of Quirites. The word may. 
however, come directly from the Sabine quiris (chap. 48 
end) and mean the " spear mon." 

2 The name should probably be Volesns, as spelled by 
Livy (i. 58, 6 ; ii. 18, 6) and other Roman writers. 

445 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TTotrjoraL tov row TTarpiKLOJv dptOfMov TrpoGKaraXi- 
^aura? rot? ^ eTncjiaveGrdroLS o'lkols eV rcov varepov 
eTroLKrjcrdvroji' tcrou? rolg TTporepois, vecorepovs ovs 
eKoXeoav TrarpLKiovg • ef cLv e/carov dvSpag, ovs at 
(f)pdrpai 7Tpo€X€ipLGavTO , rol? dpxoLLOLS ^ovXevTols 

2 TTpodeypai/jav. Trepl fikv ovv rovrcjv dXiyov helv 
Trdvres ol crvyypdi/javre? rag 'PcofiaLKag laropias 
ovfJL7T€(f)a>i'7]Ka(TLv, oXiyoL Se Tives TTepl rod ttXitjOovs 
TU)v TTpoGKaTaypa^evrojv ^ovXevrdjv hia(j>€povTaL. 
ov yap eKarov aAAd Trevr'qKOvra rovs irreLoeXOovTas 

3 et? rr^v ^ovXr]v drrocjyaivovoi yeviudai. Trepl be rdjv 
Tipwv, a? rats' yvvai^lv ol ^acrtAet? drreSoaau, on 
ovvrjyayop avrovs ctV (faXLav, ovx aTravres 'Pcofiaicov 
crvyypacf}€LS crvpcfyepovrai. nve? /xev yap avrcov 
ypd<^ovoL rd re a'AAa TroAAa Acai peydXa ScopijaaadaL 
rats' yvvai^l rovs rjyepLovas /cat Brj /cat ras' (j^pdrpas 
rpidKovra ovaas, warrep €(f)r}v, eTrcovvpovs rcov yv- 
vacKcov TTOLTJaaL • rooavras yap elvac yvvalKas rag 

4 eVtTTpecr^eucrajLteVas'. Ovdppcov he Tepevnos tovt' 
avTOis TO fJLepos ovx opLoXoyel TraXalrepov ert Xeyojv 
rats' ^ Kovpiais redrjvat rd ovopLara vtto rod 'PojpLvXov 
Kara rriv npcoTrjv rov ttXtJOovs hiaipeGiv, rd p.ev dir* 
dvhpcoi' Xrj(f)d€vra rjyepiovcov, rd 8' diro Trdyojv • ^ 
rds r inl rrjv iTpecr^eiav e^eXdovaag yvvaiKa? ov 
rpidKovra elvai ^-qaiv, dXXd TrevraKoaias re /cat 
rptdKOvra rpicov Seovaa? oterai re ouS* et/cos etvat 
roCTot;ra;v yvvaiKajv rLfirjv d(j)eXoiievovs rovs ^aoiXeXs 
dXiyais ef avribv Sovvai [jiovaLS. oAA' VTrep pev 

446 



BOOK II. 47, 1-4 

patricians by adding to the most distinfruished 
families others from among the new settlers equal 
in number to the old, and they called these *"' new 
patricians." Of these a hundred persons, chosen by 
the curiae^ were enrolled with the original senators. 
Concerning these matters almost all the writers of 
Roman history agree. But some few differ re- 
garding the number of the newly-enrolled senators, 
for they say it was not a hundred, but fifty, that were 
added to the senate. Concerning the honours, 
also, which the kings conferred on the women 
in return for having reconciled them, not all the 
Roman historians agree ; for some write that, 
besides many other signal marks of honour which 
they bestowed upon them, they gave their names 
to the curiae, which were thirty, as I have said, that 
being the number of the women who went upon the 
embassy. But Terentius Varro does not agree with 
them in this particular, for he says that Romulus 
gave the names to the curiae earlier than this, when 
he first divided the people, some of these names 
being taken from men who were their leaders and 
others from districts ; and he says that the number 
of the women who went upon the embassy was not 
thirty, but five hundred and twenty-seven, and he 
thinks it very improbable that the kings would have 
deprived so many women of this honour to bestow 
it upon only a few of them. But as regards these 



^ Tols Oarrer : avv rois O, Jacob}'. 

* In Xeyaiv rats Sylburg : re Xeycov iv raxs O. 

' aTTO TTayojv Kiessling : cxTro Trdvrwv BbR, em tt6.vtcjv Ba. 

447 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

rovTCOP ovT€ jJLr^hiva TTon^GaaOai Xoyov ovte TrXeio} 
ypd(f>eLv Tctjv iKavcov i(f)aLV€r6 fJLOt. 

XLVIII, Uepl 8e TTJ? KvpLTCov TToXeoJS, i^ rJ9 
ol rrepl rov Tdnov rjoav [dTraiT^l yap rj SnjyrjGig /cat 
TTcpl TOVTOJV, olrives re Kal onoOev -qaav, ctVeti^) 
Tooavra rrapeXd^opev . ev rfj 'Pearivcou y^^copa Ka9* 
ov xpovov ^A^opiylves avrrjv KaTel^o^ TrapOei'os tls 
eTTLX^jpia rod npcorov yevovg els tepov rjXdev ^Evva- 
Xlov xopevGovaa ^ ■ rov 8' ^EvvdXiov ol Ea^lvoL Kal 
Trap' eKeivojv ol 'PcopaloL paOovres Kvplvov ovop^d- 
t,ovGLV, ovK e-)(ovres eiTrelv ro aKpt^es eire "Apr^g 
iarlv etre erepog rt? o/xot'a? "ApeL ripids e^o^v. ol 
fJLev yap e(f>^ evog oiovrat Oeov TroXep^iKcov dya>vcov 
rjyepovos eKdrepov rwv ovopdrojv Karrjy o pelad at, ^ 
ol 8e Kara Svo rdrreodai haipovcjv noXe jJLLarcov ra 
oi'OfjLara. ev Stj'^ rov deov ro) repevei x^p^vovaa 
rj TTals evOeos d<j)voj yiverai Kal KaraXiTTovaa rov 
Xopov eU rov arjKov elarpexei rov deov. erreira 
iyKvpwv eK rod Salf^covo?, ojs airaaiv ehoKei, yevo- 
pievT] riKret vratSa MoStov ovopia, ^a^l^LOv eVt- 
KXrjGiVy OS dvhpcxjOels pop(j)riv re ov /car avdpcjirov 
dXXd hatpovLOv 'i(JX^^> k^'- "^^ 7ToXep,ia Trdvrwv yiverai 
Xaprtporaros ' Kal avrov elaepxerai ttoOos olKiaai 
TToXiv ecj) eavrov uvvayaycov hrj X^^P^ ttoXXtjv 
rwv TTepl eKeZva ra ;(a>pta OLKovvrojv iv oXiyoj rrdw 
Xpovo) Krlt^ei rds KaXovpievas Kvpeis, cos piv rLves 
LoropovoLV eTTL rov Salpovos, e^ ov yeveudat Xoyos 

^ Reiske : -^^opi^vovaa O. 

^ KaTrjyopeiaOai B : KaTTj-yoprjadai A, Jacoby, 

2 bij Ambrosch : 8e O. 

448 



BOOK n. n i-is i 

matters, it has not seemed to me fitting either to omit 
all mention of them or to sav more than is sulfif ic/it. 
XLVIII. Concerning the city of Cures from which 
Tatius and his followers came (for the course ot 
my narrative requires that 1 should speak of them 
also, and say who they were and whence), we have 
received the following account. In the territory of 
Reate, when the Aborigines were in possession of it, 
a certain maiden of that country, who was of the 
highest birth, went into the temple of Enyalius to 
dance. The Sabines and the Romans, who have 
learned it from them, give to Enyalius the name of 
Qiiirinus, without being able to affirm for certain 
whether he is Mars or some other god who enjoys the 
same honours as Mars. For some think that both 
these names are used of one and the same god who 
presides over martial combats ; others, that the 
names are applied to two different gods of war. 
Be that as it may, this maiden, while she was danc 
ing in the temple, was on a sudden seized with divine 
inspiration, and quitting the dance, ran into the 
inner sanctuary of the god; after which, being 
with child by this divinity, as everybody believed, 
she brought forth a son named Modius, with the 
surname Fabidius, who, being arrived at manhood, 
had not a human but a divine form and was re- 
nowned above all others for his warlike deeds. 
And conceiving a desire to found a city on his own 
account, he gathered together a great number of 
people of the neighbourhood and in a very short time 
built the city called Cures : he gave it this name, 
as some say, from the divinity whose son he was 

449 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avrov €l)^€, rovvojjLa rfj TToXei Oejuevos, wg 8' erepoi 
ypdcfiovGiv enl rrjg alx/JLT]? Kvpets yap ol Ea^voi 
Tas aixfJ-ag KaXovoLv. ravra fxev ovv Tupevrtos 
Ovdppoji ypd4)€L. 

XLIX. Z-qvohoros 8' o^ Tpoit.-qviog , ovyypa(f>€vg 
. . . ,^ Ufi^piKOVs eOvog avOtyeies^ loropel ro pev 
TTpwTOV OLKrjGaL TTepi TTjv KaXovpevqv 'Pearii'-qv 
iKeWev Se V7t6 TlfXaoycJjv e^eXaOei'rag els ravTrjp 
a(f)iK€o6at rrjv yrjv kvOa vvv olkovgi Kal pera- 
paXovras apa ray tottoj rovvopa Ea^ivovs c'^ 

2 Op^pLKOJi npooayopevdrjvac. Kdrcov he UopKios 
TO p.£v ovopa TO) Ea^ivojv edvei redi^vai cfirjaa em 
Ed^ov ^ 70V EdyKov datpovos e7Ti-)(CjpLOV, rovrov 
he Tov EdyKoi vno nvwv TJtarLOi^ KaXeZudaL Ala. 
TTpcoTTjv S' a'UTOJv oLKiqoLv d7TO(f>aiveL yeveaOaL KOipuqv 
TLvd KoXovpemrji Tearpovvav dyxov rroXeaJS 'Aparep- 
VTjs Ketpiev-qv, i^ rjS oppiqOevr as rore Ea^ivovs elg 
TTJV 'Peariirqi epL^aXelp ^A^opLyivcov a/xa TJeXaayoLg^ 
KaroLKOVircov /cat ttoXlv avrchv rrjv eTrKfiaveardnqv 

'6 KorvXias *" TToXepw xeipcooapevovs KaraaxeZv . €k 
8c TTJs 'PearUTjs aTTOLKLag aTTooreiXavTas dXXas re 
TToXeLS KTLGai TToXXds , iv ah olKelv dreixicfTOis , kol 
&rj /ecu TOLS TTpoGayopevopevas Kvpeis • ^(ajpap Be 

1 8' (8e) o Ambrosch : Si O. 

2 Lacuna recognized by Kiessling, who supplied naXaios 
or Xoyov d^Los- 

'" O^ippLKOvs fdvo? avdiyeves Keiske : oix^pLKOv iSvovs avdi.- 
y€Vf.ls O. 

* Sylburg : oa^ivov O. 

450 



BOOK II. 48. 4-49, 3 

reputed to be. or, as other? state, from a spear, 
since the Sabines call spears cures. ^ This is the 
account given by Terentius Varro. 

XLIX. But Zenodotus oi Troezen, a . . . his- 
torian,- relates that the Umbrians, a native race, first 
dwelt ill the Reatine territory, as it is called, and that, 
being driven from there by the Pelasgians. they came 
into the country which they now inhabit, and chang- 
ing their name with their place of habitation, from 
Umbrians were called Sabines. But Porcius Cato 
says that the Sabine race received its name from 
Sabus. the son of Sancus. a divinity of that country, 
and that this Sancus was by some called Jupiter 
Fidius. He says also that their first place of abode 
was a certain village called Testruna, situated near 
the city of Amiternum ; that from there the Sabines 
made an incursion at that time into the Reatine 
territorv. which was inhabited bv the Aborig- 
ines together with the Pelasgians,^ and took their 
most famous city. Cutiliae. by force of arms and 
occupied it ; and that, sending colonies out of the 
Reatine territory, they built many cities, in which 
they lived without fortifying them, among others 
the city called Cures. He further states that the 

^ Or quires. The Greek spelling can represent either 
form. 

* The Greek text suggests the loss of an adjective or 
phrase qualifying " historian." See critical note. 

^ The word " Pelasgians " is due to Reiske. See critical 
note and i. 19 f. 



rieXaayois added by Reiske ; Kiessling emended dfj.a to 

451 



avrqi 

* Gelenius : kotvvos O 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

/caraCT^'etv rrjg fxkv 'ABptavrj? OaXdrrris d7Te)(ovaav 
d/jcpl rov? oyhoTjKOvra kol hiaKOGLOVs crraStou?. 
TrjS Se Tvpp-qvLKrj? rerrapaKovra Trpos hiaKOGLOLS ' 
fjL7JKO<i 8e avTTJg etvai (f}r}GLv oXiyco iielov (jTahiojv 
XlXlojv. €(jtl 8e' TLS Kal d'AAos" VTrep twv Ea^ivojv 
iv LGTopiais imxcjjpioLS Xeyofievo? Xoyog, to? AaKe- 
SaL/JiovLOJu e7TOLKr]adi'rojv avrolg Kad" ov ■)(^p6vov 
€7nTpo7T€vcoi^ Evvofxov Tov d6€X(f)LOovv AuKovpyog 
eOero rfj ETrdprrj tov? vofxovs. dxOofjLei'ov? ydp 
rivas rfj OKX-qpoTrjTi rr\s voiioOeGLas Kal hiaaravTas 
dno rcx}v erepcvv olxeoO at to Trapdirav €k ttj? noXecos • 
eVetra 8td TreXdyov^ ttoXXov <^epoixei^ov<? ev^aaOai 
rot? ^eot? [ttoOov ydp Tiva VTreXdelv avTOvs ottol- 
aGhrjTTOTe yrjs) et? r]v dv eXdcoGC ttpcvttjv, iv TavTTj ^ 
KaTOLK'^G€Lv. KaTaxO^VTa? 3e tt^s" '/raAta? Trept Ta 
KaXo-ujxeva TlojyL^VTlva rreSca to re xcoplov, iv w 
TrpcjTOv (hpfJiiGavTO , ^opcovlav ^ airo Trjg TreXaylov 
(l)op7]G€CDS ovofjidGai KOL 9ed? Upov ISpvGaGdai 
Oopojvias i^ fi Tct? ev^ds eOevTO • tjv vvv €v6g dAXayfj 
ypdfjLfJLaTog ^epojviav KaXovGiv. €KeiOev 8' opfirj- 
Oevrag avTcov rti^a? gvvoIkovs Tolg Ea^lvois ye- 
veGdat Kal Sid tovto noXXd tcjv voyiiyiojv elvai 
Ea^Lvcov* AaKcovLKd, fidXiGTa 8e to (^iXoTToXefjiov 
re Kal to XiToSlaLTOu Kal napd rrdvTa Td epya tov 

^ ravrri Reiske : ain-riO. 
^Ambrosch: ^eputv^iav B, 4)epojviav R. 
^Anibrosch: (f>opcovetas B, (^epo/i'ta? R. 
* Za^li'ojv B : om. R. 



'The Pomptinus ager of Livy (ii 34; iv. 2ot. The 
marginal lands stretching round ttie Pontine marshes. 

452 



BOOK II. 49, 3-5 

country they occiipietl was distant from the Adriatic 
about two hundred and eighty stades and from the 
TjTrhenian Sea two hundred and forty, and that 
its length was a little less than a thousand stades. 
There is also another account given of the Sa- 
bines in the native histories, to the effect that a 
colony of Lacedaemonians settled among them 
at the time when Lycurgus, being guardian to his 
nephew Eunomus, gave his laws to Sparta. For 
the story goes that some of the Spartans, disliking 
the severity of his laws and separating from the rest, 
quitted the city entirely, and after being borne 
through a vast stretch of sea, made a vow to the gods 
to settle in the first land they should reach ; for 
a longing came upon them for any land whatsoever. 
At last they made that part of Italy which lies 
near the Pomentine plains ^ and they called the 
place where they first landed Foronia. in memory of 
their being borne - through the sea, and built a temple 
to the goddess Foronia, to whom they had addressed 
their vows ; this goddess, by the alteration of one 
letter, they now call Feronia. And some of them, 
setting out from thence, settled among the Sabines. 
It is for this reason, they say, that many of the 
habits of the Sabines are Spartan, particularly their 
fondness for war and their frugality and a severity 

2 One wonders why the author of this fanciful etymology 
did not connect Feronia directly with the verb <f>€p€adai 
("to be borne along"), instead of assuming an earlier 
spelling Foronia, not otherwise attested, and deriving that 
form from the abstract noun ^dpT^crts. The name has not 
as yet been satisfactorily explained. 

453 



DIONYSTUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Plov GKXrjpov. V7T€p fikv Srj Tov Za^Lvojv yivovs 
ravd LKavd. 

L. 01 8e 7T€pL TOV 'PojfJivXoV Kal ToLTLOV Tqv 

T€ rroXiv evdvs Ittolovv fieilova Trpoudevres iripovs 
avrfj 8vo X6(f)ov?, top re KvpivLov KXrjdevTa Kal tov 
KaiXiov, Kal 8l€X6ix€voi -ag ot/CTjcrei? ^^pt? oAAt^Acov 
Statrav iv toZs Ihiois eKarepoL )(cxjpLOLg inocovvTO, 
PojfivXos piev TO IJaXdrtov KaTexojv Kal to KaiXiov 
opos (eoTL 8e toj IJaXaTLCo Trpouex^?), Toltlos Se 

TOV KaTTLTOjXlvOV ,^ OV7T€p cf dpXV^ KaTeG^^ , Kal TOV 

2 KvpiviOV O^doV. TO S' V7TOK€LfjL€VOV TO) KaTTLTOjXicO 

TTeSiov eKKOifjavTeg ttjv iv avTco irecjiVKvlav vX-qv Kal 
TTJ? Xcp-vrjs, 7] Srj 8ta to kolXov elvai to ;)(6L>/otov 
inX-qdve tols KaTLovcriv cV tojv opcjv vaptaai, to. 
TToXXd ;(;a>crai'T6S" dyopdv avTodi KaTeGTiqaavTO , fj 
Kal vvv eTL xP^f-^^^oL 'PojixaloL hiaTeXovGi, Kal ra? 
Gvvohovs ivTavda eTTOiovvTO iv 'H(f)aiGTOV XPVI^^'''^' 
C.ovT€g Upo) pcKpov VTTepaveGTTjKOTL^^ TTJs dyopdg. 

3 lepd re ISpVGavTO Kal /Sco/xou? KadiepajGav oh 
Tjv^avTO Acara ra? fidxa? deols, 'PojjjlvXos fJiev 
^OpOcxjGLCp Ail napd rat? KaXovpuivais MovyojviGi^ 
TTuAats", at (j)ipovGLV els to FlaXdTLOv ex ttj? lepdg 

ohoVy OTL TTjV GTpaTldv aVTOV (fyVyOVGaV i7TOLr]G€V 

6 deos VTTaKOVGa? rat? evxoiL? GTrjvac t€ Kal Trpo? 
dXKTjv Tpa7T€G6aL ' TdTLos Se 'HXlcp T€ Kal ZeXrjVQ 
Kal Kpovco Kal 'Pea, Trpos Se tovtol? 'Egtlo, Kal 
HcjjaLGTcp Kal ^ApTefiiSi Kal ^EvvaXtcp Kal a'AAot? 
Beols, (Lv ;!^aAe776v i^eirreU' 'EXXd^L yXwTTr] to, 

^ Kiessling ; KaTrnajXiov O. 
^ Ambrosch : cTraveaTTjKOTL O, Jacoby. 
" MovyojviQi Ambrosch : ^ovpwvLQi ABa- fivpcoviai Bb. 
454 



BOOK II. 49, 5-50, 3 

in all the actions of their lives. But this is enough 
about the Sabine race. 

L. Romulus and Tatius immediately enlarged the 
city by adding to it two other hills, the Quirinal, as 
it is called, and the Caelian ; and separating their 
habitations, each of them had his particular place 
of residence. Romulus occupied the Palatine and 
Caelian hills, the latter being next to the Palatine, 
and Tatius the Capitoline hill, which he had seized 
in the beginning, and the Quirinal. And cutting 
down the wood that grew on the plain at the foot 
of the Capitoline and filling up the greatest part 
of the lake, which, since it lay in a hollow, was 
kept well supplied by the waters that came down 
from the hills, they converted this plain into a 
forum, which the Romans continue to use even now ; 
there they held their assemblies, transacting their 
business in the temple of Vulcan, which stands a 
little above the Forum. They built temples also 
and consecrated altars to those gods to whom they 
had addressed their vows during their battles : 
Romulus to Jupiter Stator,i near the Porta Mugonia, 
as it is called, which leads to the Palatine hill from 
the Sacred Way, because this god had heard his 
vows and had caused his army to stop in its flight 
and to renew the battle ; and Tatius to the Sun 
and Moon, to Saturn and to Rhea, and, besides 
these, to Vesta, Vulcan, Diana, Enyalius, and to 
other gods whose names are difficult to be ex- 
pressed in the Greek language ; and in every curia 

1 The " Stayer " of their flight. 

455 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Gvofxara, ev aTrdaais re rat? Kovpiats "Hpa rparti- 
^as" eOero Kvpirihi ^ Xeyofjevrj, at /cat etV roSe xpovov 

4 Kelvrai. err] pikv ovv nevre crvve^aotXevGav aXXrj- 
XoLS vrrep ovSevo? hia^epopLevoi •^(^prjpiaros , iv ot? 
KOLVT^v TTpd^Lv OLTTeBeL^avTO Trjv eTTL KapLeplvovs 
GrpaTeiav. Xr](TTrjpia yap eKTreprrovres ol KajJLeplvoL 
Kol 77oAAa -•y-jv x^P'^^ avrojv KaKovvres ov cruv- 
e^aivov irrl hiKrjV ttoXXolkls utt' avrcov KaXovfjievoL * 
ovs eV TTapard^eco? re VLK-rJGavreg [ey^ajprjcrav yap 
avrolg opLoae) Kal per a ravra eK retxopaxiOLS Kara 
Kpdros eXovres onXa pev dcfyelXovro /cat xojpa? 
etj]pLa>Gav rij 'P^ttj pLepihi • tjv rols o^erepoLS 

5 StetAov. ra)v Se KapLepLva>v roijs eiroiKOVs "^ Xv- 
fiatvopevcov^ eire^eXdovre? Kal rpeijjdpievoL ^ avrovs, 
rd pev avrcjv drravra rolg a(f)erepOLg TToXiraig 
StetAoy, avrov? Be rovg dvdpcoTTOvs ottoctol e^ovXovro 
iv 'PcopLrj KaroiKeiv elauav. eyevovro S' ct>? rerpa- 
kkjxlXlol, ov? ral? cfypdrpaL? eVe/xeptcrat', /cat rrju 
ttoXlv avrCbv diroLKiav 'Pujpaiujv errolrjoav. rjv Se 
' AX^avcJiji' aTTOKriGLs "^ tj KapLepla TroAAots" ;(po^'Ots' 
aTTOGraXeiGa irporepov rrjg 'Pcopir)?, ro 8' dpxcuov 
'Afiopiyivoiv OLKTjGL? iv rols ^ Trdvv i7TL(j)avTJg. 

LI. ^EvLavro) he eKrco nepiLGraraL rrdXiv eh eva 
*PajpLvXov rj rrjg 77oAca>? dpx'r] Tarlov reXevrr^Gavrog 

* Schomann : Kvpiria AB. 

2 The words rot? o(f>€r€poi5 . . . evoiKovs were supplied by 
Kiessling (who used the form Kafxepivalcov). 

^ T7j TpLTTj -qpiipq. after Xvnaivopiivojv deleted by Kiessling. 

* TpeipdfjLevoi Kayser: Tpo7Tioodp.evoi. O. 

* OLTTOKTioLS ABa : dnoLKrjais Bb. 
^ Tois Sintenis: rais O. 

456 



BOOK II. 50, 3-51, 1 

he dedicated tables to Juno called Quiritis,^ which 
remain even to this day. For five years, then, 
the kings reigned together in perfect harmony, 
during which time they engaged in one joint under- 
taking, the expedition against the Camerini ; for 
these people, who kept sending out bands of robbers 
and doing great injury to the country of the Romans, 
would not agree to have the case submitted to 
judicial investigation, though often summoned by 
the Romans to do so. After conquering the Camerini 
in a pitched battle (for they came to blows with 
them) and later besieging and taking their town 
by storm, they disarmed the inhabitants and de- 
prived them of a third part of their land, which 
they divided among their own people.- And when 
the Camerini proceeded to harass the new settlers, 
they marched out against them, and having put them 
to flight, divided all their possessions among their 
own people, but permitted as many of the inhabitants 
as wished to do so to live at Rome. These amounted 
to about four thousand, whom they distributed 
among the curiae, and they made their city a Roman 
colony. Cameria was a colony of the Albans planted 
long before the founding of Rome, and ancientlv one 
of the most celebrated habitations of the Aborigines. 
LI. But ^ in the sixth year, the government of the 
city devolved once more upon Romulus alone, Tatius 

^ The name also appears as Quiris, Curis and Cur(r)itis. 
It was variously derived from currus ("car"), from the 
Sabine curis ("spear'') and from Cures, the city. 

- More than an entire line is supplied here, following 
KiessHng's suggestion. See critical note. 

^ for chaps. 51-52 c/. Livy i. 14, 1-3. 

457 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

eg €7TL^ov/\.rjs, t)v crvvearrjo-av eV avro) AaovLviarcov 
OL Kopv(f)ai6TaTOL orvfj.(f)poi^')]aavT€£ 0,77-0 TOLavTqs 
alrias ' rcov iraipojv nvks rov Tariov XrjcrTijpLOv 
€^ayay6vTe£ etV rr^v AaovtvLarcjv ^copav xPVf^^'^^ 
T€ avrcov rjpTraaav ttoWcl kol PocrKrjfidrcvv dmjXaaav 
dyeXag, rajv S' im^orjdovi'Tajv ou? /xev aTreKreivav , 

2 ou? S' irpavfxdrLGap. d(f>LKOii€viqs Se TTpeofieias 
rrapd rcov rjSLKijfievajv Kal rd SuKaia (iTratTOUcrry? o 
pev 'Pojp.-uXog iBiKaiaxje Trapahovvai tovs hpduavras 
ToZs dhiKiqOeiuLv dirdyeiv, 6 Se Tdriog rayv iraipcov 
rrepLexop^evo? ovk tj^lov npo Slktj? rtms" vtt^ ixOpcov 
dyeadat ^ Kal ravra TToXlrag oWa? vtto ^evojv ' SiKd- 
^eadaL 8' aurots" eKeXeve rov? rjBiKTJcrOaL Xiyovras 

3 els 'Pcx)p.r]v dcj^LKopevovg. ol p.ev Sr) Trpeo^eis ovhev 
evpopevoL rdjv hiKaiojv dyavaKrovvres dTT^eaav, axro- 
XovOrjaavres 8' avrolg rwv Ea^ivojv nves vtt* dpyr\s» 
eaKrjvcopevoL? irapd rrjv ohov (ea-rrepa yap avrovs 
KareXa^ev) eTTiridevrai KadevSovcn /cat rd re XPV' 
puar^ avTOvg d(f)aipovvraL Kal onoaovg eu raZs KOirais 
en KareXa^ov d7TOG(j)drrovGiv , ogols Se raxela rrjg 
eTTLPovXrjg avrwv aLcrO-qcns eyevero Kal rod Sta- 
(f)vyeiv hvvapis els rrjv ttoXlv d(j}iKvovvraL. perd 
rovro e/c re Aaoviviov TTpecr^ecs d(f>iK6p,evoL Kal ef 
dXXojv TToXeojv (jvxvayv Karrjyopovv rrjs napavopias 
Kal TToXepLOv TTap-jyyeXXov el p,rj rev^ovrai rrjs 
Slktjs. 

LII. 'PojpvXa) pev ovv heivov, axnrep rjv, ro 
TTepl revs Trpea^evrds e(f)aLvero rrddos Kal raxeias 

1 dyeadai Bb : ivdyeadai ABa ; OLTrdyeadai Biicheler. 

458 



BOOK II. 51, 1-52, 1 

having lost his life as the result of a plot which the 
principal men of Lavinium formed against him. 
The occasion for the plot was this. Some friends of 
Tatius had led out a band of robbers inlo the terri- 
tory of the Lavinians, where they seized a great 
many of their effects and drove away their herds of 
cattle, killing or wounding those who came to the 
rescue. Upon the arrival of an embassy from the 
injured to demand satisfaction, Romulus decided 
that those who had done the injury should be de- 
livered up for punishment to those they had wronged. 
Tatius, however, espousing the cause of his friends, 
would not consent that any persons should be 
taken into custody by their enemies before trial, 
and particularly Roman citizens by outsiders, 
but ordered those who complained that they had 
been injured to come to Rome and proceed against 
the others according to law. The ambassadors, 
accordingly, ha\'ing failed to obtain any satisfaction, 
went away full of resentment ; and some of the 
Sabines, incensed at their action, followed them and 
set upon them while they were asleep in their tents, 
which they had pitched near the road when evening 
overtook them, and not only robbed them of their 
money, but cut the throats of all they found still 
in their beds ; those, however, who perceived the 
plot promptly and were able to make their escape 
got back to their city. After this ambassadors came 
both from Lavinium and from many other cities, 
complaining of this lawless deed and threatening war 
if they should not obtain justice. 

LII. This violence committed against the ambas- 
sadors appeared to Romulus, as indeed it was, a 

459 



DTONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

d(f)ocna)(T€co£ SeojJLevov, w? lepou KaraXeXvjievov ^ 
vofiov. /cat ovSev en Sia^eXX-qaa?, oj? elSev oAtyco- 
povvra rov Tdnov avro? cruveXa^e tov? evoxov? rco 
dyei /cat Srjaag TrapehcoKe rot? irpeG^evraZs OLTrdyeLV. 

2 TaTLO) Se dvfio? re elcrepx^rai rrj^ v^peojs, r^v vtto 
Tov ovidpxovros fjTLdro v^pioOai Kara rrjv napd- 
SoGiv Tcov dvBpojv, /cat olktos TOJv dTTayofievajv {rju 
yap /cat ovyyevq^ tls avrov rco dyei evoxps) /cat 
avTiKa TOV? GTpariioras dvaXa^oov i^orjOet Slol 
rd^ov; iv oSw re oVra? rov? TTpea^eis KaraXa^ojv 

3 d(f)eLX€TO rovs dnayopevov?. xpovov Se ov ttoXXov 
hieXdovTog, (Ls fi€v rives (fiacnu, a/xa *Poj/jivXcp 
7rapay€v6f.L€vos els to AaovivLov eVe/ca dvaias, rfv 
eSet rot? TraTpcvoLs Beols vnep ttjs TToXeojs OvaaL 
rovs ^acTtXels, crvuTdvTOJv ctt' aurov rcov eTaipcvv 
t€ /cat yevei TrpoGiqKovTCJv rot? dvr]pr]ixivois npe- 
af^eorLU irrl tojv jSco/xcDi' rat? pLayeipLKdls a(j)ayiaL /cat 

4 rot? ^ovTTopoLS o^eXoLS Traiopievos dTToOvrjOKei. (hs 
3' ot 77-ept AiKLVVLOv ypd(j}OVGLv ov fJieTa ' PojfivXov 
TTapayevofjievos ovSe X^P^^ Upcov, dXXd piovos (hs 
TTeiGOJv Tovs dStK-qdevTas a(/)eti''at rot? ScSpa/cdcrt 
TTjv dpyqv, dyavaKTrjoavTOs tov ttX'^Oovs inl tco pLT) 
TTapahlhoadai ct^igl tovs di'Spas, cos o re 'Pojp^vXos 
iSiKaLOJoe /cat Ty tojv 'PcupLalcov eKpive ^ovX-q, /cat 
rajv TTpourjKOVTCJv rot? Tedvecoat Kara ttXt^Oos opput)- 
advTcxJv e-n avTOv, dhvvaTOS coy ert ^ia(f>vyelv ttjv eV 
X^cpos Slktjv, KaTaXevadels vtt^ avTCOv drTodvijuKeL, 

' Biicheler : KaraXvofxevov O. 

^ Licinius Macer. 
460 



BOOK II. 52, 1-4 

terrible crime and one calling lor speedy expiation, 
since it had hcen in violation of a sacred law ; and 
finding that Tatius was making light of it, he himself, 
without further delay, caused those who had been 
guilty of the outrage to be seized and delivered up in 
chains to the ambassadors to be led away. But Tatius 
not only was angered at the indignity which he 
complained he had received from his colleague in 
the delivering up of the men, but was also moved 
with compassion for those who were being led 
away (for one of the guilty persons was actually a 
relation of his) ; and immediately, taking his sol- 
diers with him, he went in haste to their assistance, 
and overtaking the ambassadors on the road, he 
took the prisoners from them. But not long after- 
wards, as some say, when he had gone with Romulus 
to Lavinium in order to perform a sacrifice which 
it was necessary for the kings to offer to the ancestral 
gods for the prosperity of the citv. the friends and 
relations of the ambassadors who had been murdered, 
having conspired against him, slew him at the altar 
with the knives and spits used in cutting up and 
roasting the oxen. But Licinius ^ w^rites that he 
did not go with Romulus nor, indeed, on account 
of any sacrifices, but that he went alone, with the 
intention of persuading those who had received 
the injuries to forgive the authors of them, and that 
when the people became angry because the men were 
not delivered up to them in accordance with the 
decision both of Romulus and of the Roman senate, 
and the relations of the slain men rushed upon him 
in great numbers, he was no longer able to escape 
summary justice and was stoned to death by them. 

461 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

6 TdrLO? fjL€v ovv roiavrr]? reXevrrj^ ^~^X^ rpia jJLev 
err] TToXefjurjaa? 'Poj/jvXu), Trevre he ovvdp^ag, 
OaTTrerai 5' els 'Pcjjjltjv KOfiLcrdels evrifiq} ra(f)fj /cat 
Xods avTco KaO^ eKaurov evtavrov rj ttoXis emreXel 

hrjfJLOGLO.. 

LIII, 'PcofJLvXos Se fiovos eTTL TTjv oip)(rju TO Sev- 
repov Karacrrds to re dyos d<j)0(JLOvraL to nepl rovs 
npecr^eis yevojjievov Trpoenrajv tol? epyaaafjevoLS to 
fjiVGog vSaro? elpyeodaL koI TTvpos {e7T€(f)evye(jav 
yap Ik ttjs TToXecos d-navres dp a ro) top Tdriov 
dTToOavelv) kol tcjv AaouLviarcov rovg GVcrrdvTas 
eTTL Tov Tdriov hiKauT'qplcp irapahovs eKhoOevras 
VTTO TTJs -TToXeojs, eTTetSr] hiKaioiepa ehoKovv Xeyetv 
rd /Siata ripiCjpri(jdp,evoL rols ^laiois, diTeXvae ttjs 

2 alrias. ravra hiaTrpa^dpevos enl Trjv ^LSrjvalojv 
eorpdrevGe ttoXlv drro TerrapdKovra Grahiojv rrjs 
*Pcopr)s KeLfxevTjv, pueydX-qv re kol TToXvdvdpcoTTOv 
ovGav Tore, dyopeviqs ydp els ttjv *Pcx)prjv dyopds 
€v GKdSais TTOTapLTjyoLS , yjp KpovGTopeplvoL^ TTie^O- 
pLevoLS VTTO XipLov 'PcupaloLS dTTeGTeiXav , ojGdpevoi 
Kard ttXtjOos enl rds GKd(f>as ol OihrivaioL rrjv re 
dyopdv hi-qpTTaGav Koi rcov dvOpojircov nvds rcov 
€7TL^or]dovvrojv aTTeKreivav alrovpevol re ScKas ov)( 

3 vTTetxov- €0' OLS dyavaKrd)v 6 ' PtopLvXos eve^aXev 
els rrjv ;)(Ojpav avrdjv ttoXXtj Grparia Kal yevopLeuos 
d(j)66vov XeLas eyKparrjs dirdyeiv piev napeGKevd- 
i,ero rrjp SvvapLLV, eTre^eXdovrcov he rd)v ^ihi^vaioiv 

^ Ambrosch : Kpovaroiidptoi BbK, KpoorofxipeioL Ba. 

462 



BOOK n. S2. .S-53, 3 

Such was the end to which Tatiiif? came, after he 
had warred against Romuhis for three years and 
had been his colleague for five. His body was 
brought to Rome, where it was given honourable 
burial ; and the city offers public libations to him 
every year. 

LIII. But ^ Romulus, now established for the 
second time as sole ruler, expiated the crime com- 
mitted against the ambassadors by forbidding those 
who had perpetrated the outrage the use of fire and 
water ; for upon the death of Tatius they had all fled 
from the city. After that, he brought to trial the 
Lavinians who had conspired against Tatius and who 
had been delivered up by their own city, and when 
they seemed to plead, with considerable justice, that 
they bad but avenged violence with violence, he freed 
them of the charge. After he had attended to these 
matters, he led out his army against the citv of 
Fidenae, which was situated forty stades from Rome 
and was at that time both large and populous. 
For on an occasion when the Romans were oppressed 
by famine and provisions which the people of 
Crustumerium had sent to them were being brought 
down the river in boats, the Fidenates crowded 
aboard the boats in great numbers, seized the 
provisions and killed some of the men who defended 
them, and when called upon to make satisfaction, 
they refused to do so. Romulus, incensed at this, 
made an incursion into their territory with a con- 
siderable force, and having possessed himself of a 
great quantity of booty, was prepaiing to lead his 
army home ; but when the Fidenates came out 

iC/. Livy i. 14, 4-11. 

463 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

mjioLTTTeL TTpos avTOVs ixdx-qv. Kaprepov Se dycovos" 
yci'OfjLevov Kai ttoWcjv Treaovrajv dcf)^ eKarepajv 
rjOGTidei^res ol ^iSr^ialoL rpeTrovraL npo^ (jivyr^v, 6 
8' eV 770§Ob cruvaKoXovdcov aurot? gvu€ig7tlttt€l tols 

4 (f)€vyov(TLv elg to relxo?. aXovcrqs Se rrj? noXeco? 
ef icjioSov TLficjop-qodpievo^ i$ avrcbv oXiyov; /cat 
(f)vXaKr]i' ev rfj TidAet rpLaKOoicov dvSpojv KaraXtTTcbv 
rT]9 re ;^aipa? pLolpav drroTefjidpevog, rjv rols (T(f)eT€- 
pot? SietAev, drroLKLav iiroi-qGe ' PcxjfiaLOju Kal ravnqv 
TTji^ TToXiv. rjv 8e 'AXBoLvcop dTTOKTiatg Kara tov avrov 
OLKLGdelaa Nwixevrw re /cat KpovcrTOfiepia ^povov, 
Tpi(i)v dSeX(l)a)v ttj? dnoLKLas ■qyqaapiivajv , a)v 6 
77-p€criSuTaro9 Tr]v ^tSiQurji' eKnoev. 

LIV. Merd Tovrov tov rroXepLOv eVi Kapiepivovs 
iarpdrevGev iiriOepievov? ^ tols napd (7(f)Lcnv irrol- 
KOL<;, Kad^ ov )(p6uoiy eKapLueu rj ' Ptopaiojv noXtg 
VTTO vooov XoLiXLKrjs fj 3^7 pidXiGTa iirapdevTes ol 
Kap^epluoL /cat uofxcGauTes dpSr^u to ' Pcopalajv 
8ta(/>fc'aprjcrecr^ai yevog vtto ttJ? GV[j,(l)opdg tov? fxiv 

2 d7T€KT€Li^au Tcjv iTTOLKOjp, TOV5 S' i^€^aXov. dvd^ 
oju TLjjLcopovpLevog avTOus 6 'PcofJLvXog, iireLhr] to 
h€VT€pov eKpdTTjGe Trjg TToAecu?, TJvg pikv aiTLOvs 

Trjs dTTOGTaGCOJ? dTTeKTELVe, TOL? 3e GTpaTlCJTaiS 

hiapTrdGaL t7]u ttoXlv icfyrJKe, ttj? re x^P^i? ttju 
rjjjLiGeLav dTTOTefxofJievo? efoj ttj? TvpoTepov toIs 
kXtjpovxols hodeiGT)? /cat (f)povpdu d^LOXP^cou /cara- 
XiTTWv, 6U? pL-qSeu €TL TrapaKLurJGaL tov? €v8ov, 
d-n-riye ttju SviapLLu. e/c TavTrj? Trjs GTpaTeia? /cat '^ 
hemepov Opiapi^ov /carT^yaye /cat djio tcov Xa(j)vpajv 

^Biicheler: emrt^e/xet'ous O. ^ kou Bb : om. BaK. 

464 



BOOK II. 53, 3-54, 2 

against him, he gave them battle. After a severe 
struggle, in Avliich many fell on both sides, the 
enemy were defeated and put to flight, and Romu- 
lus, following close upon their heels, rushed inside 
the walls along with the fugitives. When the city 
had been taken at the first assault, he punished 
a few of the citizens, and left a guard of three 
hundred men there ; and taking from the inhabitants 
a part of their territory, which he divided among 
his own people, he made this city also a Roman 
colony. It had been founded by the ^Vlbans at 
the same time with Nomentum and Crustumerium, 
three brothers having been the leaders of the 
colony, of whom the eldest built Fidenae. 

LIV. After this war Romulus undertook another 
against the Camerini, who had attacked the Roman 
colonists in their midst while the city of Rome was 
suffering from a pestilence ; it was this situation in 
particular that encouraged the Camerini, and be- 
lieving that the Roman nation would be totally 
destroyed by the calamity, they killed some of the 
colonists and expelled the rest. In revenge for this 
Romulus, after he had a second time made himself 
master of the city, put to death the authors of the 
revolt and permitted his soldiers to plunder the city ; 
and he also took away half the land besides that which 
had been previously granted to the Roman settlers. 
And having left a garrison in the city sufficient to 
quell any future uprising of the inhabitants, he 
departed with his forces. As the result of this 
expedition he celebrated a second triumph, and 
out of the spoils he dedicated a chariot and four in 

465 

VOL. I. R 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ridpLTTTTOV ;^aA/<:ow avedrjKe raj ' H(f)aL(jr<x} /cat 
Trap avrw ttjv Ihlav dveoTTjaev ^ eiKova iTnypdiJjas 

3 ' EXX'qvLKOtg ypdfifxaGL rd? iavrov rrpd^ei^. rpiros 
avro) crvveGrr] TToXefiO'^ npos edvovg TvpprjvLKOv ttjv 
fieyiarriv taxvv €)(ovcrav ^ rore ttoXlv, -^ /caAetrat 
fxev OvLoi,^ d7Td)(€L Se rrj^; 'PwfJLrjg djJKf)! rovg eKardv 
(JTaScovs, K€LTaL S' i(f)^ vijf-qXov GKorreXov kol irepip- 
payyos fiiyeOo? e^ovaa duov ^Adrjvai. iiroLrjoavro 
S OL OvievTavoL rod TToXefiov 7Tp6(j)aGLV ttjv rrj^ 
0L8ijvrjg dXcoGLv kol npecr^eLS dTTooreiXavres iK€- 
Xevov 'Poj/jiaiOLS i^dyetv e/c rrj? TToXeojg rrjv 
(jypovpdv Kal rriv x'^pav, tjv Karelxov dcf^eXopL^voL 
rovg ^ihrjvaiovsy dirohihovai rols i^ dpxrj? KVpiois. 
<1)S S' ovK eneiOov iXdaavres rroXXfj Grparia 
ttXtjctlov rrjs 0iS'^vr]? iv dTTOTrrcp ridevrai rov 

4 xdpaKa. TTpo^yvixJKCJS Se avrcov ttjv e^oSov 6 
'PcofjiijXos i^eXrjXvdei rrju KparioTrjV SvvapLLv e^cov 
Kal rjv iv rfj TrdAet rojv ^ih-qvaiajv evrperrrj^. eVet 
8* eroLfJia rd npos rov dycova rju, dp(l>6repoL TTpoeX- 
dovres ets ro TreSlov ifxdxovTO Kal hUpLeivav d)(pL 
TToXXrjs cjpas eKdvpLOJS dyojvit^opLevoLy ecu? ^ r] vv$ 
eTTtXa^ovGa SieKpivev avrovg lgovs Kard rov dycova 
yevofievovs. Kal ravrrjv /u-ev r7]v p^dxrjv ovrcjs 
TjyojvLaavro ' 

LV. irepag 8e p-dx^is jLter' ov ttoXv yevofxevTjs, 
ivLKWv ol 'PojixaloL ao(f)La rov rjyejjLovos opos rt 
KaraXa^ofievov vvKrojp ov ttoXvv tov (TrparoneSov 
rGiv TToXeixlojv rorrov drrexov Kal Xoxi(Javros iv 

* Jacoby : ioT-qaev O. 

466 



BOOK II. 54, 2-55, 1 

bronze to Vulcan, and near it he set up his own statue 
with an inscription in Greek characters setting forth 
his deeds. The ^ third war Romulus engaged in was 
against the most powerful city of the Tyrrhenian 
race at that time, called Veii, distant from Rome 
about a hundred stades ; it is situated on a high and 
craggy rock and is as large as Athens. The Veientes 
made the taking of Fidenae the pretext for this war, 
and sending ambassadors, they bade the Romans 
withdraw their garrison from that citv and restore 
to its original possessors the territory they had taken 
from them and were now occupying. And when 
their demand was not heeded, they took the field 
with a great army and established their camp in a 
conspicuous place near Fidenae. Romulus, however, 
having received advance information of their march, 
had set out with the flower of his army and lay ready 
at Fidenae to receive them. ^Tien all their pre- 
parations were made for the struggle, both armies 
advanced into the plain and came to grips, and they 
continued fighting with great ardour for a long 
time, till the coming on of night parted them, after 
they had proved themselves evenly matched in the 
struggle. This was the course of the first battle. 

LV. But in a second battle, which was fought 
not long afterwards, the Romans were victorious 
as the result of the strategy of their general, who 
had occupied in the night a certain height not far 
distant from the enemy's camp and placed there in 

1 For chap. 54, 3-55, G cj. Livy i. 15, 1-5. 

^ fieyiarrjv lax^v cxovaav Kiessling: fxcyLor-qv ia)(vovaav AB, 
^ Ov.oi Sylburg : lol A, loi B. * ecus O : reo;? Jacoby. 

467 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avTO) Trjv dKfiaiordrr]v roiv varepov d<j)LKOiJL€vo)V 
CK rrj? TToAeco? imrecov re /cat Tre^wv SvvajJLLV. 

2 ovveXdovrcov 8* et? to rrehLov dfi(f)OT€paju /cat rov 
avTOv dyojVLi,oiJ.€i'cov rpoTTOv, iTretBr) to iJvvSrifxa 
6 ^PojfJLvXo? rjpe rots eVt rov opov?, dXaXd^avTes 
ot Xo-)(a)vres eOeov inl tovs Ovievravovs eV rcjjv 
KaroTTLv /cat TrpooTreoovres dvOpojTTOLS jJiepoxdrjKocnv 
avroi d/c/xryres- ovres ov avv ttoXXw rpeTTOVGc ttovo)} 
TCx)V S' oAtyot pL€V rLV€S dTroOvrjGKOVO,, Kara ttjv 
lidxQV, ol Se nXelov? els rou Ti^epiv TTorapLOV {pel ^ 
Be Trapd ttjv ^ihiqvqv) ptipavre? iavrovs, cos 8ta- 
inr]^6fJL€voL TO pevjJLa, Si€(f)9dprjGav. rpau/xartat yap 
ovres /cat ^apels utto kottov dSuvarot eyevovTO 8ta- 
vrj^aaOai • ol Se /cat drreipia tov v€lv, ov TTpoiSovres,^ 
VTTO TOV SeLvov TTju yvojfXTjv iTTLTapaxBivres J ev rat? 

3 StVats" dTTOjXXvvTO. et pev ovv cruviyvojuav iavTols 
OvtevTavol /ca/ccDs" rd TrpcDra ^e^ovXevp^evois * Kal to 
XoLTTOv rjyov rjcruxf-dv ovSevos dv €tl p^ei^ovos dne- 
XavGov KaKov, vvv he dvapbaxelaOai re rd npoTepa 
cr^dA/Ltara eXiTLGavTes /cat el pLeil^ovL TrapaaKevij eVt- 
pdXoLev paSioJS iiTLKpaTriaeiv olopLevoi tw TToAc/xoi, 
TToXXfj crrparta Tjj re cf aurrj? ttjs TToXeoJS /cara- 
ypa^ctoT^ /cat tt^ ^ €/c rdit' opioeOvwv /card (jytXiav 
TTapayevopLevTj to hevTepov em tovs 'Pojp,aiovs 

4 eAawouCTt • /cat ytVerat irdXiv avTcov p^dxr} KapTepd 

1 ou ow TToXXo) TpiiTovai TTovw Sylburg, Casaubon, ov aw 
iTOvo) rpcTTOvat. \p6va) Reiske : ov avv noXXco rpdirovai. xpovu) O, 
Jacoby. 

2 pel Kiessling, eKpel Steph. : e/cei O. 
* TTpoiSovres A±Ja : npoet^ores Bb. 

468 



BOOK II. 55, 1-4 

ambush the choicest both of the horse and foot that 
had come to him from Rome since the hist action. 
The two armies met in the ph\in and fought in the 
same manner as before ; but when Romulus raised 
the signal to the troops that lay in ambush on the 
height, these, raising the battle cry, rushed upon the 
Veientes from the rear, and being themselves fresh 
while the enemy were fatigued, they put them to 
flight with no great difficulty. Some few of them 
were slain in battle, but the greater part, throwing 
themselves into the Tiber, which flows by Fidenae, 
with the intention of shamming across the river, 
were drowned ; for, being wounded and spent with 
labour, they were unable to swim across, while 
others, who did not know how to swim and had not 
looked ahead, having lost all presence of mind in 
face of the danger, perished in the eddies of the 
river. If, now, the Veientes had realized that their 
first plans had been ill-advised and had remained 
quiet after this, they would have met with no greater 
misfortune ; but, as it was, hoping to repair their 
former losses and believing that if they attacked with 
a larger force they would easily conquer in the war, 
they set out a second time against the Romans with 
a large army, consisting both of the levy from the 
city itself and of others of the same race ^ who in 
virtue of their league came to their assistance. 
Upon this, another severe battle was fought near 

^ i.e. Etruscans. 



* jScjSouAtu/xevois Bb : /SejSouAeu/xeVot 13a, ^ovAevofMevot R. 
^ Tjj added by Kiessiing. 



469 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

rrj? ^ihrjvrjs TrX-qolov, tjv iviKCuv 'PcofialoL noXXov? 
fjiev aTTOKreivavTes rwv OvievravcjVy en Se TrXeiovs 
aL^fiaXcoTovg Xa^ovreg. idXco 8e /cat o )(dpa^ avrcjv 
fiearos ojv )(^p-q[xdrcxjv re Kal ottXojv kol dvhpaiToZojv, 
Kai (JKd(f)ai 7TOTafj.rjyol yefiovaaL ttoXXtjs dyopds 
€Xij(f)Or]Gav, iv at? o rojv al)(fjLaXa)rajv o;^Aos" et? 

6 Tnv 'Pcoprjp KaTTJyero Slol tov TrorafJLov. ovros 
KaT7-i)(^9r) ^ rpiros vtto 'Poj/jlvXov Opiafi^os pLaKpo) 
Tcov TTporepajv eKTrpeTriurepos . /cat jLter' ov ttoXv 
Ovievravcjv TTpeu^eias d^iKop,evr]s rrepl hiaXvaecos 
rod TToXefJLov Kal crvyyvco[jLrjv tojv dixapriqpdTWV 
d^Lovcrrjg Xa^elv St/ca? o 'PcxJfxvXos avrols eTnridiqGi 
rdohe • )(a)pav re Trapahovvai 'PcxJixaiois ttjv irpocr- 
€-)(fi TO) Te^epei, rov9 KaXovpevovs ^Eirrd TrdyovSj 
Kal rcbv aX(x)v ^ aTToarrjvai tcjv Trapd rals eK^oXalg 
TOV TTorapbov, rod Se [jirjSev €tl vecjrepiaai ro ttlgtov 

6 Trapacrx^lv oynqpa TrevnJKOi'ra dyayovras^ vtto- 
lieLvdvrojv 8e Ovievravaov diTavTa ravra anoiSas 
7TOLrjad[Ji€vos npos avrovs els eKarov errj orr'qXo.LS 
eve^dpa^e rds opLoXoylas. twv S' alxp^aXojTWV 
Tovs /xev aTTteVai ^ovXojiivovs d(f)rJK€V dvev Xvrpwv, 
TOWS' S' avTov fxevetv rrpoaLpovfievovs ttoXXc^ irXeiovs 
ovras Tcbv irepa>v TToXlras TTOi-qodjxevos rats' (f>pd' 
rpais eTTthLelXe Kal KXijpovs avrols npoadveLpLe ^ em 
raSe tov Te^epios. 

LVI. OvTOL ovvearrjoav ol iToXep.OL 'PcxjpivXco 
Xoyov Kal fxv^fjLrjs d^LOL. tov 8e pLr]hkv ert twv 



^ KaT-qxdrf Jacoby : ■qx^'^ O* 

* aXwv Gelenius, Sylburg : aXXuiv O. 



470 



BOOK II. 55, 4-56, I 

Fidenae, in which the Romans were victorious, after 
kilHng many of the Veientes and taking more of 
them prisoners. Even their camp was taken, which 
was full of money, arms and slaves, and likewise 
their boats, which were laden with great store of 
provisions ; and in these the multitude of prisoners 
were carried down the river to Rome. This was 
the third triumph that Romulus celebrated, and 
it was much more magnificent than either of the 
former. And when, not long afterwards, ambas- 
sadors arrived from the Veientes to seek an end 
to the war and to ask pardon for their offences, 
Romulus imposed the follomng penalties upon them : 
to deliver up to the Romans the country adjacent 
to the Tiber, called the Seven Districts,^ and to 
abandon the salt-works near the mouth of the 
river, and also to bring fifty hostages as a pledge 
that they would attempt no uprising in the future. 
When the Veientes submitted to all these demands, 
he made a treaty with them for one hundred years 
and engraved the terms of it on pillars. He then 
dismissed without ransom all the prisoners who 
desired to return home ; but those who preferred to 
remain in Rome — and these were far more numerous 
than the others — he made citizens, distributing 
them among the curiae and assigning to them allot- 
ments of land on this side of the Tiber. 

LVI. These ^ are the memorable wars which 
Romulus waged. His failure to subdue any more 

iSeptem Pagi. ^ Cf. Livy i. 16, 1-4. 

^ Tovs after irpoaeveni^ deloted by Jacoby ; Reiske emended 
to r^£. 

471 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TTArjaLOV i6va)v VTrayayecrdai ray^ela rj reXevrrj rov 
plov avfjL^dcra en aKixdt,ovri aura) ra TToXefiia 
TTparreiv iv alria yeviadai eSo^€ ' Trepl rj? ttoAAoi 

2 TTapaSeSovraL Xoyoi /cat SLd<f)opoi. ol [lev ovv 
pLvdcvSearepa rd Trepl avrov TTOLOvvres eKKXrjcnd- 
^ovrd (f)aGLV avrov eVt crrparoTreSov L,6(f)OV Kara- 
(jKiji/javro? ef aWpias kol )(eLp.a)vo? peydXov Karap- 
payevTOS dcfjavrj yeveudai kol TreTnarevKauLV vtto 

'6 rod varpo? "Apeo? rov dvSpa dvqpTrdcrdaL • ol 8e 
rd mdavcorepa ^ ypd<j)ovres Trpos rcov ISicov TToXircov 
XeyovGLV avrov drroOavelv. alriav Se rrj<^ dvatpe- 
aeojs avrov ^epovoi riqv re d(f)eau' rcov opLrjpcDVy 
ovs rrapd Ovtevravojv eXa^ev, dvev kolvtjs yvcojjirjg 
yevofJLevTjv irapd ro etoj^ds"", Ka\ ro^ fir^Keri rov 
avrov 7rpoG(l)epe(jdaL rporrov rols dp)(aLOLS ^ ttoXl- 
rats" Kal rols 7Tpooypd(f)OLs, dXXd rov? fxev iv riixfj 
TrXelovL dyeiv, rcov 8' e7TeLcra-)(devrojv virepopdv, ro 
re (hpLOv avrov ro Trepl rds rLfiojplag rcov e^~ 
afJLapravovrojv ^ {'PojjjLatcDv ydp rtvag eVt Xrjarela 
rcov TrXr]o-LO)(copcov Kariqyoprjdevras ovre d<j)avels 
dvSpag ovre oXuyov? eKeXevoev Jjaai Kara rov 
KpTjfxvov TTjv Slktjv avro? pLovos St/cacras"), paXtara 
he on ^apvs yj^rj Kal avBdh-qs elvat ehoKei kol 
TTjv dpx'Tjv ovKen ^ao-iXiKcog dXXd rvpavviKcorepov 
4 e^dyeuv. Std ravra? Si] Xeyovcn rd? alria? orvordv- 
ra? eV avro) rov? TrarpiKtov? ^ovXevaai rov (f)6vov, 

^ TTt.dava>T€pa A (?), Roiske : rrtdavwraTa B. 

2 TO Steph. : om. AB. 

' apXo.LOLS (or dpxo-t^TepoLs) Reiske : d/5;(aioTaTois O. 

472 



BOOK II. 56, 1-4 

of the neighbouring nations seems to have been due to 
his sudden death, which happened while he was still 
in the vigour of his age for warlike achievements. 
There are many different stories concerning it. Those 
who give a rather fabulous account of his life say 
that while he was haranguing his men in the camp, 
sudden darkness rushed down out of a clear sky 
and a violent storm burst, after which he was 
nowhere to be seen ; and these writers believe that 
he was caught up into heaven by his father. Mars. 
But those who write the more plausible accounts 
say that he was killed by his own people ; and the 
reason they allege for his murder is that he released 
without the common consent, contrary to custom, 
the hostages he had taken from the Veientes. and that 
he no longer comported himself in the same manner 
toward the original citizens and toward those Mho 
were enrolled later, but showed greater honour 
to the former and slighted the latter, and also be- 
cause of his great cruelty in the punishment of de- 
linquents (for instance, he had ordered a group of 
Romans who were accused of brigandage against 
the neighbouring peoples to be hurled down the 
precipice ^ after he had sat alone in judgment upon 
them, although they were neither of mean birth nor 
few in number), but chiefly because he now seemed 
to be harsh and arbitrary and to be exercising his 
power more like a tyrant than a king. For these 
reasons, they say, the patricians formed a conspiracy 
against him and resolved to slay him ; and having 
^ The Tarpeian rock. 

* /cat avdaBes after i^afxapravovTcov deleted by Biicheler 
(note Kal avddBr]^ four lines below). 

473 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TTpd^ai Be TO epyov iv toj ^ovXevr-qplco /cat SteAov- 
ras" TO crcu^a Kara fxipiq X'^P'-^ '^'^^ f^V 0Gt^'r^pal tov 
veKpov i^eXdelv KpvTrrovras vtto rals TreptjSoAat? 
6(Joi^ e/caorros- €L)(€v avrov fiepog Kal fjiera. tovto yfj 

5 KpvijjaL Kara to dc})av€s. ol S' iKKX7]aLd'C,ovra fxev 
avrov (fiacnv vtto tcx)v veoTroXcrajv ' Pojfiaiajv dvai- 
pedrjvaL, eTTtx^iprjaat 8' avrovg t<2) </>ova> Kad' ov 
Xpovov rj ^ctA-n ^ Kal to a koto? iyiveTO StacrfceSa- 
crdivTOS €K rrjg iKKX-qaia? rod Stjiiov Kal ixovojOevtos 
rrjs (f)vXaKr]s rod rjyefjLoi'os. Sto. tovto yovv </>acrt 
Tr)v rjfiepav iv fj to rrddo? eyiveTO ttjs TpOTrrjg tov 
TrXrjdovg iTTOJWfjiOV elvat Kal /xe;)^pt tojv Ka9' rjfxdg 

Q Xpovojv 6)(Xov <j)vyr^v KaXelo-QaL. eoiKe 8' ov puKpdv 
d(f)opiJ.r]v TTapex^iv tols deoTTo^ovai to. dvrjrd Kal et? 
ovpavov dvapL^d^ovcn Tas ^v^ds tojv €7n(f)au6ju tol 
ov^^dvTa €K TOV Beov irepl ttjv avyKpLGiv tov 
av8po? €Keivov Kal t7]v hidKpiGiv. ev re yap to) 
^Laorfio) TTJ? ixTfTpo? avTOV eW^ utt' didpcoTTcov tlvos 
€l9^ vtto Beov yevofievoj tov tjXiov €kXl7T€lv (f)a(TLV 
oXov Kal GKOTog TTavTeXojg cocTTrep iv iuktI ttjv yrjv 
/carao^-ELi^ ev re rfj TeXevrfj avTOV TavTO orviJLl3rjvaL 

7 XeyovGi TrdOog. 6 fxev Srj KTtaas ttjv 'Pcjjfirjv Kal 
TTp'MToq d-noheLxO^ls vn avTrjs ^aaiXevs 'PojjjlvXos 
TOLavrrjs Xeyerat TeXevrijg tvx^lv, ovSefiiav i^ av- 
rov yevedv KaraXi-ncov , irrrd fiev err) Kal rpiaKovra 
^acnXevaa?, TrevrrjKOGTOv 8e Kal TrifMrrrov erog e^oju 

^ ri l,dXr) Kiessling (c/. Plut. Rum. 27), 617 iaXrj Keiske: 
8i7Aa •>? O, Jacoby. 

474 



BOOK 11. 56, 4-7 

carried out the deed in the senate-house, they divided 
his body into several pieces, that it might not be 
seen, and then came out, each one hiding his part 
of the body under his robes, and afterwards burying 
it in secret. Others say that while haranguing the 
people he was slain by the new citizens of Rome, and 
that they undertook the murder at the time when the 
rain and the darkness occurred, the assembly of the 
people being then dispersed and their chief left with- 
out his guard. And for this reason, they say, the day 
on which this event happened got its name from 
the flight of the people and is called Populifugia^ 
down to our times. Be that as it may, the incidents 
that occurred by the direction of Heaven in connexion 
with this man's conception and death would seem to 
give no small authority to the view of those w ho make 
gods of mortal men and place the souls of illustrious 
persons in heaven. For they say that at the time 
when his mother was violated, whether by some man 
or by a god, there was a total eclipse of the sun 
and a general darkness as in the night covered the 
earth, and that at his death the same thing happened. 
Such, then, is reported to have been the death of 
Romulus, who built Rome and was chosen by her 
citizens as their first king. He left no issue, and after 
reigning thirty-seven years, died in the fifty-fifth 

1 Or Poplifugia. The same explanation of the origin 
of this festival is given by Plutarch {Rom. 29). who also 
records the more common version that the original "flight 
of the people " occurred shortly after the departure of the 
Gauls, at a time when several Latin tribes suddenly 
appeared before the city. Accordirjg to a third view, 
found in Macrobius (iii. 2, 14), Etruscana were the invaders. 

475 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

dv6 y€V€d<i. veos yap Srj TTavTarrauiv €tv)(€ ttj^ 
rjyejJLOi'La? oKTCOKaiheKaerr]? cov,^ c6? airavr^s OfJLO- 
XoyovGLv ol ras" Trepl avrov avyypdijjavres laroplag. 
LVII. To) 8' e^r)? iviavro) ^acjiXevs fxev ouSet? 
dire'^ei^d-q 'PcofJLalcov, dpx'^ Se tls, tjv KaXovdi 
pLeao^aoiXeiov , irrefJieXeLTO rajv Kowujv roiovhe rivd 
rpoTTOV dTToheLKvvjJLeviq • rwv TTarpiKicov ol Kara- 
ypa(f>€vr€s els t^v ^ovXrjv vtto ^PojfJLvXov hiaKOGLOL 
Tov dpiO/jLov ovres, axjirep ecfyrjv, Steve ptjOrjaav et? 
SeAcaSa? eireira SLaKXrjpcoudfievoL toZs Xa)(ov(TL 
BeKa TTpcoroLs dneSajKav dpx^i-v rrj? TToXeoj? rrji' 

2 avroKpdropa dpxrjv. eKeivoL S' ov^ dpua Trdvres 
i^aGiXevov , dXX eV Sta8o;^7ys" rjpepa? Trdvre eAcacrros", 
iv ah rdg re pdj^Sov? el^^ Kal rd XoiTrd rrjg 
PacTLXiKrjs efoucjta? avp^oXa. TrapeSlSov 8' 6 ttooj- 
Tos dp^as TO) hevrepcp rrji' -qyepLovlav KdKelvo? rat 
Tpircp Kal TOUT* eyivero p^^XP^ "^^^ reXevratov. 
Si€^eXdovcn^£ 6e rols TTpcorots 8eAca "^ ttjs TrevrrjKov- 
d-qpepov TTpodeGp^ca? erepot SeVa r-qv dp^rj^ nap- 

•i eXdpiQavov Kal -nap' eKecvcov avOts dXXoi. eirel 8' ^ 
eho^e TO) Srjp,oj Travaai ret? heKaSapxlas ^ axdopieva) 
rals /xera^oAatis tcoi' e^ovaiwv hid to pnqre irpo- 
aip€Gei<; diravras opoias ^X^'-^ I^V'''^ ^ucrets", rore 
St) orvyKaXeoavres els eKKX-qatav rd ttXtjOos ol ^ov- 
Xevral Kara (jivXds re Kal cfipdrpag drrehcoKav avrco 
TTepl rod Koop-ov rrjs noXir elas aKonelv, e'lre ^acnXeZ 

^ wv added by Ambrosch. 

2 ^aatXevai after SeVa deleted by Biicheler; Reiske emended 
to fxcoo^aaiAevai, 

^ €7761 6' Reiske: eneLra (). 
* dcKabapx^as B : Se/fap;^taj R. 

476 



BOOK II. 56, 7-57, 3 

year of his age ; tor he was very young when he 
obtained the rule, being no more than eighteen 
years old, as is agreed by all who have written 
his history. 

LVII. The ^ following year there was no king 
of the Romans elected, but a certain magistracy, 
called by them an interregnum, had the oversight of 
public affairs, being created in much the following 
manner : The patricians who had been enrolled 
in the senate under Romulus, being, as I have 
said,- two hundred in number, were divided into 
decuriae ; ^ then, when lots had been cast, the first 
ten persons upon whom the lot fell were invested 
by the rest with the absolute rule of the State. 
They did not, however, all reign together, but suc- 
cessively, each for five days, during which time they 
had both the rods and the other insignia of the royal 
power. The first, after his power had expired, 
handed over the government to the second, and he 
to the third, and so on to the last. After the first ten 
had reigned their appointed time of fifty days, ten 
others received the rule from them, and from those 
in turn others. But presently the people decided 
to abolish the rule of the decuriae^ being irked 
by the changes of power, since the men did not all 
have either the same purposes or the same natural 
abilities. Thereupon the senators, calling the people 
together in assembly by tribes and curiae^ permitted 
them to consider the form of government and deter- 
mine whether they wished to entrust the pubUc 



For chaps. 57-58 c/. Livy i. 17 ; 18, 1 and 5. 
Chap. 47 1. ''Groups of ten. 



477 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

^ovXerai to. kolvol eVtrpeVetv etre dpxcLL? ev'tavorioig. 

4 ov fjLTjv 6 ye SrjfjLos e^' lavrto ttjv alpeonv €7Toir]G€v, 
aA/\' a/rrihiDKe rois ^ovXevrals Trjv ScdyvaxjLV , co? 
ayaTTTJcrcoi^ oiroripav dv eKelvoi SoKifjdococn rwv 
TToXiTeiiov • TOLS 8e ^aGiXiKTjv jjiiv iSoKeL Kara- 
GTrjoaGOat TToXireiav aVacrt, vrepi Se tov fieXXovros 
dp^ecv GrdGLS eveTTiTTrev i( OTTordpas ecrrai rd^ecos. 
ol fJL€V yap c/c twu dpxoitojp ^ovXevroju a)Ovro helv 
dTToSeLxGrjvai tov eTTLTpoTrevGovra ttjv ttoXlv, ol S' 
€K rcx)v vGTepov iTTeLGaxOei^Tcuv , ov? vecorepovs 
iKoXovv. 

LVIII. ' EXKOfjLemrjs S' eVt ttoXv ttJs" (f>iXov€LKLas 
reXevTOJin-es em tovtoj GVvd^rjGav rw hiKaico, ware 
hv€iv Odrepov, rj tov's TrpeG^vrepov? ^ovXevrds diro- 
hel^ai jSacrtAea G(f)a)v fjev avrojv /jLrjhdva, rcbv S* 
dXXwv op dv eTTLT'qheioraTOv elvai vo}jllgo)giv , r^ 
rovs vecjripovs to avTO TroLrJGaL tovto. SexovTat 
TTjv atpeGLV ol TTpeG^VTepoL Kal 77oAAd em G(f)Cx)V 
avTOJV PovXevGdfjLevoL raSe eyvojGav • eTreihr] ttjs 
rjyefJLOVLas avTol Acard rds" GVidrjKas aTT-qXavvovTO 
fiTjSe^ tCl)v e7T€LGaxOevTOjv ^ovX€VTa)v^ p.rjhevl irpoG- 
^€tvat TTiv dpx^j^, dAA' liraKTOv TLva e^wOev dvhpa 
Kal liTjh^ orroTepoLS TTpoGdrjGOfjLevov , cos" dv /xdAtcrra 
i^aipeOeiTj to GTaGidt^ov, i^evpovTes drToScL^aL 

2 ^aGiXia. raura ^ovXevGdfjievoL Trpovx^LpcGavTO 
dvhpa yevovs ^ev tov Ea^ivojv, vldv he IJo/jlttlXlov 

* fji7)b€ Biicheler, Sintenis : nTJye A, fi-qre B. 

2 TcZv iTTCiaaxddvTwv ^ovXeurcuv Carj', twv eTreiaeXOovTcov 
povXevrcJv Jacoby, rcDv iccuotl ^ovX^vovtcup Sintenis, twv 
PovXeuTwv Kiessling, tcov eripuiv fiovXexnutv Garrer : roi;' 
eVi/SouAeuovTcuv O. 

478 



BOOK 11. 57, 3-58, 2 

interests to a king or to annual magistrates. The 
people, however, did not take the choice upon them- 
selves, but relerred the decision to the senators, m 
timating that they would be satisfied with whichever 
form of government the others should approve. The 
senators all favoured establishing a monarchical form 
of government, but strife arose over the question 
from which group the future king should be chosen. 
For some thought that the one who was to govern 
the commonwealth ought to be chosen from among 
the original senators, and others that he should be 
chosen from among those who had been admitted 
afterwards and whom they called new senators. 

LVIII. The contest being drawn out to a great 
length, they at last reached an agreement on the 
basis that one of two courses should be followed — 
either the older senators should choose the king, 
who must not, however, be one of themselves, but 
might be anyone else whom they should regard as 
most suitable, or the new senators should do the same. 
The older senators accepted the right of choosing, 
and after a long consultation among themselves 
decided that, since by their agreement they them- 
selves were excluded from the sovereignty, they 
would not confer it on any of the newly-admitted 
senators, either, but would find some man from out- 
side who would espouse neither party, and declare 
him king, as the most effectual means of putting an 
end to party strife. After they had come to this re- 
solution, they chose a man of the Sabine race, the son 
of Pompilius Pompon, a person of distinction, whose 

479 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

UofJiTTajvos Oivhpos i7Ti(j)avov? ouofia^ Nofiav,^ -qXiKiag 
re rrjs (jipoviixcoTdrris ovra, TerrapaKOVTaeTLas yap 

3 ou TToXv dTr€L)(ej kol dftcocret iJLopcf)rj<i ^aatXiKOv . rjv 
Be avTov Kal kMos ixeyicrrov ov irapd Kvpirats /xo- 
vov, oAAa Acat Trapd rols TTepLOLKOts iirl docjiia. oj? 
§6 TOUT eSo^ev avTolg cruyKaXovcn to ttXtjOo? els 
eKKXrjGLav , Kal napeXdoju e^ avrcjv 6 Tore fxeao- 
paaiXevs elnev, on, Kowfj So^av aTracn TOt? pov- 
XevTal? ^aaiXLKrjv KaraGT-qaacrOaL TToXireiav , Kvptog 
yeyovojg auTO? rrjg ^ hiayvojaecos rod TrapaArjipO' 
fxevov rr)v dp)(rju ^aauAea rrjg TToXeojs alpelraL 
Noyiav UofjLTnXLOv. Kal jierd rovro Trpecr^exrrdg 
diToheL^as eK Tiov TTarpLKLcov dTreareiXe rovs irapa- 
Xr^ijfofJLevovs tov dvhpa irrl rrjv dp^^v evLavro) rpLrco 
TTJs iKKacBeKaTrj'; oXufimaSo?, t]v * evLKa ardStov 
Uvdayopas'' AdKojv. 

LIX. Mexpt' IJi'€v 8rj TOVTWV ovBiv dvreLTrelv e-^o} 
TTpos Toijs eKSeSwKoras rrjv nepl tov dvSpa rovrou 
loTopiau, €v he tols e^TJ? dTTopco n nore )(^pr) Xeyetv, 
TToXXol fxev ydp ecGLU ol yodifjaures ^ otl IJvdayopov 
IMaBrjTTjS 6 Nofxa^ eyevero Kal KaO^ ov )(p6vov vtto 
tt)? 'PcofJLaiwv TToXeoJS dTTedeixOrj ^aatXev? (f)tXo' 
Gocfxjov ev KpOTOjvL BUrpSev, 6 6e XP^^^^ ''^^ 

2 Ilvdayopov rfXiKias fidx^TaL irpos rov Aoyoi^. ov 

^ Kar before ovoyia deleted by Kiessling. 
^ After Nofiav the MSS. have xorj 8e Tijv deurepav avXXafi-qv 
€icreLvovTas ^apxnovelv, rejected by Portus. 

* TTfs added by Kiessling. * ^^ Jacoby : ev ^ O. 

480 



BOOK II. 58, 2-59, 2 

name was Niima. He was in that stage of life, being 
near forty, in which prudence is the most conspicuous, 
and of an aspect full of royal dignity ; and he en- 
joyed the greatest renown for wisdom, not only 
among the citizens of Cures, but among all the 
neighbouring peoples as well. After reaching this 
decision the senators assembled the people, and that 
one of their number who was then the interrex, 
coming forward, told them that the senators had 
unanimously resolved to establish a monarchical 
form of government and that he, having been em- 
powered to decide who should succeed to the rule, 
chose Numa Pompilius as king of the State. After 
this he appointed ambassadors from among the 
patricians and sent them to conduct Numa to 
Rome that he might assume the royal power. 
This happened in the third year of the sixteenth 
Olympiad,^ at which Pythagoras, a Lacedaemonian, 
won the foot-race. 

LIX. Up ^ to this point, then, I have nothing to 
allege in contradiction to those who have published 
the history of this man ; but in regard to what follows 
I am at a loss what to say. For many have written 
that Numa was a disciple of Pythagoras and that 
when he was chosen king by the Romans he was 
studying philosophy at Croton. But the date of 
Pythagoras contradicts this account, since he was 

' 713 B.C. 2qy. Livy i. 18, 2-4. 

^ Steph. : iTiaafxopas ABa, neiaayopas Bb. 
* eloLV 01 ypOAfiavT^s Jacoby : ol ypoupauTes O ; eypaif/av 
Biicheler. 

48] 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

yap oXiyois ereaiv, dAAa kol rerrapaL yeveals oAat? 
varepo? iyivero IJvdayopa^ Nojia, cos €k twv 
KOivibv TTapeiXTjcpaixev loropLajv. 6 fiev yap iirl rrjs 
iKKaiheKarris oXvpLmahos fJLeaovarjs ttjv 'PcjopLaicov 
^aoiXeiav TrapeXa^e, IlvOayopas he fiera ttjv TTevrrj- 

3 Kocrrqv oXv/JLTnaSa hiiTpujjev iv '/raAta. rovrov 
8' eVt pi€liC,ov e^co reKpLrjpiov eiTrelv virep rod [jltj 
(jvfJL(f)Coi'€Li' Toug )(p6vovs TOLS Tfapahehofxivais vrrep 
Tov avhpog laTopiais, on Ka9^ ov -^povov 6 Nofias 
iiTL TTjv ^acnXeiav eKaXelro vtto 'Pojfxaiojv ovttcj 
ttoXls Tjv Tj KpoTCxJV ' TeTTapoTL yap oAot? vcrrepov 
erecjLV tj Nofiav ap^ai 'PcD/JLaLcov MvcrKeXog avrrjv 
eKTLorev evtavro) rpira) rrjg iTTraKaiheKaT-qs oXvjjl- 
TTidSos. ovT€ 8e UvOayopa rep UajJLLCo crupL(j)iXo- 
GO(f)i]crai ro) per a rerrapag OLKp^dcrai'TL yeveds 
Svvarov rjv rov Nopav ovr^ ev KporojvL Starpt/^etv, 
OT avTov eKaXovv eTrl rrji' ^aGiXeiav 'Pajp,aLOL, rij 

4 pL^TTCo tot' ovarj TToXei. dAA' eoLKauLV ol tcl vrrep 
avTov ypdijjavresj el XPV ^o^av Ihiav dTTO(j)rivaa9aL, 
hvo ravTa Xa^ovTes opoXoyovpueva, r'qv re Ilvda- 
yopov hiarpL^Tjv ttjv yevopieviqv ev VraAta Kal rrjv 
Nop a aocjiiav {ajpoXoyrjrai ^ yap vtto Trdvrow 6 dvrjp 
yeveodai ao<j>6s) eTTLovvdifjai ravra /cat TToirjaai 
Tlvdayopov piaOrjrrjv rov N6p,av ovKeri rovs ^lovg 
avrojv e^erdcravres, el Kara rovg avrovs TJKpacrav 
dp(f)6TepoL xpovovs, OTTep eyd) TreTToir^Ka vvv • el p,ij 
Tt? dpa Tlvdayopav erepov viroOrjaeraL rrpo rov 
2Jap,Lov yeyovevat rraLSevrrjv Go^ias, S ovvSLerpLijjeu 

* ojiioXoyqTai Bb : oyLtoAoyetrat BaR. 

482 



BOOK II. 59, 2-4 

not merely a few years younger than Numa, but 
actually lived four Avliole generations later, as we 
learn from universal history ; for Numa succeeded 
to the sovereignty of the Romans in the middle of 
the sixteenth Olympiad, whereas Pythagoras resided 
in Italy after the fiftieth Olympiad.^ But I can 
advance yet a stronger argument to prove that the 
chronology is incompatible with the reports handed 
down about Numa, and that is, that at the time 
when he was called to the sovereignty by the Romans 
the city of Croton did not yet exist ; for it was not 
until four whole years after Numa had begun to 
rule the Romans that Myscelus founded this city, 
in the third year of the seventeenth Olympiad. ^ 
Accordingly, it was impossible for Numa either to 
have studied philosophy with Pythagoras the 
Samian, who flourished four generations after him, 
or to have resided in Croton, a city not as yet 
in existence when the Romans called him to the 
sovereignty. But if I may express my own opinion, 
those who have written his history seem to have 
taken these two admitted facts, namely, the re- 
sidence of Pythagoras in Italy and the wisdom of 
Numa (for he has been allowed by everybody to 
have been a wise man), and combining them, to have 
made Numa a disciple of Pythagoras, without going 
on to inquire into their lives, as I have now done, 
to discover whether they both flourished at the same 
period — unless, indeed, one is going to assume that 
there was another Pythagoras who taught philosophy 
before the Samian, and that with him Numa 

1 580/79 B.C. 2 709 b.o. 

483 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 



at 



o iVo/xas". Tovro 8' ovk otS ottcxjs civ d7ToSe?gi 
SvvaiTO fjLT^Sei'og tojv d^LoXoycov fjLTjre ^PcjofiaLov 
IXTjd^ "EXXiqvos, ocra Kafxe ^ etSeVat, rrapah eh w kotos 
iv LGTOpia. dXXd irepl fiev tovtojv aXis. 

LX. '0 he Nofias d(f)LKOjjieyojv d)s avrov rwv"^ 
KoXovvTOJV eirl ttjv rjyeiioviav, reojs fiev avreXeye 
Kol p^expi TToXXov hiep^eLvev dTTopaxopLevo? {jltj Xa^elv 
TTjv dpx'rjv, (x»9 he at re dSeXcf)OL TTponeKeLvro Xiira- 
povvres Koi reXevraJv 6 Trarrjp ovk ij^lov r7]XLKavr'rjV 
TLfJLTjv hLhofievTjv drrojdeLGOai, avveyvco yeveadai ^a- 
GiXev? ' rots' he 'PojjLtatot? Twdop-evoLg ravra Trapa 
TOJV TTpeo^evTcov, TTplv GifjeL Tov dvhpa Ihelv ttoXv? 
avTOV TTapeoTTj ttoOos, iKavov rjyovfievoLS TeKjJLijpLov 
etvat TTJs GO(f)Las, el tojv dXXojv vrrep to pLeTpLov 
iKTeTLpLTjKOTCJV ^aGiXeiav Kal tov evhalpLova ^iov ev 
TavTT] ^ TiOepLevojv pLovos eKeZvos oj? (f)avXov tlvo? /cat 
OVK d^LOV (jTTOvhrjg Trpay/xaro? KaTacjipovel, napa- 
yevopievcp re VTn^VTOJV eTi KaO ooov ovtl gvv eVatVo) 
TToAAoj Krat duTTaGpLOLS Kal rat? a'AAat? Tip^als napa- 
TTepTTOVTe? elg ttjv ttoXlv. eKKX-qoias he pieTa tovto 
(jwaxdeiciris, iv fj hcqveyKav virep avTOV to.? i/j-qcjiovs 
at (j)vXal /caret (/)par/3a? /cat tojv TraTpiKLOJv eTTiKV- 
pojadvTOJV TOL ho^avTa ro) TrXrjOeL /cat reAeuratot' 
ert TcJjv opvidoGKOirajv atcrta Ta irapd tov haipoviov 
OTjpLela drro^iqvdvTOJV TTapaXapi^dvei ttjv dpxrjv. 
TOVTOV TOV dvhpa 'PajpLoioi cf)aaL GTpaTeiav pL7]he- 
piiav TTOL'^GaadaL, deoae^rj he /cat htKaiov yevopevov 
ev elprjvrj TrdvTa tov ~rjs dpxi]? XP^^^^ StareAecrat 

* ooa KOLfxe B : oaovs /xe R. 

484 



BOOK II. 59, 4-60, 4 

associated. But I do not know how this could be 
proved, since it is not supported, so far as I know, 
by the testimony of any author of note, either Greek 
or Roman. But I have said enough on this subject. 
LX. When the ambassadors came to Numa to 
invite him to the sovereignty, he for some time 
refused it and long persisted in his resolution not 
to accept the royal power. But when his brothers 
kept urging him insistently and at last his father 
argued that the offer of so great an honour ought 
not to be rejected, he consented to become king. 
As soon as the Romans were informed of this by 
the ambassadors, they conceived a great yearning 
for the man before they saw him, esteeming it a 
sufficient proof of his wisdom that, while the others 
had valued sovereignty beyond measure, looking 
upon it as the source of happiness, he alone despised 
it as a paltry thing and unworthy of serious attention. 
And when he approached the city, they met him 
upon the road and with great applause, salutations 
and other honours conducted him into the city. 
After that, an assembly of the people was held, in 
which the tribes by curiae gave their votes in his 
favour ; and when the resolution of the people had 
been confirmed by the patricians, and, last of all, 
the augurs had reported that the heavenly signs 
were auspicious, he assumed the office. The 
Romans say that he undertook no military campaign, 
but that, being a pious and just man, he passed the 
whole period of his reign in peace and caused the 



^ avTov roiv Kiessling : avrov tovtcov twi O. 
evravBa R. 



485 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Kal TTjv ttoXlv apLura TToXtTevofieviiv 7TapaG)(eLVi 
Adyous" T€ VTTcp avrov ttoXXov^ Kal davfiaarovs 
XeyovGLV ava(j>epovTes rrjv dvdpojTTLvrjv (70(f)Lav elg 
Oecbv vrroO'qKa?. vvfJLcjirjv yap riva jivOoXoyovaiv 
^Hyepiav (j)oi7a.v irpos avrov eKdorore hihauKovoav 
TTjv ^aGLXiKTjP oo(j)iaVy erepoL Se ov vup^-qv, oAAd 
TCx}v MovGLov [ilav. Kal TOVTO (f)aGL yevecrdai Trdai 
<j)avep6v. dTnGTOvi'TOJV yap, d>s eotxre, rcov diOpo)- 
TTOJV Kar dpxd.s Kal TreTrXdcrdaL vopLLt6vTa>v rov 
7T€pl rrjg Qf.ds XoyoVy ^ovXofjievov avrov imhei^audaL 
TOLS dTTLGrovcrLV ivapye? rt pnqwiia rrj? rrpos tyjv 
Salfjiova o/xtAtas" ^ hiha^devra vrr* avrrjs Troirjaai 
rdhe ' KaXeaavra 'Poj/xatcov ttoAAo?)? Kal dyadovs 
els TTjv oLKiav, iv fj SLaircofxevog irvyxavev, cTretra 
Bec^avra rots' iXOovGL rd evSov rfj re d'AAr^ Kara- 
aK€V7] (f)avXojs K€Xopr]yrjiiiva Kal Sr) Kal ratv els 
iarlaaLv oxXlktjv eTTLrrjheiojv aTTOpa, rore fxev drraX- 
Xdrreud at KeXevetv, els euTrepav Se KaXelv avrovs 
errl rd Sel-rrvov • TrapayevofievoLS Se Kard ttjv dno- 
heixQ^loav wpav eVtSetfat GrpojfJLvds re TToXvreXels 
Kal rpaiTet.as eKTTOjpidrojv yep.ovGas ttoXXcov Kal 
KaXcov eGTiaGLV re avrots rrapadelvai KaraKXideiGiv 
dndGrjs eSojSrjs, "^v ovS* dv eK ttoXXov rrdw xpovov 
TrapaGKevdGaGdaL nvL rci)V rore dvdpojTTOJV pdSiOV 
riv. rols Se 'PajpLatoLS KardTrXrj^LV re rrpos eKGGrov 
Tcov SpcjQjJLevojv vrreXOeZv Kal ho^av e^ eKeivov rod 
Xpdvov TTapaGrrjvaL ^e^aiov, on 6ed ris avro) Gvvrjv. 
LXI. 01 he rd pLvOwSrj rrdvra Trepiaipovvres eK 
rrjs LGroplas TreirXdGdai <j>aGlv vrrd rod Nopia rdv 

^ Kal after ofiiXias deleted by Reiske. 

486 



BOOK IT. 60, 4-61, 1 

State to be most excellently governe<l,^ They relate 
also many marvellous stories about him, attributing 
his human wisdom to the suggestions of the gods. 
For they fabulously affirm that a certain nymph, 
Egeria, used to visit him and instruct him on each 
occasion in the art of reigning, though others say that 
it was not a nymph, but one of the Muses. And 
this, they claim, became clear to every one ; for, 
when people were incredulous at first, as may well be 
supposed, and regarded the story concerning the 
goddess as an invention, he, in order to give the un- 
believers a manifest proof of his converse with this 
divinity, did as follows, pursuant to her instructions. 
He invited to the house where he lived a great many 
of the Romans, all men of worth, and having shown 
them his apartments, very meanly provided with 
furniture and particularly lacking in everything that 
was necessary to entertain a numerous company, 
he ordered them to depart for the time being, but 
invited them to dinner in the evening. And when 
they came at the appointed hour, he showed them 
rich couches and tables laden with a multitude of 
beautiful cups, and when they were at table, he 
set before them a banquet consisting of all sorts of 
viands, such a banquet, indeed, as it would not have 
been easy for any man in those days to have prepared 
in a long time. The Romans were astonished at 
everything they saw, and from that time they enter- 
tained a firm belief that some goddess held con- 
verse with him. 

LXI. But those who banish everything that is 
fabulous from history say that the report concerning 

1 For §§ 4-7 c/. Livy i. 19, 1-5. 

487 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TTepl TTJs ^Hyepia? Xoyov, Iva paov avrw TTpoa- 
e-x<jDGiv ol ra Sela SeStores" koL rrpodviiajs hey^covrai 
Tov? VTT^ avrov ridepevovs vopiovs, ws Trapa 6ecoi> 

2 KopLLt^ofJievovs. Xa^elv 8e avrov ttjv tovtwv piLprjcnv 
aTTOc^aivovuLV Ik t(x)v ' EXkrjviKcJjv TrapaBeLypLOLTCov 
(,7]XcjL>Trjv yevopievov rrjs re Mivo) rod Kprjros /cat 
rrjs AvKOvpyov rod AaKeSaipoi'lov oo^ias ' cLv 6 
pL€v opLiXTjrrjs €(f)r) yeveodai rod Alo? /cat (fyoLrcov 
els ro AiKraZov opos, ev cp rpa(f)7Ji'aL rov Aia fivdo- 
XoyovGLU ol Kprjre? vrro rojv Kovp-qrwv veoyvov 
ovra, Kari^aivev els ro lepov avrpov /cat rovs 
vopbovs iK€L cruvrt^ets" e/co/xt^ev, ovs d7Te(f>aive Trapa 
rov A LOS Xap^dveiv 6 he AvKovpyos els AeX(f)ovs 
d(f)LKvovpLevos v7t6 rod IAttoXXojvos e(f)rj SiSdcTKeadaL 

3 rrji' vopLoOealav. ro pLev ovv dKpif^oXoyelod at Trepl 
rdjv pLvOiKcov lorop-qpidrojv /cat pidXiara roiv els 
deovs dva^epopuevajv pbaKpcov Xoyojv Seopuevov opojv 
eddOiy d he pLOL hoKodaiv dyadd 'PajpLaloL Xa^elv 
e/c rrjs eKeivov rod dvhpos dp\rjs, c6s" e/c rcov eVt- 
XcuplcDv epLaOov luropLajv d(f)7]yTJGOpiat, TTpoenrajv ev 
olais ervyxoLV€ rapaxals rd Trpdyp^ara rrjs TToXeojs 
ovra, Txplv eKeivov hrl rrjv ^acnXeiav irapeXdelv, 

LXII. Merd rT]v 'PojpLvXov reXevrrjv r) ^ovXrj 
rojv KOLVOjv yevopLev-q Kvpia /cat xpovov eviavGiov, 
ix)G7Tep €(f)iqv, Karaaxodcra rrjv hvvaarelav Sta^epe- 
o-^at /cat aracndi^eLV avrr) irpos eavrrjv rjp^aro Trepl 
rod rrXeiovos re /cat loov. dcrov puev ydp avrrjs 
pLepos AX^avcov tjv dno rcov a/xa 'PcopLvXco rrjv 

1 Chap. 57. 
488 



BOOK II. 61, 1-62, 1 

Eijeria was invfiiiod by Numa, to the end that, when 
once the people were possessed with a fear of the 
gods, they might more readily pay regard to him and 
willingly receive the laws he should enact, as coming 
from the gods. They say that in this he followed 
the example of the Greeks, emulating the wisdom 
both of Minos the Cretan and of Lycurgus the 
Lacedaemonian. For the former of these claimed 
to hold converse with Zeus, and going frequently to 
the Dictaean mountain, in which the Cretan legends 
say that the new-born Zeus was brought up by the 
Curetes, he used to descend into the holy cave ; 
and having composed his laws there, he would pro- 
duce them, affirming that he had received them 
from Zeus. And Lycurgus, paying visits to Delphi, 
said he was forming his code of laws under the instruc- 
tion of Apollo. But, as I am sensible that to give 
a particular account of the legendary histories, and 
especially of those relating to gods, would require 
a long discussion, I shall omit doing so, and shall 
relate instead the benefits which the Romans seem 
to me to have received from this man's rule, according 
to the information I have derived from their own 
histories. But first I will show in what confusion 
the affairs of the State were before he came to the 
throne. 

LXII. After the death of Romulus the senate, 
being now in full control of the government and 
having held the supreme power for one year, as 
I have related,^ began to be at odds with itself 
and to split into factions over questions of pre- 
eminence and equality. For the Albau clement, 
who together with Romulus had planted the colony, 

489 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

anoLKLav oreLXavrcov , yvcofjLr]s re dpx^LV tj^lov kol 
tl[jl6jv tol? iieyiaras Xayi^dveiv /cat OepaTrevecrdaL 

2 Tipos" Tojv iTTTjXvhojv ' ol 8' voTepov els TOVS 7Ta- 
rpiKLOVs Karaypa(j)evTes €k tojv irroLKCDV ovSefiids 
cpovTO helv OLTTeXavveadaL TLfxrjs ovSe pLetoveKTeZv 
Tcou irepcou, /xaAtcrra 8' octol rod Ua^Lvcov i-rvy- 
Xavov 6vT€? yevovs kol Kara rds" ovvQ-qKas rds 
yevopievas *PajpLvXcp Trpos Tdriov i-nl roZs tcroig^ 
fi€T€LX7j(f)€vaL Trjs TToXeojs TTapd rdiv dpxciiojv olkyj' 
Topcov /cat ^ rrjv avrrjv X^P^^ iKeivoLS avTol 8e8a>- 

3 Kevai ehoKovv? dpia he rep t7]v ^ovXrjv SLaarrjvaL 
/cat TO TOJV rreXaTcbv ttXtjOos hcxf} pLepiuOev e/carepg, 
avve^auve tcov OTduecov. rjv 8e tl tov hrjpbOTiKOV 
piipos ovK oXiyov eV t<x)v veaxjTL TrpocreXrjXvdoTcov 
rfj TToAtTeia o Bed to pLrjSevos owdpaodai Tcp 
'PojpvXcp TToXepiov 7Tapr]pLeXr]pLevov vrro tov rjye- 
pLovos ovTe yrj? elX'q^ei pLoZpav ovTe (IxjyeXeias .^ 
TOVTO dveGTLOv /cat tttcjl>xov dXwpievov e^Qpov e/c 
rod dvayKaiov rols Kpeirrocriv rjv /cat vecjrepit^eLV 

4 eroLpLorarov. ev roiovrcp Srj kXvSojvl rd TrpdypLara 
rrjs Tr6Xea>s GaXevovra 6 Nopa? KaraXa^ojv , npajrov 
pLev rov? drropovs rcbv Brjpiordjv dveXa^e 8tavetju,a? 
avroLS dcj)^ -^g 'PojpLvXos eKeKrrjro ;)^c6pa? /cat diro 
rrjs hr^pLOGias p^olpdv riva oXlyrjv ' erreira rovg 
TTarpiKLOVs ovhev puev d(f)eX6pLevos wv ol Kriuavres 
rrjv ttoXlv evpovro, roZs 8* eVot/cots' erepas rivds 

1 yevonevoL after taois deleted by Biicheler : emended 
evxofxevoi. by Portus. 
'^ Koi Sylburg : rj AB. 

490 



BOOK II. 62, 1-4 

claimed the right, not only of delivering their opinions 
first and enjoying the greatest honours, but also of 
being courted bv the newcomers. Those, on the 
other hand, who had been admitted afterwards into 
the number of the patricians from among the new 
settlers thought that they ought not to be excluded 
from anv honours or to stand in an inferior position 
to the others. This was felt particularly by those 
who were of the Sabine race and who, in virtue of 
the treaty made by Romulus with Tatius, supposed 
they had been granted citizenship by the original 
inhabitants on equal terms, and that they had 
shown the same favour to the former in their turn. 
The senate being thus at odds, the clients also were 
divided into two parties and each joined their re- 
spective factions. There were, too, among the 
plebeians not a few, lately admitted into the num- 
ber of the citizens, who, having never assisted 
Romulus in any of his wars, had been neglected by 
him and had received neither a share of land nor 
any booty. These, having no home, but being poor 
and vagabonds, were by necessity enemies to their 
superiors and quite ripe for revolution. So Numa, 
having found the affairs of the State in such a raging 
sea of confusion, first relieved the poor among the 
plebeians by distributing to them some small part 
of the land which Romulus had possessed and of 
the public land ; and afterwards he allayed the strife 
of the patricians, not by depri\dng them of anything 
the founders of the city had gained, but by bestowing 

^ iSoKow added by Kiessling. 

* out' oAAas (x)<f>€X€Las Reiske, ovre Aei'aj Kiessling. 

491 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

5 aTToSous" TLfJidsj €7Tav(T€ hia(j}€po}JLevov? . apfJLocrd- 
fievog Se to ttXtjOo? dirav a)G7T€p opyavov Trpos €va 
Tov rod KOLvfj ^ cwpL(f)epovros Xoyiafiov Kal rrjg 
TToXeoj? TOV TTepL^oXov av^iqcras toj KvpLvico X6(f)0) 
(reco? ydp €tl aTeix^GTOS ^v) t6t€ tcov d?<Xcjv 
TToXtTevjidrajv rjiTreTO Suo TavTa tt pay [xaT€V 6 jxevos, 
oh KOcrfJL-qdelcrav VTreXdfx^avev ^ Tqv ttoXiv evhaipiova 
yevrjaeadaL Kal fieydXrjv • evae^eiav jiev TrpcoTOV, 
hiSdoKcov Tovs dvdpojTTovs on, rravros dyadov deol 
Sorrjpe? elm Tjj dvqTrj (f)VG€L /cat 6vXaK€9, CTretra 
SiKacoGvurjv, St' rjv Kal ra Trapd twv Oeoju dn- 
ecfyatvev dyadd KaXd? rds" aTToAaucretS' (j)ipovTa toIs 

KT7](jafJL€VOL9. 

LXIII, *E^ d)v Se hieiTpd^aTO vojiajv re /cat tto- 
XiT€vpidTOJV CKdrepov tovtcjv et? jJLeydXy]v iirihoGLV 
TTpoeXdelv dnavTa fiev ovk d^ico ypd(f)€LV, to [xrJKog 
ix^opdjpievos TOV Xoyov Kal a/xa ovS^ dvayKaiav 
opcov TTjv dvaypa(f)7]v^ avTciJv ' EXXrjviKals tcrro/DtatS", 
aura Se to. /cuptcorara /cat (f)av€pdv Bwdpueua 
TTOLTJaat TTaaav Tr)v Trpoaipeatv tov dvSpog em 
Ke<j>aXaiojv ipu), ttjv dpx^jv aTTO t-^s" Trepl Ta Oela 
2 hiaKOUjJLriaeaiS Tron^cra/xei^os". ooa fJLev ovv vtto 
'PojjJLvXov rax^eVra eV ediajjiols re /cat vofJiOLS 
TTapeXa^eVy diro tov KpariGTOV TerdxOai irdvTa 
rjyrjGdfxei'os eta /card x^P^^ /L-teVetv, ocra 8' vtt* 
iKeivov TTapaXeXelcfydaL e'So/cet, ravTa TTpoaeTtdeL 
TToAAd IJL€V dnoSeLKvvs repLevT] Toig {irj-rro) tljjlcjv 

^ KOLvfj Kiessling: koivov O. 

2 av after vneXaix^avev deleted by Biicheler, Meineko. 

8 Kiessiing : ypaxfi-qv O. 

492 



BOOK II. 62, 5-63, 2 

some other honours on the new settlers. And having 
attuned the whole body of the people, like a musical 
instrument, to the sole consideration of the public 
good and enlarged the circuit of the city by the addi- 
tion of the Quirinal hill (for till that time it was still 
without a wall), he then addressed himself to the 
other measures of government, labouring to inculcate 
these two things by the possession of which he con- 
ceived the State would become prosperous and great : 
first, piety, by informing his subjects that the gods 
are the givers and guardians of every blessing to 
mortal men, and, second, justice, through which, he 
showed them, the blessings also which the gods 
bestow bring honest enjoyment to their possessors. 
LXIII. As regards the laws and institutions by 
which he made great progress in both these direc- 
tions, I do not think it fitting that I should enter 
into all the details, not only because I fear the 
length of such a discussion but also because I do 
not regard the recording of them as necessary to 
a history intended for Greeks ; but I shall give 
a summary account of the principal measures, 
which are sufficient to reveal the man's whole 
purpose, beginning with his regulations concerning 
the worship of the gods. I should state, however, 
that all those rites which he found established 
by Romulus, either in custom or in law, he left un- 
touched, looking upon them all as established in 
the best possible manner. But whatever he thought 
had been overlooked by his predecessor, he added, 
consecrating m.any precincts to those gods who had 

493 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Tvy)^dvovoL deoL?, ttoXXovs Se j:jcofjLovg /cat vaovg 
iSpvofMevos ioprd? re eKdarcp avrwv drroveyiajv 
Kol rovs iTTLfjeXrjoroiJLevov? avrcov iepelg Kadiurdg 
dyveias re /cat OprjUKeias /cat KadapfjLovg /cat rds" 
oAAa? depaTTelas kol rLfidg Trdvv jroXXds vojxoOercoVy 
oaas ov9* 'EXXrjvL? ovre ^dp^apos e)(eL ttoXis oi38' 

3 at fieytcrrov eV evae^ela ^povovaai TTore ' avrov 
re rov 'Poj/jlvXov cog Kpeirrova yevopievov Xj /caret 
Tr]v dvTjrriv (f)vcnv lepov KarauKevfj /cat dvalaig 
hierrjuioLS erage Kvplvov eTTovopa<(^6pievov yepai- 
peaOai. en yap dyvoovvriov rov dcf)avL(jpL6v avrov 
* PwpLaicxiv etre Kara Saipiovos TTpovoiav elr i^ cVt- 
^ovXrJ£ dvdpajviviqs eyevero^ rrapeXOcov ns elg ttjv 
dyopdv ^lovXios ovopa rchv avr' ^AoKaviov yecopyi- 
/cos" di'T^p /cat rov ^lov dveTTiX-qTrros, olos fJLrjSev dv 
i/jevcraadai KepSovg eveKev ^ oLKelov, e(f)7j Trapayiyvo- 
fjLevog e^ dypov * PojpLvXov IBelv aTTtovra e/c rrjs 
TToXeoJS exovra rd oirXa, /cat eVetSi) eyyvs eyevero 

4 aKOVcrat ravra avrov Xeyovros ' " "AyyeXXe 'Pco- 
pLaloL?, ^ lovXie, rd rrap ipov, on p.e 6 Xaxojv or 
iyevopi-qv haipaov els deovs dyerai rov Ovqrdv 
eKirX-qpojoavra alcjva' elpl 8e Kvplvog^ rrept- 
Xa^ojv Se OLTTaGav ttjv rrepl rd Oela vopLoOeorlav 
ypa^at? StctAei^ el? OKrcu pLolpas, ocrat roJv cepojv 
rjorav at ovpLpLoptaL. 

LXIV. M77e8a»/ce 8e ptav /xev lepov pycwv Sid- 
ra^LV roLS rpidKovra KovpiOJGLv, ovs ecl)i^v rd kolvgl 

^ h>€Kev Jacoby in nots : eve/ca O, Jacoby in text. 

494 



BOOK II. 63, 2-64, 1 

hitherto received no honours, erecting many altarF 
and temples, instituting festivals in honour of each, 
and appointing priests to have charge of their sanctu- 
aries and rites, and enacting laws concerning purifica- 
tions, ceremonies, expiations and manv other obser- 
vances and honours in greater number than are to 
be found in any other city, either Greek or barbarian, 
even in those that have prided themselves the most 
at one time or another upon their piety. He also 
ordered that Romulus himself, as one who had 
shown a greatness beyond mortal nature, should be 
honoured, under the name of Quirinus, by the erec- 
tion of a temple and by sacrifices throughout the vear. 
For ^ while the Romans were yet in doubt whether 
di\dne pro\-idence or human treachery had been the 
cause of his disappearance, a certain man, named 
Julius, descended from Ascanius, who was a husband- 
man and of such a blameless life that he would 
never have told an untruth for his private advantage, 
arrived in the Forum and said that, as he was coming 
in from the country, he sa\v Romulus departing 
from the city fully armed and that, as he drew near 
to him, he heard him say these words : " Julius, 
announce to the Romans from me. that the genius 
to whom I was allotted at my birth is conducting 
me to the gods, now that I have finished my mortal 
life, and that I am Quirinus." Numa, having re- 
duced his whole system of religious laws to writing, 
di\aded them into eight parts, that being the number 
of the different classes of religious ceremonies. 

LXIV. The first division of religious rites be 
assigned to the thirty curiones^ who, as I have stated,^ 

1 CJ. Livy i. 16, 5-8. « Chap. 23, 1-2. 

495 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

2 uv€LV VTTep rcbv (fypaTptcou ^ Upd. ttjv 8e Sevrepav 

TOLS KaXoV/JLei'OL? VTTO fl€V ' EXXtJi'OJV (JT€<j)avrj(p6pOLS ,^ 

V7t6 Se ' Pcjufiacajv (j)Xdjj,iorLV ,^ ov? irrl rrjg (f)oprj(J€a)s 
T(x)v ttlXojv ^ re /cat CTre/xjU-arcui^, a kol vvv €tl (f)opovGL 

3 '\(f)Xdfia^ KaXovvres, ovtco Trpoaayopevovcn. ttju 
Se Tplrrjv roZs rjyepLOGt rcjv KeXepicov, ovs €(f)r]v 
LTTTTeis T€ Kal TTei^ov? GTpaTevopL€vovs (f)vXaKas dno- 
ScLKWadai Tcjv jSacrtAecui^, /cat yap ovroi reraypievag 

4 Ttm? Upovpyua? iTreriXovv . ttjv 8e rerdpr'qv rolg 
i^-qyovjievoLS rd OeoTrepLTrra arj/JLela /cat Siaipovcn 
rlvojv icTTL fJLrjvvfJLara TrpayjJidTOJV tSta re /cat Sry- 
fjLoala, OV9 d(f)^ evog etSou? rcov Beiop-qpLdrajv rrjs 
r€)(vrjs 'PcjofialoL KaXovoLv auyopa?, rj/jLel? 8' dv 
eLTTOLfJiev olojvoTToXov? , drrdcnqs rrj^ jJLavTiKrjs Trap' 
avrolg ovras i7nGT'qiiova<; rrjs re Trept rd ovpdvta 

5 Kal rd juerapata /cat rd eTTiyeia. rrjp 8c TrepLTTrr^v 
rats (fivXarrovGaLS rd lepdv TTvp Trapdevocg, at 
KoXovvrai npog avrojv inl rrjs Beds t]u Oepaireu- 

^ ^parpicDv Bb : <f)paTpiioiv A. '^ Steph. : aTe4>r](f>6poLS O. 

3 Steph. : (f>Xdfjioaiv AB, Jacoby. 

* TTtAcDv . . . B : ncXojTwv R. 

^ The word is corrupt ; <j>LXap.Lva was proposed by Turne- 
bus, (j>\a.ix€a by Scaliger. But the word really wanted here 
is (}>lXa\ this could easily have been changed to <f>Xd^a by a 
scribe who saw no connexion between (filXa and (f)Xdfj.ov€S' 



^ Stephan&phoros was a title given in various Greek states 
to magistrates entitled to wear a crown as a symbol of 
their office : here the word is used as the best Greek 
equivalent for " wearers of the fillet." 

496 



BOOK II. 64, 2-5 

perform the public sacrifices for the curiae. The 
second, to those called by the Greeks stephanephoroi ^ 
or " wearers of the crown " and by the Romans 
flamines ; ^ they are given this name from their 
wearing of caps and fillets, called j Jlama,^ which 
they continue to wear even to this day. The third, 
to the commanders of the celeres, who, as I have 
stated,^ were appointed to be the body-guards of 
the kings and fought both as cavalry and infantry ; 
for these also performed certain specified religious 
rites. The fourth, to those who interpret the signs 
sent by the gods and determine what they portend 
both to private persons and to the public ; these, 
from one branch of the speculations belonging to 
their art, the Romans call augurs, and we should call 
them oionopoloi or " soothsayers by means of birds " ; 
they are skilled in all sorts of divination in use among 
the Romans, whether founded on signs appearing 
in the heavens, in mid-air or on the earth. The 
fifth he assigned to the virgins who are the guardians 
of the sacred fire and who are called Vestals by the 

2 Cf. Livy i. 20, 2. 

3 An error for fila ? Dionysius is here giving the usual 
Roman etymology of flamen, which is preserved to us by 
Varro {de Ling. Lot. v. 84) and by Festus (p. 87). Both 
authorities state that these priests got their name from the 
filum, the fillet cf wool which they wore round about the 
top of their caps. It is hard to believe that our author 
could have confused ^/e^m with flammeum, the bridal veil; 
see the critical note. The true etymology oi flamen is dis- 
puted ; but there is much to be said in favour of deriving 
it from flare (" to blow"), since one of the first duties of a 
priest would be to blow up the fire for the sacrifices. 

* Chap. 13. 

497 
VOL. I. S 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ovoTLV icmdhes, avros Trpajros lepov ISpvcrdfjLevo? 
*Pcx)fxaioLS ^Earias koL napdevovg aTToSel^as avrfj 
OvrjTToXovs ' VTTcp (x)v oXlya koL aura rdvayKaio- 
rara rrj? VTToSeaeojs OLTTaLTOVcnrjg dvayKolov elirelv, 
cart yap a /cat txjTrjGeco'^ rj^LCoraL ^ napd ttoXXoZs 
Tcjjv 'PojfJLa'cKOJV cnjyypa(f)ecx)v Kara rov tottov rov- 
Tov, (Lv ^ OL rag alriag ovk i^r^raKores iTTLfieXcJS 
elKaLorepa? i^rjveyKav ra? ypacjjdg. 

LXV. Trjv yovv ISpvcnv rod lepov 'PajpLvXcp riveg 
dvandeaaL, r<2)v dfjurj^dvajv vojjLLC,ovr€9 elvai TroAecos* 

OLKLt,0[JL€V7]g UTT* dvSpog ifl7T€LpOV fiavrLKTJg fjLT) 

KaraGKevaaOrjvai irpajrov eGrlav Kotvqv tt^? tto- 
Xewg, /cat ravra iv "AX^a rod Kricrrov rpa^eVro?, 
iv fj rraXaiov i^ ov ro rrjg deds ravrrjs tepov 
ihpvpievov rjvy /cat tt^s" pLVfrpos avrov durjTToXov 
y€vojJi€vr]? rfj Oew ' SLatpovpLevoL re ^i-xfj "^^ Upa 
/cat rd fJL^v avrcov KOLvd TTotovvres /cat TroAtrt/ca, 
TO, Se tSta /cat (jvyyeviKdy hi dpicfyoj ravrd (f)a<n 
TroXXrjv dvdyKTjv elvat rep *Pcop.vXcp ravr-qv oe^eiv 
rrjv deov. ovre yap dvayKaiorepov dvOpcoTTOi? 
ouSev elvai rrjs Koivrjg eurias ovre rep 'PcopLvXcp 
Kara Stabox'^i' y^vovs ovhev OLKecorepov, irpoyovuiv 
fxev VTrdpxovn rcx)v e^ ^IXiov rd rrjg deds lepa 
pereveyKapievwv, pi-qrpog Se lepeias. eot/cao"t 8* ot 
8td ravra rrjv IhpvcrLv rov lepov 'PajpLvXco pLoXXov 

1 Kal after -qiiwrai deleted by Ambrosch. 
^ tmep before wv deleted by Ambrosch. 

' Cf. Livy i. 20, 3. 

2 The word eoria means, as a common noun, "hearth," 
and, as a proper noun, Hestia, the hearth -goddess, corre- 
sponding to the Roman Vesta. 

498 



BOOK TI. 61, 5-63, 2 

Romans, after the goddess whom they serve, he 
himself having been the first to buUd a temple at 
Rome to Vesta and to appoint virgins to be her 
priestesses.^ But concerning them it is necessary 
to make a few statements that are most essential, 
since the subject requires it ; for there are problems 
that have been thought worthy of investigation by 
many Roman historians in connexion with this 
topic and those authors who have not diligently 
examined into the causes of these matters have 
published rather worthless accounts. 

LXV. At any rate, as regards the building of the 
temple of Vesta, some ascribe it to Romulus, looking 
upon it as an inconceivable thing that, when a city 
was being founded by a man skilled in divination, a 
public hearth ^ should not have been erected first of 
all, particularly since the founder had been brought 
up at Alba, where the temple of this goddess had 
been established from ancient times, and since his 
mother had been her priestess. And recognizing 
two classes of religious ceremonies — the one public 
and common to all the citizens, and the other private 
and confined to particular families — they declare that 
on both these grounds Romulus was under every 
obligation to worship this goddess. For they say 
that nothing is more necessary for men than a public 
hearth, and that nothing more nearly concerned 
Romulus, in view of his descent, since his ancestors 
had brought the sacred rites of this goddess from 
Ilium and his mother had been her priestess. Those, 
then, who for these reasons ascribe the building 
of the temple to Romulus rather than to Numa 

499 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

avandevre? rj Nofia ro fxev kolvov opOcjs Xeyetv, 
on TToAecos" OLKil^ofJLevrjg ear lav Trpcorov eSei Ihpvdrj- 
vat /cat ravra vtt* avhpos ovk drrelpov TrJ£ -nepi ra 
dela ao^iasy ra hk Kara fxepog virip re rrjs Kara- 
aK€vrj? rod vvv ovrog Upov /cat tojv OepaTrevovcrcov 
3 rrjv deov vapdevayv rjyvorjKevaL. ovre yap to x^^plov 
TOVTO €v cL TO Upov (/)uAaTTeTai TTvp 'PojfjLvXog rjv 
6 Kadtepwo-a? rfj deep (/xeya Sc tovtov TeKfi-qpuov 
OTL ttJs" T€Tpaya)Vov KaXovfievT]? ^PcofjLTj? tjv cKeZvos 
CTet;)^t(7ev eKTO? ecmv, iarias he KOLvrjg Upov ev rep 
KpaTLGTCp /laAicrra KadiSpvovraL Trjs TtoXeujg airav- 
res, e^cD Se rod reixovs ovheis) ovre 8ia napdevajv 
rag depaTreiag KareGrrjoaro rfj deep, pLefjLvqfxevos 
60? epLoi hoKel rod rrepl rrjV pL-qrepa TrdOovg, rj 
crvvepT] depaTTevovarj rr]v deov rrjv irapOeviav diro- 
^aXelv, o)? ovx t/cavo? eoopLevos, edv ruva rojv 
dv-qnoXajv evpr) SLe(j)dapp.ev7]v, Kara rovg Trarpiovg 
rLfJiajpT^aaodaL v6p,ovs hid rrjv eVt rat? ot/cetat? 
4 <jvpi(f)opaL9 dvdp.vrjGLV. 8ia ravra ptev Srj kolvov 
lepov ov KareoKevdoaro rrj? 'Euriag ovhe lepeias 
era^ev avrfj irapdevovs , ev eKdorr) Se rcov rpiaKovra 
(jyparpLOJV lSpvodp,evo? eoriav, 6^* rjs edvov ol cfypa- 
rptelSy OvqTToXovg avrojv erroirjcre rovs rwv KovpLwv 
Tjyepovas, rd nap' "EXXiqaiv e6r] p^LpLTjodpevog, d-nep 
iv^ rals apx^-iordrais rwv 7T6Xea>v en yiyverai. 
rd ye roi KaXovp.eva TTpvraveta Trap* avrols 'Eorias^ 



^ a.7Tep ev Sintenis : a napa O, Jacoby. 
^ 'Earlas added by Keiske. 



500 



BOOK II. 6S. 2-4 

seem to be right, in so far as the general principle 
is concerned that, >vhen a city was being founded, 
it was necessary for a hearth to be establislied first 
of all, particularly by a man who was not unskilled 
in matters of religion ; but of the details relating 
to the building of the present temple and to the 
virgins who are in the service of the goddess they 
seem to have been ignorant. For, in the first place, 
it was not Romulus who consecrated to the goddess 
this place where the sacred fire is preserved (a strong 
proof of this is that it is outside of what they call 
Roma Quadrata,^ which he surrounded with a wall, 
whereas all men place the shrine of the public hearth 
in the best part of a city and nobody outside of the 
walls) ; and, in the second place, he did not appoint 
the serA^ce of the goddess to be performed by virgins, 
being mindful, I believe, of the experience that had 
befallen his mother, who while she was serving the 
goddess lost her virginity ; for he doubtless felt 
that the remembrance of his domestic misfortunes 
would make it impo--ible for him to punish according 
to the traditional laws any of the priestesses he 
should find to have been violated. For this reason, 
th< refore, he did not build a common temple of Vesta 
nor did he appoint virgins to be her priestesses ; 
but having erected a hearth in each of the thirty 
curiae on which the members sacrificed, he appointed 
the chiefs of the curiae to be the priests of those 
hearths, therein imitating the customs of the 
Greeks that are still observed in the most ancient 
cities. At any rate, what are called prytanea among 

^ A later name for the old Palatine city, which, according 
to the theory of the augurs, was quadrangular. 

501 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

eoTLV lepd, kol depaireveraL Trpos rwv ixovTcov ro 
ijidyLGTOu iv rais rroXeaL Kparos. 

LXVI. NofjLas 8e TTjv OLp)(rjv TrapaXaj^cav tol? [jl€V 
totas" ovK eKLvrjcre rchv (fyparpiow iorias, kolvtjv 8e 
KarearriGaTo TrdvTOJv pLiav iv rw juerafi) rod re 
KaTTLrcjoXlov Kal rod IJaXariov ^(cjpia}, ovfiTreTToXi- 
(jfievcov tJSt] ra)v X6(f)Ojv evl Trepi^oXo) /cat jxeorr]? 
dfJi(f}OLV ovGTjs TTJg dyopds , iv fj KarecrKevaciTat, to 
tepov, T-qv re (j)vXaKr^v rwu lepojv Kara rov Trdrpiov 
Tcov Aarivojv vofjiov Sid vapOivajv ivofjLodirrjae 

2 ylveordai * €;^et Se nvas drropias Kal to <f)vXaT- 
TopLevov iv to) i€pa) tl hrjTTOTi ecrrt /cat hid tL 
TTpoGKeLTat TTapdevois. TLvks pL€V ovv odSev e^oj 
Tov cpavepou TTvpos elvai (j>aGi to Trjpovpevov, ttjv 
he (j)vXaKr]v avTov rrcipdevois dva/cetcr^at pLoiXXov t) 
dvSpdai TTOiovvTai /card to et/cds", ort TTvp fjuev 
dpLLavTOv, 7Tap6ivo<i 8' d(f)9apTOv, ra> 8' dyvoTdTO) 
Tojv deicxjv TO ^ KadapojraTov tcov Ovtjtcov (j)iXov. 

3 'EgtIo. S' dvaKelodai to rrvp vojjll^ovctiv, otl yrj re 
ovaa Tj Beos /cat tov peoov KaTexovaa tov KoopLov 
TOTTov Tas dvdifjeL? tov pbeTapolov Trotetrat irvpos 
d</)' iavTrjs. elcrl Se Tcves ot (f)aGLV e^co tov TTvpos 
dTTopprjTa ToZs ttoXXoIs lepd KeZodai Tiva iv tco 

1 TO O : TOV Jacoby (typographical error ?). 



1 Apparently each capital city among the Greeks had a 
prytaneum, containing the common hearth of the State, 
where the sacred fire was kept burning. This building 
would servo naturally as the headquarters of the chief 
magistrates (though in Athens the archons removed at an 

502 



BOOK II. 6.S, 4-66, 3 

them are temples of Hostia, and are served by the 
chief magistrates of the cities.^ 

LXVI. Numa, upon taking over the rule, did not 
disturb the individual hearths of the curiae^ but 
erected one common to them all in the space be- 
tween the Capitoline and the Palatine (for these 
hills had already been united by a single wall into 
one city, and the Forum, in which the temple is 
built, lies between them), and he enacted, in accord- 
ance with the ancestral custom of the Latins, that 
the guarding of the holy things should be committed 
to virgins. There is some doubt, however, what it is 
that is kept in this temple and for what reason the 
care of it has been assigned to virgins, some affirming 
that nothing is preserved there but the fire, which 
is visible to everybody. And they very reasonably 
argue that the custody of the fire was committed to 
virgins, rather than to men, because fire is incorrupt 
and a virgin is undefiled, and the most chaste of 
mortal things must be agreeable to the purest of those 
that are divine. And they regard the fire as con- 
secrated to Vesta because that goddess, being the 
earth 2 and occupying the central place in the 
universe, kindles the celestial fires from herself. 
But there are some who say that besides the fire 
there are some holy things in the temple of the 
goddess that may not be revealed to the public, 

early date to the Thesmotheteum and the prytaneis took 
their meals in the Tholes) ; and here were entertained 
foreign ambassadors and also citizens who had deserved 
well of the State. 

2 Vesta is similarly identified with the earth by Ovid, 
Fasti vi. 267. See Sir James Frazer's instructive note on 
that passage (vol. iv. pp. 201 f.). 

503 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

r€fi€V€L TTJg 9ed<^, cLv ot re UpocfxivTaL rr]v yvwaiv 
€-)(ovGL Koi at vapOevoL, reKfjnjptov ov fXLKpov irap- 
€XopievoL rod Xoyov ro avfjiPav Trepl rr^v epLTTprjcnv 
rod Upov Kara rov ^olvlklkov TToXepLov rov TTpoj- 
rov (jvcrrdvTa 'PajpLoloLS irpos Kap-xrjhoviovs irepl 

4 EiKeXias. ipLTrp-qaOevTOS yap rov refievovs Koi 
rojv TTapdevow <j>evyovGa)v eK rov rrvpos rcbv Upo- 
(j)avra)v ns AevKLos KaiKiXLog 6 KaXovfxevog Mi' 
reXXos dvTjp virarLKogy 6 rov doihiixov eV UiKeXtag 
OLTTO KapxT^^ovLOjp Karayayojv oKrd) Kal rpiaKovra 
Kal €Kar6v eXecfjdvrojv dplapL^ov, vrrepihcDV rrjg tSia? 
dcr^aAeta? rov KOLvfj uvfjic^epovros eVe/ca rrapeKLV- 
hvvevuev els rd Kai6fjL€va ^idcraGdai Kal rd /cara- 
XeLi^devra vtto rcov vapOevcov dpTrdaag lepd Siecro)- 
G€V eK rov TWpo? ■ i(f)^ at rtfids rrapd rrj^ TroAeco? 
i^-qveyKaro fxtydXa?, cu? 'q rrj? ecKovog avrov r-rjs eV 

5 KaTTirajXiO) Keifievrj?^ imypacj)!] fiaprvpeZ. rovro 
Srj Xa^ovres opLoXoyovpievov errLavvdrrrovo-LV avrol 
oroxoiGpLOVS Tivas" ISiovg, ol fiev €K rcov iv 2JapLo~ 
OpaKT) Xeyovres Upcov pbolpav elvai nva (f)vXarro- 
pL€vr]v rrjv evddhe, AapSdvov jiev ctV rrjv u0' iavrov 
Kriudeloav ttoXlv eV ttjs viqaov rd lepd pLerevey- 
Kapevov, Alveiov Se, or €(j)vyev eV rrjs TpojdSog 
dpa roL? aAAot? /cat ravra KopLLaavros els '/raAtav, 
ot 8e ro SiOTrereg TlaXXdhiOV dTTO^alvovres elvai rd 
Trap* ^ IXtevGL yevopievov, ws Alvetov Kopiioavros 
avro hi ipurreipiav , M;^at6tjv 8e rd pLipnqpLa avrov 
Xa^ovrcov kXottjj • rrepl ov ttoAAoi G<f)6Spa elpr^vrai 

b TTOLTjraiS re Kal GVyypa^evGi Aoyot. eyco Se rd 
^ K€ifj.iin!]s Biicheler, dvaK€ifi(VT]s Reiske : yevo/ic'i^s O. 

504 



BOOK II. 66, 3-6 

of which only the pontiffs and the virgins have 
knowledge. As a strong confirmation of this story 
they cite what happened at the burning of the temple 
during the First Punic War between the Romans and 
the Carthaginians over Sicily. For when the temple 
caught fire and the virgins fled from the flames, one 
of the pontiff's, Lucius Caecilius, called Metellus,a man 
of consular rank, the same who exhibited a hundred 
and thirty-eight elephants in the memorable triumph 
which he celebrated for his defeat of the Carthasinians 
in Sicily,^ neglecting his own safety for the sake of 
the public good, ventured to force his way into the 
burning structure, and, snatching up the holy things 
which the virgins had abandoned, saved them from 
the fire ; for which he received great honours from 
the State, as the inscription upon his statue on the 
Capitol testifies. Taking this incident, then, as an 
admitted fact, they add some conjectures of their 
own. Thus, some affirm that the objects preserved 
here are a part of those holy things which were once 
in Samothrace ; that Dardanus removed them out of 
that island into the city which he himself had built, 
and that Aeneas, when he fled from the Troad, 
brought them along with the other holy things into 
Italy. But others declare that it is the Palladium 
that fell from Heaven, the same that was in the 
possession of the people of Ilium ; for they hold that 
Aeneas, being well acquainted with it, brought it into 
Italy, whereas the Achaeans stole away the copy, — 
an incident about which many stories have been re- 
lated both by poets and by historians. For my part, 

^ At Panormus, in 250, The temple of Vesta was burned 
in 241. 

505 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

fJL€V elvai nva rolg ttoAAoI? dSrjXa lepa (fjvXarrofj.eva 

VTTO TCX)V irapdivCOV KOL OV to TTVp fJiOVOV €K 7ToX\cx)V 

TTavu KaraXafi^dvojjLaL, rlva 8e raur' eoTLV ovk 
d^ici) TroXvTTpayfjLoveLV ovr" ipLavrov ovre dXXov 
ovSeva rdjv PovXcfxevcov rd Trpos Oeov? ocrta rrjpelv. 
LXVII. At Se depanevovcraL ttjv deov Trapdevoi 
rerrape? jjl€v rjoav Kar dp-xds row ^auiXeajv avrds 
alpovfX€Pcov i.(p ols KareGT'qoaro hiKaloLS 6 iVo/xa?, 
vcrrepov Se Sia ttXtjOos tojv Upovpyiojv as imTeXov- 
OLV ef yevopuevai p-^XP'- '^^^ '^^^' '^y-d? hiapiivovai 
Xpovov, Slairav exovcrai Ttapd rfj deep, evOa 8t' 
rjpiipas p.kv ovhels drreipyeraL twv ^ovXopLei'cov 
€tateVat, vvKTCop Se ovSevl tojv dppevcov ivavXicra- 

2 odat depLLS. XP^^^^ ^^ rpiaKOvraeTrj pbiveiv avrdg 
dvayKaZov dyvds ydpLOJV OvqTToXovaag re Kal raAAa 
OpT^dK^vovcras Kard vopLOV, iv d) Se/ca pih' errj pLav- 
6dv€Lv aura? eSet, 8e/ca S' irriTeXelv rd lepd, rd he 
Xoiird heKa hthduKeiv erepas. iKTrX-qpcxjOetGr]? hk 
rrjs rpiaKovraerias ovhev rjv ro kojXvctov rds j^ovXo- 
pLeva? diTodeicras rd creppLara Kal rd XoLrrd rrapd- 
crqpa ttJ? lepojGvvqs yapLeladai. /cat eiroirjudv nves 
TOVTO TTavu oXiyai, als dtpr^XoL crwe^rjcrav at reXevral 
rd)v jStojv Kal OV ndw evrvx^t?, (Zare St' olcjvov 
Xapi^dvovGaL rds iKeivojv crupL(f)opds at AotTrat rrap- 
OivoL pL€vovGL TTapd rfj deo) P'^XP^ davdrov, rore Se 
CIS" Tov rrjs IkXltto-ugtis dpidpLov irepa vraAii^ vtto 

3 rd)v lepo(j)avr(jjv diroh^iKwraL. npal 8e aOratS' 
506 



BOOK II. 66, 6-67, 3 

I find from very many evidences that there are 
indeed some holy things, unknown to the public, 
kept by the virgins, and not the fire alone ; but 
what they are I do not think should be inquired 
into too curiously, either by me or by anyone else 
who ^vishes to observe the reverence due to the 
gods. 

LXVII. The virgins who serve the goddess were 
originally four and were chosen by the kings accord- 
ing to the principles established by Numa, but after- 
wards, from the multiplicity of the sacred rites they 
perform, their number was increased to six, and 
has so remained down to our time. They live in the 
temple of the goddess, into which none who wish are 
hindered from entering in the daytime, whereas it 
is not lawful for any man to remain there at night. 
They were required to remain undefiled by marriage 
for the space of thirty years, devoting themselves 
to offering sacrifices and performing the other rites 
ordained by law. During the first ten years their 
duty was to learn their functions, in the second 
ten to perform them, and during the remaining ten 
to teach others. After the expiration of the term of 
thirty years nothing hindered those w^ho so desired 
from marr^ang, upon laying aside their fillets and 
the other insignia of their priesthood. And some, 
though very few, have done this ; but they came 
to ends that were not at all happy or enviable. In 
consequence, the rest, looking upon their misfor- 
tunes as ominous, remain virgins in the temple of 
the goddess till their death, and then once more 
another is chosen by the pontiffs to supply the 
vacancy. Many high honours have been granted 

507 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

OLTToSeSoi'TaL TTapa rrjg noXeaJS TToXXal /cat /caAat, 
oi as" ovre Traihcov avralg iari ttoOo? ovt€ ydficuv, 

TLflCOpiai T€ €771 TOt? dfiapTaVO[JL€l'OL9 KelvTai fJL€- 

ydXaL, Sv e^eracrral re /cat KoXaaral Kara voyiov 
€L(jIv ol L€po(f)dvTaL, rag fxev aXXo tl tojv eXarrovayv 
afxapTavovcra? pdjjhois iiaGTiyovvres , rds" he (^Oa- 
peiaas atavtcrroj re kol iXeeLvordraj TTapahihovres 

4 davdro). ^oDaat yap en TTOfiTrevovcnv eirl kXlvtjs 
(t>ep6fJLevaL ttjv aTTodeheiypiiviqv rolg veKpolg eK6opdv, 
dvaKXaLopLevojv avrdg kol rrpoTrepTTOVTcov (jiiXojv re 
/cat Gvyyevojv, KOfjULadelcrat he fiexpi- rrjg KoXXiinrjs 
TTvX-qs, ivTog Telxovg ^ elg G-qKov vtto yrjg Kar- 
eGKevaGfJLevov afxa tol? ivracfitoLS KOGjxoig riOevTai 
KOL ovT^ eTTLOT-qpLaros ovT evayLGpLOJV out aAAou 

5 Tcjv PopLLpLcou ovhevos Tvy\avovuL. ttoXXcl puev ovv 
/cat aAAa So/cet pLTjvvjjLara ehai rrfs ov^ ogloj? 
V7T7]peTov<j7]g TOLS lepol?, jLtctAtCTTa he rj u^eais rod 
TTvpoSy rfv vrrep drravra rd 3etya 'Pcollolol hehoC- 
Kaaiv d(f)avLGpiOv rrjs -rroXeajg crqiielov VTToXafJi- 
^dvoureg, d<j)^ rj? iror dv air lag yevrjrat, /cat 
TToXXaXg avro depaTreiaig e^iXaGKopievoi Kardyovau 
ndXiu elg ro lepov • vrrep (Lv Kara rov oLKelov 
Kaipdv ipo). 

LXVIII. Udvv S' d^Lov /cat rrjv eVt^at'etai' 

laroprjaaL rrjg dedg, t]u errehei^aro ralg dhiKOjg 

eyKXrjOeiuaig irapdevoig • TrerriGrevraL yap vtto 'Poj- 

fjLaiojv, el /cat irapdho^d eGn, /cat ttoXvv rrerroir^vr ai 

2 Xoyov VTTep avrcov ol Gvyypa(j)elg. ogol jxev ovv 

^ reixovs B : rov reixous R. 

508 



BOOK II. 67, 3-68, 2 

them by the commonwealth, as a result of which 
they feel no desire either for marriage or for children ; 
and severe penalties have been established for their 
misdeeds. It is the pontiffs who by law both inquire 
into and punish these offences ; those Vestals who 
are guilty of lesser misdemeanours they scourge 
with rods, but those who have suffered defilement 
they deliver up to the most shameful and the most 
miserable death. For while they are yet alive they 
are carried upon a bier with all the formality of a 
funeral, their friends and relations attending them 
with lamentations, and after being brought as far 
as the CoUine Gate, they are placed in an under- 
ground cell prepared within the walls, clad in their 
funeral attire ; but they are not given a monument 
or funeral rites or any other customary solemnities. 
There are many indications, it seems, when a 
priestess is not performing her holy functions with 
purity, but the principal one is the extinction of the 
fire, which the Romans dread above all misfortunes, 
looking upon it, from whatever cause it proceeds, 
as an omen that portends the destruction of the 
city ; and they bring fire again into the temple 
with many supplicatory rites, concerning which I 
shall speak on the proper occasion.^ 

LXVIII. However, it is also well worth relating 
in what manner the goddess has manifested herself 
in favour of those virgins who have been falsely 
accused. For these things, however incredible 
they may be, have been believed by the Romans 
and their historians have related much about them. 

^ This promise is not fulfilled in the extant portions of 
the history. 

509 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Tct? ddeov? OLGKOvcn (jiiXocro^ias , €l St) Kal (fytXoao- 
(fylas avras Set KoXeZv, airddas hiacrupovres rd^ 
i7TL<f)ai'€Las Tojv decjv ras" Trap* "EXXtjgiv rj ^ap- 
^dpois yei'Ofieva? /cat rauras" cts yiXcoro. ttoXvv 
d^ovGi rds LGTOpias dXat^oveiai? dvOpcjoirivais aura? 
dvarcOevTeg, co? ovSevl deojv peXov dvdpwTTOJV ovSevos. 
ocroL 8' ovK dTToXvovcTL ttj? dvdpojTTivTjg ivLfjieXeLag 
TOV9 deovsy dXXd kol rols dyadol? evfxevelg elvaL 

VOjJLL^OVGi Kal rot? KaKols Bv(TfJL€V€iS StO, TToXXfjS 

iXrjXvdoTes laropLag, ovSe ravras V7roXT]ifjoi'raL rds 

3 imcfyaveLas etvat dnLcrTOV?. Xcyerac Sij TTore rov 
TTvpo? eKXiTTovTos 8t' oXiyojpiav TLvd TTJg Tore avro 
(f)vXaTTOVGr]s AlyLiXias, irepa TrapOevco rcoi' vecoaTL 
KaTeiXeypievajv Kal dpri fiavdavovcrojv TrapaSovcrrjs 
TTjv €77 LfjLeXe Lav, rapaxr} ttoXXt] yevecrOaL Kara rrjv 
ttoXlu oX-qv Kal t^r^rriGis vno rcov lepocfiavrcov , fi-q n 
pLiacrpLa Trepl to rrvp rrjs lepeias irvyxoLve yeyovos ' 
€vda StJ (f)aaL ty]v AlpuXiav dvainov /xev ovaav^ 
d7Topov/xev7]v S* iirl rep ovp^c^rjKOTL napovrcov rwv 
lepecov Kal rcov dXXcov TrapOevojv ras x^^R'^^ ^'"^^ '^^^ 

4 (Sa)p,6v iKTeivaoav elTrelv • " 'Ecrria, rrjg ^ Pajp^aiiov 
TToXecjjg cf)vXa^, et /xev oaicos Kal hiKalco? iin- 
rereXeKd ^ crot rd lepd XP^^^^ oXLyov ^ heovra 
TpiaKovraerovs Kal ijsvx'^v exovcra Kadapdv Kal 
ocofia dyvov, iTnt^avr^Oi jjlol Kal ^o-qOrjcrov ^ Kal pjiq 
7T€.pdhr]S TTjv Geavrrjs tepetav rov oLKnarov pLopov 
diTodavovaav • et 8e dvoaiov n TreVpa/crat jLtot, rat? 

1 Kiessling: TereAe^ra O. ^ Kiessling : oXiyco O. 

^ fioTjOriaov Reiske : ^oTjdrjoov re Aa, ^oijdrjaov ye Ab, 
Porjdr]aov . . B. 

510 



BOOK TI. 68, 2-1 

To be sure, the professors of the atheistic philo- 
sophies, — if, indeed, their theories deserve the 
name of philosophy, — who ridicule all the mani- 
festations of the gods which have taken place among 
either the Greeks or barbarians, will also laugh 
these reports to scorn and attribute them to human 
imposture, on the ground that none of the gods con- 
cern themselves in anvthing relating to mankind. 
Those, however, who do not absolve the gods from 
the care of human affairs, but, after looking deeply 
into history, hold that they are favourable to the 
good and hostile to the wicked, will not regard even 
these manifestations as incredible. It is said, then, 
that once, when the fire had been extinguished through 
some negligence on the part of Aemilia, who had the 
care of it at the time and had entrusted it to another 
virgin, one of those who had been newly chosen 
and were then learning their duties, the whole city 
was in great commotion and an inquiry was made 
by the pontiffs whether there might not have been 
some defilement of the priestess to account for the 
extinction of the fire. Thereupon, they say, Ae- 
milia, who was innocent, but distracted at what had 
happened, stretched out her hands toward the altar 
and in the presence of the priests and the rest of the 
virgins cried : " Vesta, guardian of the Romans' 
city, if, during the space of nearly thirty years, 
I have performed the sacred offices to thee in a 
holy and proper manner, keeping a pure mind and a 
chaste body, do thou manifest thyself in my defence 
and assist me and do not suffer thy priestess to die 
the most miserable of all deaths ; but if I have been 
guilty of any impious deed, let my punishment 

511 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ejuat? TLfjLOjpLai'i to rrjg TToXecog ayos d(/>ayv((jov.*' ^ 
5 ravT elTTovoav /cat TTepipp-q^aoav oltto ttj? Kapiracri- 
vqs icrdrjros, t^v ctux^v ivSeSvKvla, ^aXelv rov 
reXapLcuva irrl rov ^ajpLov pLera ttjv evx^jv Xeyovai 
Koi eV rrjs Kareijjvypevqg irpo ttoXXov kol ovSeva 
<f)vXaTTOVcn]£ crTTLvd'qpa recjipa? dvaXdpufjaL <j>X6ya 
TToXXrjv Sid rrjs Kaprrdaov, cucrre pnqhkv en SerjcraL 
rfj TToXei pii]Te dyvLGpidjv pLrjre veov Twpog. 

LXIX. "Etl Se TOiJTOv OavpaGLcorepov icm Kal 
iJLvdo) pLaXXov ioLKO? o pLeXXoj XeyeLV. Kanqyoprjoai 
TLvd (f)aGLV aSt/ccos" /xtd? tojv TrapOevcov rcov Upcov 
TvKKtas^ ovopLa, d<^avLapL6v pkv TTvpos ovk e^ovra 
7Tpo(f)€p€LV_, dXXag Se rtva? ef elKorwv reKp.r]pLajv 
Kal pLaprvpi(i)V aTToSetfet? (^epovra ovk dXrjdcis. 
KeXevcrdelaav S' dTToXoyeLaOat rrjVTTapOevov toctovto^ 
pLovov eLTTelv, OTL rots' epyoLS dTroXvaerat rds 8ta- 

2 ^oAas" * ravra S' etVoucrav Kal rrjv dedv eTTLKaXeaa- 
pevrji> TjyepLOva rrjg oSov yeviodai irpodyeLv irrl rov 
Te^epiv €77 LTpeipdvTOJV pLev avrfj rwv Upo(f)avr(x)Vf 
rov 8e Kara rr]v ttoXlv o^Xov dvpLTTpoTrepiTTovros ' 
yevopievTjv 8e rod irorapbov ttXtjgIov to Trapot/xta^o- 
pLevov iv rot? rrpajroLs raJv dSvvdra)v roXpir^pLa vtto- 
pLelvaL. dpvaapLevqw Ik rod rrorapLOV kogklvco ^ Kal 
p.^XP'- '''V^ dyopds iveyKaGav rrapd rov? TToSas" 

3 rcou Upo(j)avrdju efepacrat to vSojp. Kal pLerd 
ravrd ^aoi rov Kanqyopov avrrjs ttoAAtJ? ^rjriJGeaJS 
yevopeviqs pL-qre t,ojvra evpedrjvat pL-qre V€Kp6v. 
oAA* V7T€p pikv rwv €7TL(f>av€Ldjv rrjs Oeds exojv 'irt. 

1 a^dyviaov B : d<f)dyvLaaL A ; d<f>dvLaaL Stepll. 
^Kiessling: Tvynias O. 

512 



BOOK II. 68, 5-69, 3 

expiate the guilt of the city." Having said this, she 
tore oflf the band of the linen garment she had on 
and threw it upon the altar, they say, following 
her prayer ; and from the ashes, which had been 
long cold and retained no spark, a great flame flared 
up through the linen, so that the city no longer re- 
quired either expiations or a new fire. 

LXIX. But what I am going to relate is still 
more wonderful and more like a myth. They say 
that somebody unjustly accused one of the holy 
virgins, whose name was Tuccia, and although he 
was unable to point to the extinction of the fire 
as evidence, he advanced false arguments based 
on plausible proofs and depositions ; and that the 
virgin, being ordered to make her defence, said only 
this, that she would clear herself from the accusation 
by her deeds. Having said this and called upon 
the goddess to be her guide, she led the way to the 
Tiber, with the consent of the pontifi"s and escorted 
by the whole population of the city ; and when 
she came to the river, she was so hardy as to under- 
take the task which, according to the proverb, is 
among the most impossible of achievement : she 
drew up water from the river in a sieve, and carrying 
it as far as the Forum, poured it out at the feet of 
the pontiff's. After which, they say, her accuser, 
though great search was made for him, could never 
be found either alive or dead. But, though I 
have yet many other things to say concerning the 



^ ToaovTo Jacoby in note : tovto O, Jiicoby in text. 
•* KaLva> V)efore kookIvo) deleted by Jacoby ; emended to 
K€V(Z by Steph. 

513 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TToAAd Xeyeiv kol d'AAa/ ravra LKava elprjaOai 

LXX. "Ekttj 8e fjiOLpa rrjs rrepl ra dela vofio- 
deoias rjv r) 7Tpo(Ji'€p.rj9eZGa roXs KaXovfievoL? vtto 
' PojpLaLOJv ZaXioi^y ovs avro^ 6 Nopias OLTreSei^ev e'/c 
TOJV TTarpLKLOJV ScoSeKa rovs evTrpeTTeGTarovs CTTt- 
Xe^dpievos viovs, <Lv iv IJaXarlq) KeZrai ra lepa 
Kat avTol KaXovvrai IlaXarlvoi. ol piev yap 
l4.ycx)vaXeL?, vtto 8e tlvojv KoXXlvol KaXovpLevoL 
UdXcoL, cLv TO lepocfyvXaKLOv ioriv irrl rod Kvpiviov ^ 
X6<f)ov, perd Nopuav aTreSeixO'Tjcrav vtto ^acrtAeco? 
*0(jriXLOV Kar evyrrjVy tjv iv rep Trpos Za^ivovs ev^aro 
rroXepLcp. ovroL Trdvre? ol ZdXiOL •^(opevrai rives 
2 €tcrt Kal vfxvqral rcJov ivorrXajv^ Oecov. ioprrj 8' 
avrdjv eon Trepl ra IJavad-qpata rco ^ KaXovp.evcp 
Mapriip jMrjvl SrjpLoreXrjs IttI TToXXds rjpLepas dyo~ 
p-€V7), iv at? 8id rrjs TToXecog dyovot rovs ^opoL'S' 
els re rrjv dyopdv Kal ro KaTnrcoXcov Kal ttoXXovs 
dXXovs IBiovs re Kal h-qpLooiovs roTTOvs, x^'^^^^^ 
ttolklXovs x^^^^^^ pLtrpats Karel,a>GpLevoi Kal rrf 
^evvas epLTrerropTTrjpievoi Tre pinopepvpovs <f>oiViK07TapV' 
Sovs, as KaXovGL rpafSeas [euri 8' emxc^ptos avrrj 
* Pojpaiois eaOrjs iv rols Trdw ripLLa) Kal rds KaAou- 

^ dAAa Biicheler : om, O, Jacoby. 
^ KvpivLov Carj' : koXXivov O, Jacoby. 
^ evoTrXojv Bb : ivorrXiajv BaR. 
* Toj O : ev Ttu Ambrosch, Jacoby. 



^ Cf. Livy i. 20, 4. ^ Usually called Agonenses. 

3 " Colline hill," the absurd reading of the M8S. and 
editors, cannot be from the hand of Dion^'sius. 

514 



BOOK II. 69, 3-70, 2 

manifestations of this goddess, I regard what has 
already been said as sufficient. 

LXX. The sixth division of his rehgious institu- 
tions was devoted to those the Romans call Salii. 
whom Numa himself appointed out of the patricians, 
choosing twelve young men of the most graceful ap- 
pearance.^ These are the Salii whose holy things are 
deposited on the Palatine hill and who are themselves 
called the (Salii) Palatini ; for the (Salii) Ago- 
nales,- by some called the Salii Collini. the repository 
of whose holy things is on the Quirinal hill,^ were 
appointed after Numa's time by King Hostilius, in 
pursuance of a vow he had made in the war against 
the Sabines. x411 these Salii are a kind of dancers 
and singers of hymns in praise of the gods of war. 
Their feetival falls about the time of the Panathenaea,"* 
in the month which they call March, and is cele- 
brated at the public expense for many days, dur- 
ing which they proceed through the city with their 
dances to the Forum and to the Capitol and to many 
other places both private and pubhc. They wear 
embroidered tunics girt about with wide girdles of 
bronze, and over these are fastened, with brooches, 
robes striped with scarlet and bordered with purple, 
which they call trabeae ; this garment is peculiar to 
the Romans and a mark of the greatest honour. 

* " Panathenaea " does not here mean the well-known 
Athenian festival (which took place in August), but the 
Quinquatria, the Roman festival in honour of Minerva 
(March 19-23). The principal celebration of the Salii 
began on the first of March and continued imtil at least 
the 24th ; Polybius (xxi. 10, 12) gives the total period 
as thirty days. 

515 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

[jL€va£ aTTiKa^ €7nK€Lfj.Qi'oi raXg /cec^aAat?, ttlXov^ 
vifj-qXovg et? Gxyjf-io. Gwayoi-ilvovs Kcovoeihis, a? 

3 "EXXi-jveg rrpoGayopevovuL Kvp^aoias. TTape^coarat 
S' €KacrTO? avrcov (Icjjo? Kal rfj fiev Sefta X^t/3t 
XoyxrjV ri paflSov rj n tolovO^ erepov Kparei, rfj 
8' €V(jJi'Vfxco Karix^i TreXrrjv ©paKiav • rj S' ccrrc 
pojJL^oeiSei Ovpeo) orevajrepas exovn ra? AayoVa? 
ejK^epiqs, otas" Xeyovrai (j^epeiv ol to. KovpT^rojv 

4 Trap' "EXXi](Jii> eTTLTeXovvTeg Upd. Kai elcnv oi 
ZdXiOL Kara yovv ttjp ipLTjv yvwjiiqv ^ 'EXXtjvlkco 
pLeOepfJLrjvevOevreg ovopLarL Kovprjres, v(f>* rjfjLOJv fiev 
cm TT^? rjXiKias ovrco'^ ajvopLacrpLevot Trapd rovs 
Kovpov?, VTTO he ^PcopLaiojv evrt rrjs cruvrovov KLvq- 
ueoj?. TO yap i^aXXeodai re Kal irrjhdv craXlpe vtt* 
avTwv Xeyerai. oltto Se rrjg avrrjg air lag Kal rovg 
dXXovg CLTTavrag 6p-xr}<yrds^ e-nel Kav rovroig rroXv 
TO aXfJia Kal GKiprv^p^a eveuri, rrapdyovres drro tcov 

5 SaXiOiv TOvvojJLa aaXrdrojpag ^ KaXovGiv. el Sc 
opdojg VTreiXrj(l)a ravrrji> avrolg rr^v TTpocrqyopiav 
aTToStSoj)? eV rojv yiyvopievuiv vrr" avrdv 6 ^ovXo- 
[jLevog crup.f'jaXei. Kivovvrai yap irpos avXov iv 
pvdfio) rag evoirXiovs Kiviqoeis rore fiev ofxov, rore 
Se TTapaXXd^. Kal irarpiovs rivds vp.vovs aSovcrtv 
OLfJLa raU ;^op€tat?. ^^petW Se Kal klvtjglv evo- 
nXiov Kal rop ev ralg daTriaiv drroreXovpievov vtto 
TCOP 6y\'€:otStaji^ i/fO(/)OJ/, e't tl oel rolg dp^^aioLS 



^ yv'Ja^Tjt, Kiessling: yvwoLv Bb, om. ABa. 
2 Tortus : aaXdropas AB. 



516 



BOOK II. 70, 2-5 

On their heads they wear apices, as they are called, 
that is, high caps contracted into the shape ol a 
cone, which the Greeks call kyrbasiai. They have 
each of them a sword hanging at their girdle and 
in their right hand they hold a spear or a staff or 
something else of the sort, and on their left arm a 
Thracian buckler, which resembles a lozenge-shaped 
shield with its sides drawn in,^ such as those are 
said to carry who among the Greeks perform the 
sacred rites of the Curetes. And, in my opinion 
at least, the Salii, if the word be translated into 
Greek, are Curetes, whom, because they are kouroi 
or " young men," we call by that name from their 
age, whereas the Romans call them Salii from their 
lively motions. For to leap and skip is by them 
called salire ; and for the same reason they call all 
other dancers saltatores, deriving their name from 
the Salii, because their dancing also is attended 
by much leaping and capering. Whether I have 
been well advised or not in giving them this appel- 
lation, anyone v/ho pleases may gather from their 
actions. For they execute their movements in 
arms, keeping time to a flute, sometimes all together, 
sometimes by turns, and while dancing sing certain 
traditional hymns. But this dance and exercise 
performed by armed men and the noise they make 
by striking their bucklers with their daggers, if we 
may base any conjectures on the ancient accounts, 

^ '* Lozenge-shaped " here doubtless means oval. What 
have been identified as these sacred a?icilia are seen 
depicted on a few ancient coins and gems. They are of 
the shape often called " figure of eight." This was not 
the shape of the Thracian buckler, which is described as 
crescent-shaped. 

517 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

T€KiJLr]pLovcrdaL Aoyot?^ Kovprjres rjcrav ol TrpcoroL 
KaraGTi](jdii€VOL. rov 8e Trepl avrchv jjlvOov ovhkv 
Seofiai TTpos eiSoras" oXiyov helv iravras ypd(f)€LV. 

LXXI. ^Ev he rats' TreXrat?, a? ot re UolXlol 
(f)opovcrL KOL a? vm^pdrat nvks avraJv rjprrjfjievas 
aTTo Kavovoiv Kopitovai, rroXXals ttolvu ovoais fxiav 
elvai XiyovGL SLOTrerrj, evpeOrjvai 8' avTT]v cfjacrtv 
eV Tois" ^aaiXeioLs tol? NojjLa, /xTySei^o? dvdpcoTTOJv 
elueveyKavTOs p'qhi' iyvcoapievov rrporepov ev ^ IraXoZs 
ToiovTov G^cqpiaTOs , i^ (Lv djKJyorepojv VTToXa^eZv 

2 'PajfJiaLov? deoTrepLTTTOv elvai to ottXov. ^ovXrjdevra 
Se rov NopLav TLpidaOaL re avro (f)€p6pi€vov vtto rcjv 
KpaTLGTOJV viojv ev lepoi? rjpiepai^ dvd rrjv ttoXlv 
KOL OvGLCov eTTereLCjjv rvyxdvetVy SeSoiKora Se eVt- 
^ovXds re rds o-tt' exOpcov Kal d(j)avLup6v avrov 
kXottolov, oTrXa Xeyovai TToXXd KaraaKevdoaadai 
TOJ hiOTTereZ TrapaTrXrjGLa, MapLoplov tlvos SrjpbLovp- 
yov TO epyov dvahe^af.Levov, wGre dGrjpLov yeveGdai 
/cat hvGhidyvojGTOV rols peXXovGLV eTnf^ovXevetv 
rrjv rod deoirepLTTrov <f)VGLV Std rrjv aTrapdXXaKTov 

3 TcDv dvOpcoTTelajv epycov opLOLorr^ra. e77t;^c6ptov 8e 
'PajpLaioLS Kal Ttdw rlpnov 6 Kovp-qnGpios, cu? €/c 
noXXojv piev Kal dXXcov eyd> Gvp^dXXopLat, pidXiGra 
8' Ik tcov TTepl rag TTopTrdg rd? re ev iTmohpopcp 

4 Kal rds ev rols dedrpois yivopievas ' ev ciTracrats' yap 

^ The legend that made them the protectors of the infant 
Zeus in the island of Crete ; see chap. CI, 2. They were 

518 



BOOK II. 70, 5-71, 4 

was originated by the Curetes. I need not mention 
the legend ^ which is related concerning them, since 
almost everybody is acquainted with it. 

LXXI. Among the vast number of bucklers which 
both the Salii themselves bear and some of their 
servants carry suspended from rods, they sav there 
is one that fell from heaven and was found in the 
palace of Numa, though no one had brought it 
thither and no buckler of that shape had ever be- 
fore been known among the Italians ; and that for 
both these reasons the Romans concluded that this 
buckler had been sent by the gods. They add that 
Numa, desiring that it should be honoured bv being 
carried through the city on holy days by the most 
distinguished young men and that annual sacrifices 
should be offered to it, but at the same time being 
fearfid both of the plots of his enemies and of its dis- 
appearance by theft, caused many other bucklers to 
be made resembling the one which fell from heaven, 
■Mamurius, an artificer, having undertaken the work ; 
so that, as a result of the perfect resemblance of 
the man-made imitations, the shape of the buckler 
sent by the gods was rendered inconspicuous and 
difficult to be distinguished by those who might 
plot to possess themselves of it. This dancing after 
the manner of the Curetes was a native institution 
among the Romans and was held in great honour 
by them, as I gather from many other indications 
and especially from wha* takes place in their pro- 
cessions both in the Circus and in the theatres. For 

said to have claslied their spears against their shields 
in order to drown the cries of the infant Zeus, lest his 
whereabouts should be discovered. 

519 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

ravTOAg ^ Trpoorj^oL Kopoi 'x^ltojvlgkovs evhehvKores 
€K7Tp€7T€ls Kpdvrj Kol ^lSt) Kal TTapfia? exovreg 
(TTOLxyj^ov TTopevovrai, Kal elatv ovroc rrj? TTOfjLTrrjg 
rjyep.6v€9 KaXovfxevot Trpos avrtov IttI rrjg TratStas" 
rrjg VTTO AvSa)v i^evprjadai hoKovar)? AuStcoves', 
€Ik6v€9 60? e'/Ltot SoKel row UaXlcov, ItteI rwv ye 
KovprjTLKOjv ovSev axjTrep ol EdXioi SpaxjLV ovr ev 
vpLvois ovr iv opxijcr^L. XPW ^^ rourovg^ iXevOe- 
povg re etvat Kal avOiyeveZg Kal d/x^t^aAetS", ol 8' 
eldlv ef oTTOiaGh-qiTOTe rvx^]?. ri yap 8et ra TrXeico 
TTepl avTOJV ypdcj)€LV ; 

LXXII. *H 8e i^SofJLTj fjolpa rrjg Upas vojJioOe- 
CTtas" TO) (Tvarrj[jLaTi TrpoGereOrj rojv KaXovpiivajv (f)rj- 
riaXlajv.^ ovtol S' ay elrjoav Kara ttjv ' EXX'^vlkyju 
KaXovf^LevoL SidXeKTOv elprjvohiKaL. €lgI 6' eV roju 
dpiarajv olkojv avhpes i-nLXeKTOL Slol Travros lepoj- 
fjLevoL rod ^lov, Nopia rod ^auiXeco'S rrpajrov Kal 
rovro 'PojpLaLOig ro Upov dpx^^ov Karacrnqaapiivov ' 
2 et pblvroi Trapd rcov KaXovpLevojv AlklkXcov^ ro 
TTapdSeLypLa eXa^ev wurrep olovrai rtveg, rj irapa 
rrjg ApSearwi^ ttoAcoj? o)? ypd(f)€i FeXXios ovk e^co 
Xeyeiv, drroxp'^ 8^ y^ot roGOvro povov etTreZv, on rrpo 
rfjs iVo/xa dpxTJS ovttco ro rwv elprivohiKOJV avarrjpia 

^ TavraLS Garrer : avrais O. 
2 TovTovs Ambrosch : avrovs O. 

^ :f)7)TLaXiwv Kiessling, <f>€Ti.aXiwv Steph., Jacoby : ^tnoAt'wv 
A (?), 0maAcov B. 

^Cluver; eWAcDv AB, 

520 



BOOK II. 71, 4-72, 2 

in all of them young men clad in handsome tunics, 
with helmets, swords and bucklers, march in file. 
These are the leaders of the procession and are called 
by the Romans, from a game of which the Lydians 
seem to have been the inventors, ludiones ; ^ they 
show merely a certain resemblance, in my opinion, 
to the Salii, since they do not, like the Sa/ii, do any 
of the things characteristic of the Curetes, either 
in their hymns or dancing. And it was necessary 
that the Salii should be free men and native Romans 
and that both their fathers and mothers should 
be living; whereas the others are of any condition 
whatsoever. But why should I say more about them ? 
LXXII. The seventh division of his sacred in- 
stitutions was devoted to the college of the fetiales ^ ; 
these may be called in Greek eirenodikai or " arbi- 
ters of peace." They arc chosen men, from the best 
families, and exercise their holy office for life ; 
King Numa was also the first who instituted this 
holy magistracy among the Romans. But whether 
he took his example from those called the Aequicoli,^ 
according to the opinion of some, or from the city 
of Ardea, as Gellius writes, I cannot say. It is 
sufficient for me to state that before Numa's reign 
the college of the fetiales did not exist among the 

^ From the well-known chapter (vii. 2) in which Livy 
describes the beginnings of drama at Rome we learn that 
these I udwnes or " players " were at first mere dancers and 
only later pantomimists. 

^Cf. Livy i. 24 and 32. Livy does not mention the fe- 
tiales until the reign of Xuma's successor, Tullus Hostilius. 

3 Another name for the Aequi ; but in time the word 
seems to have been interpreted as meaning " lovers of jus- 
tice " (from aequum and colere). 

521 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

3 TTapa 'PojjJLaLOLS t^v. KaTecrrTjaaro S' avTo Nofia^ 
ore ^ih-qvaraLS efxeXXe TroAe/xetv XrjGreLa? Kal Kara- 
SpofjLOLS TTJs xixjpas avTOV TTOLTjcrafJievois , el ^ovXoivro 
crvjj^rjvat Slxol TroAe/xou TTpog avrov, oirep els avdy- 
Kry Karaaravres iTToiqcTav. OLOfiaL Se, €7rei8?]77ep 
o-uK earw emxajptov "EXXtjctl to irepl rovs elpj]- 
voSiKas dpxetov, dvayKolov etval [Jiot, ttogcov koI 
TTrjXLKOJV ecrri Trpayiidrajv Kvpiov SieXdelv, tva toZs 
dyvoovGL TTjv 'Poj[.iaiojv evae^etav, rjv ol rore^ dvSpes 
ineTT^Sevov, {jltj TTapdho^ov elvai (ffaijj to vdvras 
avTOLS TO KdXXiCTTOv Xa^€LV Tous" TToXepLovs reAos". 

4 dTrdvTCJv yap avruw Tas dp^ds Kal ras" VTroOecreis 
evcrejjEGTdTas (jiavrjOOVTai 7roLT]Gdp.€VOL Kal 8td tovto 
pidXiGTa TOV£ deovg eGX'rjKOTes iv rot? Kivhvvois 
evfJLevelg. diravTa [xev ovv OGa dva/cetrat tovtols 
TOis elpTjvohiKaiS eTreXdelv Sid ttXtjOos ov pdSiov, 
Ke(f)aXaLCjL)0€L 8' VTroypa(f)fj SrjXdjGai TOidh^ €Gtl' 
(f)vXdTT€Lv tva jjLrjBeva 'Pco/xatot TToXefJLOV i^eviyKOJGL 
Kara /xT^SejLtta? evGTTovZov iroXecJS dhiKov, dp^dvrojv 
he TrapaGTTOvSeLV elg avTovs eTepcjv TTpeG^eveGdat 
re Kal Ta St/cata TrpcoTOV alrelv Xoyoj, edv he fxr^ 
TTeldajvTat rots" d^LOvpi^evots, tot eTTiKVpovv tov 

5 TToXepLOV. opLolaJS he Kav dhiKelGOai TLves v-nd 
*Pa>fJiaL(jjv evGTTovhoL XeyovTes rd 8t/cata atrcocrt, 
TOVTOvg hiayLvdiGKeiv rovs dvhpas el tl TTeiTovOaGiv 
eKGTTOvhov, Kal edv ho^ojGi rd TTpoGi^KOVTa eyKaXelv, 
rovs iuoxovs Tats aiVtat? GvXXa^ovras eKhoTOVs 
rols dhiKiqOeZGL Trapahihovaiy Ta re irepl tovs 

1 Tore Bb : T€ ABa. 

522 



BOOK IT. 72. 3-5 

Romans. It "was instituted by Numa when he was 
upon the point of making war on the people of 
Fidenae, who had raided and ravaged his territories, 
in order to see whether they would come to an accom- 
modation with him without war ; and that is what 
they actually did, being constrained by necessity. 
But since the college of the fetiales is not in use 
among the Greeks, I think it incumbent on me to 
relate how many and how great affairs fall under its 
jurisdiction, to the end that those who are un- 
acquainted with the piety practised by the Romans 
of those times may not be surprised to find that 
all their wars had the most successful outcome ; for 
it ^\i\\ appear that the origins and motives of them 
all were most holy, and for this reason especially 
the gods were propitious to them in the dangers 
that attended them. The multitude of duties, to be 
sure, that fall within the province of these fetiales 
makes it no easy matter to enumerate them all ; but 
to indicate them by a summary outline, they are as 
follows : It is their duty to take care that the 
Romans do not enter upon an unjust war against 
any city in alliance with them, and if others begin 
the violation of treaties against them, to go as ambas- 
sadors and first make formal demand for justice, 
and then, if the others refuse to comply with their 
demands, to sanction war. In like manner, if any 
people in alHance with the Romans complain of 
having been injured by them and demand justice, 
these men are to determine whether they have suf- 
fered an\-thing in violation of their alliance ; and 
if they find their complaints well grounded, they are 
to seize the accused and deliver them up to the 
injured parties. They are also to take cognizance 

523 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

irpea^evras aSt/cr^jLtara St/ca^etv /cat tol irepl ra.'s 
cruvdrjKa^ oaca (f)vXdTT€LV elp-qvrjv re rroLelcrdaL 
/cat y€y€V7]ijL€i'7]v, iav prj /card rovs tepou? ^o^rj 
TTeTrpdxOcLi' vofJLOvg, OLKvpovv /cat ra? tojv arparrj- 
ycov TTapavofiiaSy oaat Trepi re opKOV? /cat cnroi'Sas 
Itt IT eXovvr at, hiayivojuKovra? d(f}0(Tiov(j6ai, rrepl cLu 
Kara rov? olk€lovs Kaipovs TTOnjoropLat top Xoyov. 

6 rd Se nepl rd? eVt/cr^/DU/ceia? vtt^ avTOjp yivopeva, 
OT€ TTjv ho^aaav dSt/cetv ttoXlv alroXev hiKag [d^tov 
yap prjhe ravr dyvoeZv /card ttoXXtjv (f)povTiha rdjv 
ouLcov /cat St/catojy yivop^eva) Totavra rrapeXa^ou • 
€LS ixkv e/c Tcbv elpr^vohiKwv, ov ol Xolttol irpo'x^eLpi- 
GaiVTO, KeKoapu-qiievos icrdrJTL /cat ^opi^paatv Upols, 
Lva BidSrjXos fj Trapd rovs dXXovg, etV TJ71/ rdJv 
dhiKovproju TTapeycvero ttoXlv • eTnaras oe roig 
opioL? rov re Ala /cat rovs dXXovs erreKoXelro 
deovs [laprvpofjievos on St/ca? alrojv rjKei virep ^ 

7 rrjs 'Pa>[ialcjv rroXeojs ' eireira opLoaas on Trpos 
dhiKOVGav epxeraL ttoXlv /cat dpds rds p^eyioras el 
ipevSoLTO eTTapaodpevos eavrcp re /cat rfj 'Pcoprj, 
rdr evrds jjeL rojv dpcov ' eneira orcp Trpcjrcp rrepi- 
rvxoi rovrov empiaprvpdpLevos , elre rwv dypoUajv 
elre rojp TToXinKcov e'lr), /cat rds avrds irpoodels 
dpds TTpos TTjP ttoXlv a)xero, Kara TTplv els rriv 
ttoXlv TTapeXOelv rov TTvXojpov rj rov TTpcbrov dTTav- 
r-qaavra ev rals TTvXaLs rov avrdv rpoTTOV eVt- 
fjLaprvpdpevos els rrjv dyopdv TTpofjeL • e/cet Se 

1 xmkp Hertlein, tollowing Reiske ; Trapd Kiessling : wepi 
O, Jacoby. 

524 



BOOK II. 72, 5-7 

of the crimes committed against ambassadors, to 
take care that treaties are religiously observed, to 
make peace, and if they find that peace has been made 
otherwise than is prescribed by the holy laws, to 
set it aside; and to inquire into and expiate the trans- 
gressions of the generals in so far as they relate to 
oaths and treaties, concerning which I shall speak in 
the proper places. As to the functions they per- 
formed in the quality of heralds when they went to 
demand justice of any city thought to have injured 
the Romans (for these things also are worthy of 
our knowledge, since they were carried out with great 
regard to both religion and justice), I have received 
the following account : One of these fetiales, chosen 
by his colleagues, wearing his sacred robes and in- 
signia to distinguish him from all others, proceeded 
towards the city whose inhabitants had done the 
injury ; and, stopping at the border, he called upon 
Jupiter and the rest of the gods to witness that he 
was come to demand justice on behalf of the Roman 
State. Thereupon he took an oath that he was going 
to a city that had done an injury; and having uttered 
the most dreadful imprecations against himself and 
Rome, if what he averred was not true, he then 
entered their borders. Afterwards, he called to 
witness the first person he met, whether it was one 
of the countrymen or one of the townspeople, 
and having repeated the same imprecations, he 
advanced towards the city. And before he entered 
it he called to witness in the same manner the gate- 
keeper or the first person he met at the gates, after 
which he proceeded to the forum ; and taking his 

525 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

Karaarag tol? ev reXei irepl Sv tjkoi BieXeyero 
TTavraxfj rovs re opKOVs kol tol'^ dpag TTpocmdel?. 

8 el fiev ovv VTrexotev ras StAca? TrapaStSoVres" rovs iv 
TOLs aLTLaL£, aTTTjei rovs avhpas airdyajv (j)i\os re 
rjSr} yeyovojs /cat Trapd (jyiXajv • el he -xpovov els 
povXrjv alrrjaaivTO Se/ca hihovs -qpiepas Trapeyivero 
ttoXlv Koi pexpi- rpirr]? alrrjcrecDs dveSexero. SteA- 
Sovuojv he rcov rpiaKovra 'qpepcbv, el firj Trapel^ev 
avToj rd StKaia rj TToAts", eTTiKoXeadfJievos rovs re 
ovpavLovs /cat Kara)(dovLOVs deovs dir-^et, roaovro 
pLOvov elrrajv on ^ovXevoerai irepl avrwv r^ 'Pco- 

9 jJLaccov ttoXls i(f)* qov^Cas. /cat pLerd rovro drre- 
<j)aLvev els rrjp ^ovXrjv dpa rots dXXots elprjvoSLKaLS 
rrapayevopevos on TTeirpaKr at rrdv avroZs ogov rjv 
OGLOv €/c r(x}v lepojv vopaov /cat el ^ovXoivro ilsrj(f)i- 
t,eodai TToXepov ovhev ecrrat ro KcoXvcrov diro decjv. 
el he re pi) yevoiro rovrojv ovre iq ^ovXt) Kvpla rjv 
eTTLijjrjcjiiGaGBaL rroXep^ov ovre 6 hippos. rrepl pev 
ovv row elprjvohLKow roGavra rrapeXd^opev. 

LXXIII. TeXevraZos S' rfv rrjs Nopa htard^ecos 
pepiGpos VTTep rd)v lepcov, cov eXay^ov ot rrfv peyLGrrjv 
TTapd 'PcupaloLs lepareiav /cat e^ovGiav exovres. 
ovroL Kard piev rrjv eavrcjv htdXeKrov e^' evos rojv 
epyojv o TTpdrrovGiv ernGKevat^ovres rrjv ^vXlvrjv 
ye(f>vpav TTovrlcjiLKes vpoGayopevovrai , elGi he rwv 

16/. Li vy i. 20, 5-7. 

2 According to Dionysius himself (iii. 45) the pons 
8uhliciti8 was built by Ancus Marcius ; but it will be noted 

526 



BOOK IT. 72, 7-73, 1 

stand tliere, he discussed with the magistrates the 
reasons for his coming, adding everywhere the same 
oaths and imprecations. If, then, they were dis- 
posed to offer satisfaction by deUvering up the 
guilty, he departed as a friend taking leave of friends, 
carrying the prisoners with him. Or, if they desired 
time to deliberate, he allowed them ten days, after 
which he returned and waited till they had made 
this request three times. But after the expiration 
of the thirty days, if the city still persisted in re- 
fusing to grant him justice, he called both the celes- 
tial and infernal gods to witness and went away, 
saying no more than this, that the Roman State 
would deliberate at its leisure concerning these people. 
Afterwards he, together with the other fetiales, ap- 
peared before the senate and declared that they had 
done everything that was ordained by the holy laws, 
and that, if the senators wished to vote for war, there 
would be no obstacle on the part of the gods. But. 
if any of these things was omitted, neither the senate 
nor the people had the power to vote for war. Such, 
then, is the account we have received concerning the 
fetiales. 

LXXIII. The last branch of the ordinances of 
Numa related to the sacred offices allotted to those 
who held the highest priesthood and the greatest 
power among the Romans.^ These, from one of the 
duties they perform, namely, the repairing of the 
wooden bridge,^ are in their own language called 
poniifices ; but they have jurisdiction over the most 

that he does not say expHcitly that these priests bore the 
name pontifices from the first. 

527 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

2 iieyLGTCov TTpay/JLarcov Kvpcoi. /cat yap bLKd(,ovcrLV 
ovroL ras tepa? StAcas" OLTrdaag Ihiajrais re /cat 
dpxovGL /cat XeLTOVpyol? Oecjv /cat vofioderovatv 
ooa Twv Lepa)v^ dypa(f>a ovra /cat dvediara,^ iTnri^- 
Seta Tvyxdi'€Lv avrols (f)aveLri vojjlojv re /cat i9L(Ji.La)v • 
ra? re dp;)(as" d77ao'a?, ocrais OvGia Tt? -^ depaTreia 
dewv dvaKeirai, /cat roi)? lepels aTravras i^erd- 
t^ovGLv, v7T7]p€ras re avrcov /cat Aetroupyous", ot? 
-^pajvraL npos rd Upd, ovtol (j)v\drrovaL fjLjjSev 
e^afiaprdv€iv irepl ^ rovg Upov^ vopbovs ' rot? t€ 
ihtojrai? OTTOcrot pr^ tcracrt rov? Trepl rd 6eZa r) 
8atp,ovta GeBaafiov'i, i^r^yr^ral yivovrai /cat irpo- 
(f)rjraL • /cat et rtva? aiodoivro p.rj 7Tei6op,lvov? 
rals cVtrayats' avrojv, ^-qpLLovcn npo? eKacrrov 
XprjjjLa 6pci>VT€?, €LGL T€ dvv7T€vdvvoL ndaYj? Slktjs 
re /cat t,'rjiXLas ovre ^ovXfj Xoyov aTToSiSovTes ovre 

3 Si^fJLcp, TTepl yovv ^ tojv lepojv ^ • coare el ^ovXeral 
TLS avTov? tepo8t8ao"/cdAou? /caAetf etre lepovopiovs 
e'lre Upo(f)vXaKas elre, to? rjfielg d^tovpLCv, lepo(j)dv- 
ras, ovx dfiapTTjcrerat tov dXr^dov?. eKXiTTovrog 
Se TLVog avTOJv rov ^lov erepog etV rou iKeivov 
Kadiorarai tottou ovx ^^° '^^^ StJ^ou alpedeis, 
dAA' U77' auTcot' eKeivcov, o? ctP' eTTLTrjSeioraTo? etvai 
So/ctJ TcDi^ TToAtTOH^ * TTapaXafju^dueL Be rrjv lepareiav 

* KpLvovT€s a av after avidiara deleted by Kiessling, Reiske 
rejected Kpivom-es. reading dvediara vofxi^coaiv aTToSoxijs a^ia 
elvai ■ OLKVpovai de a. dv dvenLT-jBeia k.tJ. Jacoby retained 
Kpivovr€s d dv, indicating a lacuna before these words. 

^TTipl Ab: TTapd AaB. ^ yovv Kiessling: ovv O. 

^ Upujv Kiessling : Upioiv O. 

528 



BOOK II. 73, 2-3 

weighty matters. For they are the judges in all 
religious causes wherein private citizens, magistrates 
or the ministers of the gods are concerned ; they 
make laws for the observance of any rehgious rites, 
not estabhshed by written law or by custom, which 
may seem to them worthy of receiving the sanction 
of law and custom ; they inquire into the conduct of 
all magistrates to whom the performance of any 
sacrifice or other religious duty is committed, and 
also into that of all the priests ; they take care 
that their servants and ministers whom they employ 
in religious rites commit no error in the matter of 
the sacred laws ; to the laymen who are unacquainted 
with such matters they are the expounders and inter- 
preters of everything relating to the worship of the 
gods and genii ; and if they find that any disobey 
their orders, they inflict punishment upon them 
with due regard to every off"ence ; moreover, thev are 
not liable to any prosecution or punishment, nor are 
they accountable to the senate or to the people, at 
least concerning religious matters. Hence, if anyone 
wishes to call them hierodidaskaloi, hieronomoi, 
hierophylakes, or, as I think proper, hierophantai,^ 
he will not be in error. When one of them dies, 
another is appointed in his place, being chosen, 
not by the people, but by the pontifices themselves, 
who select the person they think best qualified 
among their fellow citizens ; and the one thus 

* These words mean respectively "teachers of reHgion," 
"supervisors of rehgion," "guardians of rehgion " and 
" interpreters of rehgion." The last is the term regularly 
employed by Dionysius when he translates the word 
pontifices. 

529 

VOL. I. T 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

o SoKifiacrdei?, eav evopvides avro) rvyojaiv olojvol 
4 yev6[JL€VOL. ra fiev St) irepl ro Oeiov vofJLoderrjdevra 
VTTO rod Nofxa Kal hiaipeOevra Kara ra? ovfjLfjLopla? 
T(x)v Upojv, i^ Sv €V(j€^€Gr€pav awe^r] yeviaOai 
T7)v ttoXlv, irpos rols aXXois iXdrrocn ra (xeyLcrra 
Kal ^avepojrara ravr 'r)v. 

LXXIV. Ta 8' els evriXeidv re Kal (7a)(l>po(TUvrjv 
ayovra rov eKaarov ^iov Kal els iTnOvjjLLav Kara- 
Grrjcjavra rrj? cf)vXarrovGr]s iv ofiovola rrjv ttoXlv 
ZiKaioG-uv-qs TrXelara ocra, ra fiev eyyp6.(j)OLS TTepiXrj- 
<j)6evra vopLOis, rd S' efo) ypa(j)rjs els eTTinr^hevaeLS 
dxOevra Kal avvaaKrjoreis XP^^^^^^ ' ^"^^P <^^ dirdv' 
rcov {JLev ttoXv dv epyov etrj Xeyeiv, dpKeaei he Svo 
rd fJLeylcrrrjs iJLvrjfJLr]s rv^ovra reKp.ijpLa Kal rcov 

2 aAAcoi^ yevecrdai ' rrjs fxev avrapKelas Kal rod [xt]- 
Seva rcov dXXorpiatv eTndvixeZv tj rrepl rovg opuopLovs 
rwv Kr-qcjecov vopLodecrla. KeXevaas yap eKdaro) 
TTepLypdi/jac rrjv eavrov KrrJGLV Kal crrrjcrai XWovs 
irrl rols opois lepovs aTTeSei^ev *Opiov Aids rovs 
Xidovs, Kal Bvaias era^ev avrols eTnreXelv diravras 
rjpLepa raKrrj Kad^ eKacrrov evtavrov cVt rov roirov 
GVvepxopLevovs, eoprr]v ev rols ^ rrdw rtpiiav ^ rr^v 

3 rihv opLOJV deujv Karaarrjcrdpievos . ravrrjv 'PcopLalot 
TeppLLvdXia KaXovdiv irrl rwv repfjiovwv Kal rovs 
dpovs avrous evos aAAayrJ ypdptpLaros napd rrjv 
rj/xerepav SidXeKrov eK(f>epovres reppuvas ^ irpocra- 

1 To'is Meineke : ralg O. 

2 Kal after ri-ixiav deleted by Biicheler. 

^ Tcp/xtvas B, repfilvas A ; probably an error for rdpfitva or 
repixivovS' 

530 



BOOK II. 73, 3-74, 3 

approved of receives the priesthood, provided the 
omens are favourable to him. These — not to speak 
of others less important — are the greatest and the 
most notable regulations made by Numa concerning 
religious worship and divided by him according 
to the different classes of sacred rites ; and through 
these it came about that the city increased in 
piety. 

LXXiy. His regulations, moreover, that tended 
to inspire frugality and moderation in the life of 
the individual citizen and to create a passion for 
justice, which preserves the harmony of the State, 
were exceedingly numerous, some of them being 
comprehended in written laws, and others not written 
down but embodied in custom and long usage. To 
treat of all these would be a difficult task ; but 
mention of the two of them which have been most 
frequently cited will suffice to give e^^dence of the 
rest. First, to the end that people should be con- 
tent \vdth what they had and should not covet what 
belonged to others, there was the law that appointed 
boundaries to every man's possessions. For, having 
ordered every one to draw a line around his own land 
and to place stones on the bounds, he consecrated 
these stones to Jupiter Terminalis and ordained 
that all should assemble at the place every year on 
a fixed day and offer sacrifices to them ; and he 
made the festival in honour of these gods of 
boundaries among the most dignified of all. This 
festival the Romans call Terminalia, from the 
boundaries, and the boundaries themselves, by the 
change of one letter as compared with our language, 

531 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

yopevovGLv. el Se rt? d(f)ai'LG€L€v -q ^eradeLT] tov? 
opov£, lepov ivofioderrjaev elvaL rod Oeov rov tov- 
TOJV TL hiairpa^dfjievov , Iva rco ^ovXafJidvco kt€lv€LV 
avTOv cL? lepoGvXov 17 re dcr^aAeta /cat to Kadapw 

4 fiLOiGfiaTOS ehai Trpoafj. tovto S' ovk eVt rcov 
18l(x)tlkcx)V KarecmjcraTO jiovov Krrjcrecov ro hiKaiov, 
oAAa /cat eVt rcov S-qfioalajv, 6 pot? KOLKelvag irepL- 
Xa^ciiVy Iva /cat 7r]v 'Poj/iatcov yriv d-no rrjs darvyeL- 
Tovos opLOL hiaipwoL Oeol /cat rr^v kolvtjv drro rfjs 
ISlas. TovTov^ l^^XP'- '^^^ '^^^^ 'TjlJiois ;^/30vajv 
<f)vXdTTOVGi 'PcofialoL fjivr)iJL€La ^ TTJg oCTta? avrrj? 
cVe/ca. deovs re yap rjyovvTat tov£ ripiiova^ /ecu 
dvovoLV avTotg ooerr], tcjv fiev ifjujjvxcov ovhev {ov 
yap ocTLOV at/xarretv rovg Xidov?), TreXdvovs he Srj- 

5 fi7]TpLOVS ^ /cat d'AAas" rivd? KapiraJv djrapxdg. ixPW 
8e /cat TO epyov en (f)vXdrr6LV avrovs, oi5* X^P^^ 
deovs evopLiae^ rovs reppiovas 6 Nopuas,^ LKavov/Jbe- 
vovs TO IS eavTcov KrijpiaGL, Tcnv 8' dXXoTpiojv pLTjTe 

^ rovTov Schmitz : tovto O, Jacoby. 

2 Before fivrjixela the MSS. have tov xpovov, deleted, how- 
ever, in B. Casaubon regarded these words as corrupt; 
Reiske emended to tov apxaiov or tov tots xpo^ov, Biicheler 
to TOV voixov. 

^Meineke: h-qixrjTpos O. 

* airrovs, ov Canter, avTovs, otov Portus, avro, ov Sylburg, 
dvavras, ov Reiske, ttlotov ainovs, ov Jacoby, dno tov laov, ov 
Ambrosch, Sintenis: aTrvrovdaov A, dvavrov . . ou B (but last 
ov changed to ov by Bb). 

^ ei'o/j-ae Biicheler: evofxioav O. 

^ 6 No^as Biicheler : ovofidaai Ba, ovondaat BbR. 

532 



BOOK II. 74, 3-5 • 

they call termines.^ He also enacted that, if any 
person deniolishtd or displaced these boundary stones 
he should be looked upon as devoted to the god, to 
the end that anyone who wished might kill him as 
a sacrilegious person with impunity and without 
incurring any stain of guilt. He estabUshed this 
law with reference not only to private possessions 
but also to those belonging to the public ; for he 
marked these also with boundary stones, to the 
end that the gods of boundaries might distinguish 
the lands of the Romans from those of their neigh- 
bours, and the public lands from such as belonged 
to private persons. Memorials of this custom are ob- 
served by the Romans down to our times, purely 
as a rehgious form. For they look upon these bound- 
ary stones as gods and sacrifice to them yearly, 
offering up no kind of animal (for it is not lawful 
to stain these stones with blood), but cakes made 
of cereals and other first-fruits of the earth. But 
they ought still to observe the motive, as well, 
which led Numa to regard these boundary stones 
as gods and content themselves with their own 
possessions without appropriating those of others 

^ When Dionysius says that the Latin and Greek words 
differ by only one letter he is almost certainly referring 
to the stem {termin- : repfiov-) or to the nominative sin- 
gular {termen : repjicou) ; he would naturally disregard 
the case-endings, since he regularly inflects Latin words 
as if they were Greek. The form repfiivas, i.e. termines, 
can hardly be from the hand of Dionysius, who must have 
known that most nouns terminating in -men were neuter 
(compare his Kap^tva, carmina, in i. 31). The true form 
here should evidently be either T€pp.iva or repfiivovs, i.e. 
termina or termini (to cite them in the nominative). 

533 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

j6ta (j(f>eTepL^oijL€vov£ fjurjhev /U-Tjre SoAcu. vvv 8* ovx 
c6s" aixeivov ou8' cos" ol irpoyovoi Trapehoaav opil^ovai 
rives 0,770 rchv aXXorpicjv ra OLKela, dAA' ccttiv ai5- 

TOt? OpOS" TCX)V KTTjGeCJV OVX ^ '^o/xo?, dAA' 7j TrdvTOJV 

eTTiOvpiiay TTpdyfxa ov KaXov. dAA' vmep fiev rovrojv 

irepOLS ^ 7TapL€[JL€V GK07T€LV. 

LXXV. '0 8e Nofxas els fJiev evreXecav /cat 
aoj(j)pocr6vr]v hia tolovtojv orwecrreiXe ^ vofxojv rrjv 
ttoXlV: els 8e rrjv irepl ra cru/x^oAata SLKaiOoruvrjv 
VTrrjydyero tt pay pia e^evpojp rjyvorjpievov vtto irdv- 
Tojv rojv Karacrrrjcrapevojv rds eXAoylpLovs TToXireias. 
opcjv yap on rcov (jvp^^oXaiajv ra piev ev (f>avepcp 
KOL perd paprvpojv Trparropieva 7) rcbv cruvovrajv 
alSws (fyvXarreiy kol (nrdviot rwes elonv ol Trepl rd 
roiavra dSiKOvvres, rd Se dpdprvpa ttoXXco TrXeicj 
rojv erepcxjv ovra plav exei (jivXaKrjv rrjv rcjv crvp- 
^aXovTCOv TTLGTLV, TTepl TavTrjv wero heZv GTTOvSdaaL 
TTavrds dAAou pidXiGra /cat TTOLrjcraL deicov ae^aupicov 

2 d^iav. Alktjv pev ydp /cat Qepiv /cat Nepeaiv /cat 
rds KaXovpevas Trap* "EXX-qucv "Epivvas /cat oaa 
rovTOLS dpoia vtto tcjv rrporepov diroxpcovrajs e/c- 
redeidjaOal re /cat KadcooLwadai evopnae, IJicrriv 
Se, rjs ovre pLeZl^ov ovre lepojrepov irddos ev dvdpco- 
7TOLS ovSev, ovTTOJ ae^acrpLOJv rvyxdveiv ovr ev rols 
KOLVOLS rcov TToXeojv TTpdypaoLV ovr ev rols tStotS". 

3 ravra Srj hiavoiqOels rrpajros dv9pa)7Ta)v lepdv 
ISpvaaro Ilidreojs h-qpocrias /cat dvoias avrfj /car- 
CCTTTJo-aro, Kaddirep Kal rols dXXoLS deols, Srjpio- 

^ Steph. : ev irepoLS AB. 
* oweoTCiAe B : avvearQae R. 

534 



BOOK IT. 74, 5-75, 3 

either by violence or by fraud ; whereas now there 
are some who, in disregard of what is best and ol 
the example of their ancestors, instead of dis- 
tinguishing that which is theirs from that which 
belongs to others, set as bounds to their possessions, 
not the law, but their greed to possess everything, 
— which is disgraceful behaviour. But we leave the 
considerations of these matters to others. 

LXXV. By such laws Numa brought the State 
to frugality and moderation. And in order to 
encourage the observance of justice in the matter 
of contracts, he hit upon a device which was unknown 
to all who have established the most celebrated con- 
stitutions. For, obser\ang that contracts made in 
public and before witnesses are, out of respect for 
the persons present, generally observed and that 
few are guilty of any violation of them, but that 
those which are made without witnesses — and these 
are much more numerous than the others — rest on 
no other security than the faith of those who make 
them, he thought it incumbent on him to make this 
faith the chief object of his care and to render it 
worthy of divine worship. For he felt that Justice, 
Themis, Nemesis, and those the Greeks call Erinyes, 
with other concepts of the kind, had been suffi- 
ciently revered and worshipped as gods by the men 
of former times, but that Faith, than which there is 
nothing greater nor more sacred among men, was 
not yet worshipped either by states in their public 
capacity or by private persons. As the result of 
these reflexions he, first of all men, erected a temple 
to the Public Faith and instituted sacrifices in her 
honour at the public expense in the same manner as 

535 



DTONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 
TcActS". ejJLeXXe Se dpa avv XP^^V "^^ kolvov rrj? 

TToXeOJS Tjdo? TTLGTOV KOI ^e^atOV TTpOS dvdpWTTOV? 

yevofjiei'ov tolovtov? aTrepydcraadaL Koi rovs rcov 
IScajTcbv rpoTTovs- ovtco yovv ae^aarov n Trpdypta 
Kal dpiavTOV ivop-icrOrj to Tnarov, cocrre dpKOv re 
iieyLorov yeveadaL Tr]v Ihiav eKdartp ttlgtlv /cat 
piaprvpias (JVpLTrdar]? lgx^ pordTTjv , Kal OTTore vnep 
dpLaprvpov avvaXXdypiaros dpL(f)LXoy6v tl yevoiro ivi 
TTpos €va, Tj SiaLpovaa to vet/co? /cat rrpoaajripoj 
XOJpelv ovK iwcra rds cfuXovetKias tj darepov rcvv 
StaSi/caJoju.eVoji' avrcov ttlgtls rjv, at re dpxal /cat 

4 rd St/cacTTTjpta rd TrAeto-ra twi' dpi(j)ia^7]rr]pidT(jJv 
rois e/c ttjs" Trlareajs dpKOLS Slt^tojv. Toiavra^ pkv 
Sr) Gaj(f)po(jvvr]s re Trapa/cAr^rt/ca /cat SLKatoovvqs 
dvayKaGTiqpia vtto rod Nopia rore i^evpedevra 
KOGpLLOjrepap ot/ctas" t7^9 KpariGra OLKOvpLevrjs ty]v 
'PwpLaLOJV TToXiv aTTeipyacraro. 

LXXVI. yi Se pLcXXco vvv Xeyeiv impLeXrj re 
avrrjv drrehcoKe rcov dvayKalojv /cat tcDv dyaddJv 
Ipydriv. ivdvpiovpevo? ydp 6 dvqp, ore vroAtv ttjv 
pLeXXovGav dya7TrjG€LV rd 3i/cata /cat pievelv ^ iv rat 
GoxjypovL ^Lcp rrj? dvayKalov Set x^PV/^^^ evTTopelv, 
8tetAe TTjv x^P^^ diraGav et? rovs KoXovpbevovg 
Trdyovs /cat KareGrrjGev i(j> eKdGrov rcov Trdycov 
dpxovra errLGKOTrov re /cat TrepiTToXov rrjs tSta? 

2 /xot'pa?. ovroL ydp Trepuovres dapLLvd rovg ev re 

^ SiT^Tcuv. Toiavra Kiessling: BtrjTOJVTo ' Taura B, BitJtcdv 
ravra R. 

2 fxeveiv Kiessling : /xeVeiv O. 

536 



BOOK II. 75, 3-76, 2 

to the rest of the gods.^ And in truth the result was 
bound to be that this attitude of good faith and 
constancy on the part of the State toward all men 
would in the course of time render the behaviour 
of the individual citizens similar. In any case, so 
revered and inviolable a thing was good faith in 
their estimation, that the greatest oath a man could 
take was by his own faith, and this had greater 
weight than all the testimony taken together. And 
if there was any dispute between one • man and 
another concerning a contract entered into without 
witnesses, the faith of either of the parties was 
sufficient to decide the controversy and prevent it 
from going any farther. And the magistrates and 
courts of justice based their decisions in most causes 
on the oaths of the parties attesting bv their faith. 
Such regulations, devised by Numa at that time to 
encourage moderation and enforce justice, rendered 
the Roman State more orderly than the best regu- 
lated household. 

LXXVI. But the measures which I am now going 
to relate made it both careful to provide itself wath 
necessaries and industrious in acquiring the ad- 
vantages that flow from labour. For this man, 
considering that a State which was to love justice 
and to continue in the practice of moderation ought 
to abound in all things necessary to the support of 
life, divided the whole country into what are called 
pagi or " districts," and over each of these districts 
he appointed an official whose duty it was to inspect 
and visit the lands lying in his own jurisdiction. 
These men, going their rounds frequently, made a 

1 Cf. Livy 1. 21, 1 and 4. 

537 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

/cat KaKOJS elpyaafiei'ovs rd)v dypwv a7T£ypd(f)ovro 
KOI TTpos Tov ^ao-tAea d7T€cf>aLvov , 6 Se rov? pev 
eTTLpLeXeXs^ yecjpyovs eVaiVot? re kol (fnXavOpajTrlais 
dveXafi^ave , rovs Se dpyov? ^ 6v€LSit,ojv re /cat 
^Tjfiicov CTTt TO depaTreveuv dpLetvov rrjv yrjv Trpov- 
rp€7T€T0. TOLydproL TToXepLcov re dTrrjXXayp^evoL /cat 
raJv /caret ttoXlv rrpaypidTCOv axoXrjv ttoAAt^v ayoyre? 
dpyuag re /cat ^Aa/ceta? cruv alG-)(yvrj rivovTes St/ca? 
avrovpyoL Trdvre? iyivovro /cat rov e/c y^s" TrAourov 
aTrdvTCOv ovra ^ hiKaiorarov rrjs arparLCOTLKrj? /cat 
ovK i)(ovcrq? to ^e^aiov evTTopias yXvKvrepov eri- 

S OevTO. ro) Se N6p.a Trepirfv e/c rourcov (jyiXeZodai 
fji€V VTTO Tcov dpxopLevcx)v , t.-qXovdOai 8' utto rcuv 
TTepioLKCov^ IxvqpLOveveadaL 8' LiTro rcDv einyLvopLeviDV * 
St' c5y oure crrctcrts' e/X(/)uAtos" ri^v ttoXitlktjv eXvaev 
opiovoiavy ovT€ TToXepLog dXXoedpr^s e/c rcDv /cpart- 
CTroji^ /cat davpaoLOJTdrcxJV rrjv ttoXiv i7TLT7]S€vp.dTCOv 
€KLvrj(je. TOGovTOv yap drreaxov ol irepioiKOi rrjv 
diToXepLOv Tjcwx^'O.v 'Pcxjpiaiojv d(f)opp.rjv rrjs /car' 
auraji^ eTTideaeajs VTToXa^elv , coare /cat et rts" av- 
TOis Trpos dXXrjXovs crvveGrr] TroAe/xo? StaAAa/crT^pas" 
eTTOiovvro 'Pojpialovs /cat eVt hiaLTrjTfi N6p.a rag 

4 €xOpa? SiaXveLv 'q^iovv. tovtov ovv^ ovk dv 
alcrxvvOeirjv iyd) rov dvSpa tcov eV euSatjLtovta 
SLapoTjdevTOJv iv toIs Trpcorot? /carapt^/xetv. yeVou? 
re ydp e^v ^aaiXeiov /cat piop(j)rj? dneXavae jSacrt- 
At/CTJ? TTaiheiav re ou rT^v Trept Adyous- ^ dxprjcrrov 

^ yccopyovs after apyovs deleted by Meineke, Biicheler. 

2 ttAoi^ojv after ovra deleted by Kiessling. 

^ ovv added by Steph.^ * Xoyovs Steph. : Xoyov O. 

538 



BOOK II. 76, 2-4 

record of the lands that were well and ill cultivated 
and laid it before the king, who repaid the diligence 
of the careful husbandmen with commendations and 
favours, and by reprimanding and fining the sloth- 
ful encouraged them to cultivate their lands with 
greater attention. Accordingly, the people, being 
freed from wars and exempt from any attendance 
on the affairs of the State, and at the same time 
being disgraced and punished for idleness and sloth, 
all became husbandmen and looked upon the riches 
which the earth yields and which of all others are 
the most just as more enjoyable than the precarious 
affluence of a military life. And by the same 
means Numa came to be beloved of his subjects, 
the example of his neighbours, and the theme of 
posterity. It was owing to these measures that 
neither civ-il dissension broke the harmony of the 
State nor foreign war interrupted the observance 
of his most excellent and admirable institutions. 
For their neighbours were so far from looking upon 
the peaceful tranquillity of the Romans as an oppor- 
tunity for attacking them, that, if at any time they 
were at war with one another, they chose the 
Romans for mediators and wished to settle their 
enmities under the arbitration of Numa. This 
man, therefore, I should take no shame in placing 
among the foremost of those who have been celebrated 
for their felicity in life. For he was of royal birth and 
of royal appearance ; and he pursued an education 
which was not the kind of useless training that 
deals only with words,^ but a discipline that taught 

* A thrust at the sophists or rhetoricians. 

339 



DIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS 

TJaKTjaev, dAA' ef rj? evae^elv efjLade kol ras aAAa? 

5 i7TLTr]8ev€Li' dpeTO.?. rjyefJLOVLai' Se ttjv 'PojfiaLOJV 
TTapaXa^elv rj^Lcjdrj veos cov Kara kXIos aperrjs vtt* 
avTOJv €7TLKXr]TOs ax^^t? Kal StereAecre TreLdofiduoLS 
airavra rov ^iov rolg ap^ofJievoLg )(pa)fX€vos ' TjXLKias 
S' eTTi fJL'qKLaTOV rjXacrev 6X6KXr]po£ ovSev vtto rrjs 
Tvx'f]'^ KaKcoOeis Kal Oavdrcov rov paarov ereXev- 
Tqoev VTTO yqpojg fJLapavdels, ojjlolov TTapafielvavros 
avTU) rod ovyKXr]p<x>devTOS ef d,pxrJ£ SaifJLovos ews 
i^ dvdpojTTcxjv r](j)avLGdrj , ^idoGas ftev virep oySoij- 
Kovra errj, ^aaiX^VGas 8e rpia Kal rerrapaKovra, 
yevedv he KaraXtTTajv, co? jJLev ol ttXclov? ypd(f)ov(nv, 
vlovs rerrapas Kal dvyarepa fxiav, Jjv ert ocht^erai 
rd ydvT), CO? Se FeXXios Fvalos laropeZ, Ovyarepa 
fjLovTjv, €^ ■^g eyevero "AyKos MdpKLos 6 rpiros dir^ 

6 iKeivov yevopevos 'Pa)p,aLCxJv jSacrtAeu?. reAeur?^- 
aavTL S' auToi rrevdos pAya Trpovdero r] ttoXls kol 
ra(f)ds eTTOLTJaaro XapLTTpordra?. KeZrai 8* iv 
'/art/cAoj TTepav rod Te^epiog TTorapLov. Kal rd 
fiev TTepl UoplttlXlov Nopia rocraura TrapeXd^o^Jiev, 



540 



BOOK II. 76, 4-6 

him to practise piety and every other virtue. Wlien 
he was young he was thought worthy to assume the 
sovereignty over the Romans, who had invited him 
to that dignity upon the reputation of his virtue ; 
and he continued to command the obedience of 
his subjects during his whole Hfe. He Hved to a 
very advanced age without any impairment of 
his faculties and without suflering any blow at 
Fortune's hands ; and he died the easiest of all 
deaths, being withered by age, the genius who had 
been allotted to him from his birth hav-ing continued 
the same favour to him till he disappeared from 
among men. He lived more than eighty years and 
reigned forty-three, leaving behind him, according to 
most historians, four sons and one daughter, whose 
posterity remain to this day ; but according to 
Gnaeus Gellius he left only one daughter, who was 
the mother of Ancus Marcius, the second ^ king 
of the Romans after him. His death was greatly 
lamented by the state, which gave him a most 
splendid funeral. He lies buried upon the Janiculum, 
on the other side of the river Tiber. Such is the ac- 
count we have received concerning Numa Pompilius. 

* Literally, " the third," counting; inchisivelv. 



541 



INDEX 



ABORIoiyES, origin of. 31-43, 307, 
415; cities of, 43-49, 51-55, 61, 
449, 451, 457, cf. 65 f. ; unite 
with Pelasfrians, 55, 61-67, 69. 75, 
83, 315. 451 ; earlv dwellers on 
site of Rome, 29, 99, 109, 125, 129. 
307, 313 f. ; under rule of Fauuus, 
101,139,141,143; under Latinus, 
143. 189 f., 195-201, 209, 239, 241 : 
called Latins, 31, 201. 

Acallaris, ancestres.9 of Aeneas, 207. 

Aeamanians, 165, 169 and notes. 

Achaeans, take Trov, 145-51, 157, 
173, 193, 209. 229," 237, 505. 

a nation in the Peloponnesus, 

83 ; cf. 309. 

a tribe on the eastern shore of 

the Euxine, 309. 

Achaeus, son of Poseidon, 57. 

Achaia, in the Peloponnesus, 35, 83. 

in Thessaly, 57. 

Achilles, 157, 173. 

Acte, peninsula of Chalcidice, 81. 

Actium, 165. 

Adriatic sea, 9, 453. 

Aegefta (Segesta), city in Sicily, 

173 f. 
Aegestus, a Trojan, 151, 171-75. 

a priest at Lavinium, 221. 

son of xsumitor, 253. 

Aelii. the, 25 and n. 2. 
Aemilia, a Vestal, 511. 

Aeneas, ancestry of, 207, cf. 201 f. : 
at fall of Troy, 147-51, 157; leads 
Trojans to Italy, 143 f., 153-201, 
209 f., 317, 505, ci. 219, 237, 
241 f. ; death of, 211 f. ; shrines 
and monuments to, 167, 175, 179 
f., 213. 

(different from preceding), 

leads Trojans to Italy, 177. 

son of Silvius, Alban king, 233. 

Aeneia, to\m in Thrace, 161 f., 

cf. 179. 
town in Latium, 243. 



Aeneias, cult-title of Aphrodite. 

165, 175. 
Aequicoli. Italian tribe, 521. 
Aeschylus, tragic poet (525-456), 

137. 
Aetolians, 57. 169. 
Aezeians, earlier name of Oenotrians, 

37. 
Aezeius, early king in Peloponnesus, 

35, 37. 
Agathocles, tyrant of Syracuse, 239. 
Agathyllus, Arcadian poet, 159, 237. 
Agylla, earlier name of Caere, 65. 
Alba, Alban king, 233. 
Alba Longa, 145, 217 f., 243, 275, 

277 295 297. 
Alban district, il9, 219. 
Albans, found Rome, 235, 243, 315 ; 

found other cities, 417, 457. 465 ; 

other allusions to, 253, 255, 317, 

419, cf. 489. 
Albula, old name for the Tiber, 233. 
Alcmena, mother of Hercules, 131. 
Alcyone, priestess at Argos, 71. 
Alexander (Paris), 157. " 

the Great, 9, 163. 

father of Diouysius, 27. 

Alimentus, L. Cinci"us (/?. ca. 210), 

Roman annalist. 21. 245. 263. 

423 f. 
AUodius, Alban king, 233. 
Alpheus. river in Peloponnesus, 111. 
Alps, 31, 137. 
Alsium, ancient city on coast of 

Etruria, 67. 
Aluntium, town in Sicily, 169. 
Amata, wife of Latinus. 211. 
Ambracia, 165 f. 
Ambracian gulf, 165. 
Ambrax, king of Ambracia, 165. 
Amitemum, old Sabine town, 49, 

451. 
Amulius, Alban king, 235, 253-63, 

277-87, 289-93. 
Amyntor, grandson of Peiasgus, 91. 



513 



INDEX 



Anactorium, city in Acamania, 169. 
Aaaximenes, historian (fourth cent.), 

3. 
Anchisa, town in Italy, 243. 
Anchises, father of Aeneas, 141, 155, 

167 177, 207, 213, 243. 317; 

cf. 149. 153. 

Harbour of, in Epirus, 167. 

Ancus Marcius. See Marcius. 
Anius, king of Delos, 163, 197. 
Antemnae, town in I^atium, 55, 405, 

415. 
Antemnates, inhabitants of Antem 

nae, 407, 411-15. 
Anthemone, wife of Aeneas, 159. 
Anteias, founder of Antium, 241. 
Antenoridae, treachery of, 147. 
Antias, Valerius, historian (early 

first cent.), 25, 349. 
Antigonus, historian (date un- 
known), 19. 
Antiochus of Syracuse, historian 

(late fifth cent.), 39, 73, 113 f., 

243 f. 
Antium, town in Latium, 241, n. 1. 
Apennine mountains, 29, 43. 
Aphrodite, 155, 161-67, 177, 207, 

317 ; surnamed Aeneias, 165, 175. 
Apollo. 75. 489 ; cf. 61, 63. 
Arcadia, original home (a) of 

Oeno*riaas, 35, 41, 313 f., 415; 

(6) of Evander and his company, 

99, 315; (c) of Trojans, 201-05; 

Aeneias in, 159. 179. 
Arcadians, in the Peloponnesus, 35, 

43, 83, 163 ; in Italy with 

Evander, 99-109, 129-33, 139, 

143, 145, 267, 289, 307, 315 f. 
Arctinus, epic poet, 225, 227. 
Ardea, town in Latium, 521 ; 

cj. 241, n. 1. 
Ardeias, founder of Ardea, 241. 
Argos, 55, 67. 71, 83, 125. 135, 141 ; 

cf. 307. 
Ariaethus (or Araethus), Arcadian 

historian (?), 159. 
Aristotle, philc«oph<r (fourth cent.), 

237 f. 
Artemis, 373. 

Ascaaian lake, in A?ia Minor, 153. 
Ascanius, son of Aeneas, 153, 177 f., 

213-17, 229 f., 237, 241. 329. 

495 ; cf. 149. 
Asia, 7, 57, 85, 89, 203 f., 225. 
Asies, brother of Atys, 87. 

544 



Assaracua, son of Tros. 207. 

AssvTJans, 7. 

Athena, 107, 225 f. 

Athenians, 9. 207, 335, 339, 359. 

Athens, S3, 93. 235, 247 f., 251. 

Atlas, tirst king of Arcadia, 163, 

201 f. 
Atthides, liistories of Attica, 27 ; 

cf. 205, n. 1. 
Attica, 27, 205. 
Atys, Lydian king, 87, 89. 
Augustus Caesar, 23, 231, n. 1. 
Auronissi (error for Aurunci ?), tribe 

in Campania, 67. 
Aurunci, 67 and note. 
Ausonia, Greek name for Italy, 115. 
Ausonian sea, 37. 
Ausonians, 71, 93. 
Aventine hill, 103. 235, 271, 289, 

297, 419. 
Aventinus Alban king, 235. 

Babylonia, 117 

Bateia, wife of Dardanus, 163. 207. 
Batia, town of the Aborieines, 47. 
Bebrvcia, district on the Hellespont. 

179. 
Boeotia, 57. 
Bruttians, 307. 

Brutus, L. Junius (cos. 507), 247. 
Buthrotum, town in Epiru-, 167. 

Cabeiri, divinities worshipped in 

Samothrace and neighbouring 

regions, 77. 
Cacus, a robber, 127 f., 137 f. 
Caelian hill, 417, 455. 
Caelius, an Etruscan, 417. 
Caehi? (Uranus), 363. 
Caenina, town in Latium, 273 .405, 

415. 
Caeninenses, inhabitants of Caenina, 

407,411-15. 
Caere, citv in Etruria, 65. 
Caesar, Augustus, 23, 231, a. 1. 

Julius, 231, n. 1. 

Caieta, Italian promontory, 175. 
Callias of Syxacase, historian {fl. ca. 

300), 239. 
Callirrhoe. daughter of Oceanus, 85. 

daughter of Scamander, 207. 

Callistratus, Domitius, historian 

(date uncertain), 225. 
Callithea, mother OJ Tyrrheuus, 87. 



INDEX 



Calpetua, Alban king, 233. 

r^Ipurnii tho 25 and note. 

Camerla, town in Latium, 457. 

Camerini. 457, 465. 

Campanian plain-s, 67, 119. 

Cannae, battle of, 361. 

Capetus, Alban king, 233. 

Caphyae. See Capyae. 

Capitol. 111. 355. 

Capitoline hill, 103, 109, 315, 419- 

423, 435, 455. See also Satiir- 

nian hill. 
Capitolinu3, T. Manliu3 (cos. 389), 

249. 
Capua, 243. 
Capyae, town in ArcAdia, 159 and 

n. 2. 
Capvs, father of Anchises, 159, 207, 

243. 

Alban king, 233. 

Carinae, place in Rome, 223. 
Carmenta, mother of Evander, 99, 

103. 
Carthage, 123, 245, 359. 
Carthaginians, 13, 311, 505. 
Carvilius, Sp., first Roman to 

divorce his wife, 385. 
Cassander, king of Macedonia, 163. 
Castrura Mincrvae, place in Calabria, 

169. n. 5. 
Cato, M. Porcius (cens. 184), states- 
man and historian, 25, 33, 43, 

245, 263, 451. 
Celer, slayer of Remus, 303 ; cf. 349. 
Cephalon of Gergis, fictitiou.s author. 

157 and note, 237. 
Ceraunian mountains, near Reate, 

45. 
Ceres, 107. 

Chaeronea, battle of, 359, 
Chalcidians, minor element in 

population of Acte, 81. 
Charondas, Sicilian lawgiver, 387. 
Charops, Athenian archon, 235, 251. 
Choraeus, grandfather of Tyr- 

rhenus, 87. 
Chryse, wife of Dardanus, 203, 207. 

225. 
Cinaethion, Laconian promontory, 

163. 
Clnaethus, companion of Aeneas, 

163. 
Cincius. See Alimentus. 
Circ6, 239 f. 
Circus Maximum, 267, 271, 403, 519. 



Clymeng, wife of Prometheus, .^7. 
Clytodora, daughter of Laomedon, 

207. 
Codone, wife ot Aenea-i, 159. 
Collatinus, L. Tarquinius (cos. 507), 

247. 
Colline gate. See Porta Collina. 

hill (error for Quirinal), 515, 

n. 3. 

Consualia, festival in honour of 

Consus. 107, 403. 
Consus, Italic god, 403. 
Coretus, mountain near Reate, 47 
Corinthians, 169. 
Corniculan mountains, in Latium, 

55. 
Corsula, town of the Aborigines, 47. 
Corthonia (Cortona). 85. 
Cotyle, variant of Cutilia, 63. 
Cotys, son of Manes, 87. 
Cra-ssus, M. Licinius, defeated by 

Parthians, 331. 
Cretans, 375 ; in Italy, 43. 
Crete, 57. 

Crimisus, river in Sicily, 171. 
Crinacus, father of Macar, 59. 
C:ronus, 63, 111, 121. 

hill of, at Olympia, 111. 

hill of, at Rome (Capitoline), 

109 f. See also Saturnian hilt. 

Croton (Cortona), 65, 83 f., 91. 

city in southern Italy, 481 i. 

Crotoniat^, inhabitants of Cortona, 

95. 
Crusaeans, Thracian tribes, 155. 161. 
Crustumerian.s, 415. 
Crustumerium, town in Latium, 

405, 415, 463, 465. 
Cures, chief city of Sabines. 417, 

449 f., 481. 
Curetes, earlv inhabitants of Aetolia, 

57. 

demonic attendants oi Rhea, 

489; rites of, 373. 517-21. 

Curtius, Mettius, Sabine leader, 
431-35, 445. 

Cutilia (Cutiliae), city of the Ab- 
origines, 49, 61, 451. 
Cybcle], rites of, in Rome, 365 f.; 
cf. 455. 

Cycladcs, 57. 

Cyllene, a nymph, 41. 

mountain in Arcadia, 41 203. 

Cythera. island off southern point 

of Laconia, 163. 

545 



INDEX 



DAiCLES, Olympic victor, 235. 
Damastes of ^igeum, genealogist 

aud geographer {fl. ca. 400), 237. 
Dardanidae, 317. 
Dardanus, ancestor of Aeneas, 163, 

203 f., 207, 225 f., 505. 
city in the Troad, 147, 151, 

201, 205. 
Dascylitis, district on the Propontis, 

152. 
Daunians, 119. 

Deianira, "wife of Pela^gus, 35, 41. 
Deimas, son of Dardanus, 203. 
Delians, 197. 
Delos. 163. 
Delphi, 61, 489. 
Demagoras of Samos, writer on 

Trojan or Samothracian anti- 
quities (date unknown), 237. 
Demeter, 39, 205. 
Deucalion, son of Prometheus, 57. 
Dexamenus, son of Herakles, 165. 
Diadochi, the " Succes.>ors " of 

Alexander the Great, 9, 163 ; c/. 

19, n. 1. 
Diana, 455. 

Dicte, mountain in Crete, 489. 
Diomed, 227, 
Dionysius of Chalcis, historian 

(fourth cent.), 241. 
• of Halicarnassus, historian 

(late first cent.), 27. 
Dionysus, 365. 
Dior>ctus, place on canal near 

Leucas, 165 and note. 
Dodona, city in Epirus, 49, 59, 63, 

167. 
Dorians, 91. 
Drepana, town in western Sicily, 171. 



ECHINADES, islands off coast of 

Acarnania, 169. 
Egeria, a nymph, 487 f. 
Eg\T)t, 9, 117. 
Eleans, 111, 309 and note. 
Electra, daughter of Atlas, 163, 203. 
Elis, 111, 315 f. 

Elyma, city in Sicily, 173 and note. 
Elymians, a people in Sicily, 71, 

175, 209. 
Elymus, a Trojan, 151, 171-75. 
mountain in Sicily, 175 ; cf. 

173, n. 3. 
Emathion, father of Romus, 241. 



Ennius, Roman poet (239-169), 

lll.n. 1. 
Enyilius, 449, 455. 
Epeans, ancient people of Elis, 111, 

139, 201, 315 f. 
Epigoni, sons of the Diadochi, 19 

and note. 
Epirus, 19, 167. 
Eratosthenes, Greek scientific writer 

(third cent.), 247. 
Erichthonius, son of Dardanus, 

163 f., 207. 
Erinyes, 535. 
Ervtheia, island near Spain, 125, 

315. 
Erythrae, Sibyl of, 183 and note. 
Ervx, city and mountain in Sicily, 

i73, n. 3. 
Esquiline hill 421. 
Etruria and Etruscans. See Tyr- 

rheuia and Tyrrhenians. 
Euboea, 57. 

Eumedes, ancestor of Aeneas, 207. 
Eunomus, nephew of Lycurgus, 453. 
Europe, 7 f., 43, 117, 153, 181, 203. 
Euryleon, earlier name of Ascanius, 

213 ; or brother of Ascanius, 237. 
Eurystheus, king of Mycenae, 125. 
Euxenus (?), unknown mj'tho- 

grapher. 111 and note. 
Euxine sea, 11, 309. 
Evander, 99, 103, 129 f., 139, 141, 

201, 267, 273, 289, 307, 315. 



Fabidius, Modius, founder of Cures, 

449. 
Fabius Maximus Ser^^lianus, Q. (cos. 

142), author of a work on religious 

antiquities and a history (?), 25 

and n. 1. 
Pictor, Q., first Roman annal- 
ist (late second cent.), 21, 245, 

263, 275, 423, 425. 427. 
Faith, Public, di\'ine honours paid 

to, 535 f. 
Falerii, city in Etruria, 67. 
Falernian district, in north-west 

corner of Campania, 119 • c/. 219. 
Faunus, king of the Aborigines, 101, 

139 f., 143. 
Faustinus, brother of Faustulus, 289, 
Faustulus, foster-father of Romulus 

and Remus, 269, 275 f., 283 f., 

289 f., 301. 



546 



INDEX 



Feronia, goddess, 453. 

to\\Ti in Lutiuni, 453. 

Fescennium, city in Etriiria, 67. 
Finilea, town in Latinni, 55. 
Fidcnae, town in Latiimi, 463 f.. 

467, 469 f. 
Fidenates, 463 f. 
Foronia, earlier spelling of Feronia, 

453. 
Forum boariuni (cattle market), 

133. 

Romanum, 223, 301, 391, 397, 

435, 455, 495. 515. 

Popilii, place in Campania, 69. 

G ABn, town in Latium, 291. 

Gaul, 33. 

Gauls. 123, 247 f., 307. 

Ge, poddcss, 85. 

Gellii, the, 25 and note. 

Geryon, cattle of, 115-25, 137. 

Gracchus, C. (trib. 123), 345. 

Ti. (trib. 133), 345, n. 1. 

Great Gods (another name for the 

Cabeiri), 165, 225 29, 373. 
Greece, 11, 35, 43, 57, 73, 79, 83, 91, 

101, 153, 359. 
Greeks, passim. 

Haemonia, earlier name of Thcssaly, 

57, 201, 315. 
Halie, ancestress of Tyrrhenus, 87. 
Hannibalic war, 361. 
Hector, descendants of, 153. 
Hegesianax of Alexandria in the 

Troad, historian {fl. ca. 196), 

1.57, n. 3. 
Hegesippus of Mecyberaa, historian 

(fourth or third cent.), 157 f. 
Helenus, 167. 
Hellanicus of Lesbos, logographer 

(fifth cent.), 71, 91, 115, 155, 237 

and n. 4. 
Hellespont, 57, 95, 153, 205, 209. 
Hera, 83. See also Juno. 
Herakles, 89, 165. See also 

Hercules. 
Hercules, 103, 109-15, 123-43, 

201, 307, 315. 

Pillars of, 11. 

Hermes, 99, 203, 315. 

Herodotus, historian (fifth cent.), 

87, 95. 
Hersiiia. leader of the Sabine 
women, 443. 



Hesperla, Greek name for Italy, 

115, 1.59. 
Hcstia (Vesta), 503 ; see 499, n. 2. 
HostiiU'otis, district in Thcssaly, 57. 
nioronnieme, mother of Anchises, 

207. 
Hieronvmus of Cardia, historian 

{ca. 364-ca. 260), 19, 23; cf. 15 

n. 1. 
Hippocrateia, Arcadian festival, 

107. 
Homer, 145, 177, 349. 
Hostllius, Tullus, third king of 

Rome, 219, 251, 377, 515. 

lAPYQlAN promontory, 37 f., 169. 

lapygians, 71. 

lasus, brother of Dardanus, 203 f. 

Iberians, 307. 

Ida, mountain in Phrygia, 149 f., 

155, 183, 205. 
Idaean goddess (Cybele), 365 f. 
Idaeus, son of Dardanus, 203. 
Ilia (Rhea Silvia), 253-263, 269, 

289. 
Ilium, 111, 151, 179, 201, 207, 227; 

people of, 147, 505. See also 

Troy. 
Inachus, river of Argos, 83. 
inter duos lucos, place on Capitoline 

hill, 355 and note. 
Ionian gulf, 31, 35 f., 41, 59, 91, 167. 
lonians, 91 ; cf. 83. 
Isagoras, Athenian archon, 249. 
Issa, island near Reate, 47. 
Italians, 71, 519 ; named after 

Italus, 41. 
Italus, early Italian king, 41, 73, 

113, 241, 245. 
Italy, passim; formerly called Sa- 

turnia, 59, 63, 113 f. ; named 

after Italus, 41, 113, or after 

Hercules' calf (vitulus), 115 ; ita 

manifold attractions, 115-21. 
lulus, son of Ascanius, 231. 

JANICULUM, the, 541. 

ancient town, 243. 

Julii, illustrious Roman family. 
231 f. 

Julius, reports ascension of Rom- 
ulus, 495. 

Caesar, 231, n. 1. 

Juno, 67, 171 ; J. Quiritis, 457. 

547 



INDEX 



Jnplter, 75, 115, 129 i., 215, 325, 
329. 363 ; J. Feretrius, 411 ; 
J. Fidius, 451 ; J. Inventor, 129 
and note ; J. Stator, 455 ; J. 
Tenninalis, or Terminus, 531. 
See also Zeus. 

LaCEDAEMONIAXS, 11, 351 f., 359, 

375, 381. 
Lacus Curtius, lake on site of 

Roman Forum, 433 f. ; cf. 455. 
Laocoon and his sons, 155. 
Laomedon, king of Troy, 111, 171, 

207. 
Larisa, mother of Pelasgus, 57. 

ancient town in Campania, 69. 

Latiuium (?), place on coast of Italy, 

239. 
Latins, 93, 213 f.. 243, 301, 503 ; 

named after Latinus, 31, 143, 

201, 317. 
Latinus, king of the Aborigines, 31, 

141 f., 189-201, 211, 229, 239, 

241, 317. 

Alban, king, 233. 

Laurentia, wife of Faustulus, 289, 

301. 
Laurentum, town in Latium, 143, 

177, 181, 209. 
Lansiis, son of Mezentius, 215 f. 
Lavinia, wife of Evander, 103, 141. 

daughter of Anius, king of 

Delos, 197. 

daughter of Latinus, 197 f., 

211, 229 f. 

Lavinians, 189, 199, 459-63. 

Lavinium, town in Latium, 143, 
197 f., 207 f., 213, 217-23, 459 f. 

Lcleges, early inhabitants of Greek 
lands, 33, 57. 

Lemnos, 83. 

Lesbos, 57. 

Leucaria, daughter of Latinus, 241. 

Leucas, 165, 169. 

Leucosia, island off Italian coast, 
175. 

Leuctra, battle of, 359. 

Libya, 9, 117. 

Licinius. See Macer. 

Liguria, 39, 137. 

Ligurians, 33, 43, 69-73, 137, 307. 

Liris, river between Latium and 
Campania, 29. 

Lista, mother-city of the Abori- 
gines, 49 ; cf. 47, n. 2. 

548 



Lotrians, 57 

Lucumo, an Etruscan, 419 t., 431, 

435 f. 
Lupa, nickname given to Laurentia, 

289 f. 
Lupercal, grotto on Palatine sacred 

to Pan, 103 f., 275. 
Lupercalia, festival in honour of 

Pan, 273. 
Lycaon, father of Deianira, 35 ; 

father of Pallas, 107. 
son of Pelasgus and Deianira, 

35, 41, 315. 
Lycaonia, old name of Arcadia. 315. 
Lycaouians, earlier name of Oeno- 

trians, 37. 
Lycurgus, Spartan lawgiver, 375, 

453,489. 
Lydia, country in Asia, 87. 
Lydians. 89, 97, 521. 
Lydus, king of Lydia, 87 f. 



Macar, leader of first Greek colony 

sent to Lesbos, 57. 
Macedonia, 11, 13, 359. 
Macedonians, empire of, 15, 163, 

311, 359. 
Macer, C. Licinius (trib. 73), orator 

and annalist, 25, 461. 
Maeonia, old name of Lydia, 85. 
Maeonians, 87 f. 
Malca, Laconian cape, 239. 
Mallius (or Manlius ?), L., 63. 
Mamurius, an artificer, 519. 
Manes, first king of Maeonia, 85 f. 
Marcius, Ancus, fourth kina of 

Rome, 251, 541. 
Mars, 45, 49, 101, 255 f., 317, 449, 

473. 
Marsians, 307. 
Maruvium, city of the Aborigines, 

47. 
Mater Idaea, 365, n. 2 ; cf. 205. 
Matiene, city of the Aborigines, 47. 
Medes, empire of, 7. 
Medullia, town in Latium, 417. 
Mefula, city of the Aborigines, 45. 
Melas, gulf between Thracian 

Chersonese and mainland, 203. 
Menecrates of Xanthus in Lycia, 

historian (fourth cent. ?), 157. 
Menippe, wife of Pelasgus, 91. 
Messapians, 119. 
MeteUus, L. Caecilius (cos. 251), 505. 



INDEX 



Mezentlus, king of the Etruscans, 

213-17, 329. 
Minerva, 47 ; cf. 169. 
Alinos, king of Crete, 489. 
Mintnrnae, town in Latiiim, 29. 
Misenus, companion of Aeneas, 175. 
Modiua Fabidius, founder of Cures, 

449. 
Molossians, a people in Epirus, 237. 
Moon, as poddc'^s, 455. 
Morses, early Italian king, 41, 243 f. 
Morgetes, name given to Oenotrians, 

41. 
Mossynoeci, Asiatic people living in 

towers, 85. 
Mother of the Gods (Cybele). 205, 

365, n. 2. 
Mugonia. See Porta Mugonia. 
Myrsilus of Lesbos, historian (first 

half of third cent.), 77, 91. 
Myscelus, founder of Croton, 483. 

Nan AS, descendant of Pelasgus, 91. 
Napetine bay, in southern Italy, 

113. 
Neapolis, 141. 
Nemesis, worshipped, 535. 
Neoptolemus. 149, 153. 
Neptune, 107, 399, 403. See also 

Poseidon. 
Nero. Ti. Claudius (cos. 7), the later 

emperor Tiberius, 11. 
Nesos, place in Arcadia, 159. 
Niobe, 35, 57. 
Nomentum. citv in Sabine country, 

465. 
Nunia Porapilius, birth and training 

of, 479-So, 539 ; chosen king of 

Rome, 479 f., 485 ; reign of, 485- 

541 ; cf. 251, 377, 393. 
Numicius, river in Latiura, 213. 
Numitor, grandfather of Romulus 

and Remus, 235, 253 f., 259 f., 

271, 273. 277-83, 287, 289-93, 

297 f., 319, 325, 399. 

Ocean (Atlantic), 11, 135. 
Oceanus, 57, 83, 87. 
Odysseus, 227, 237, 239. 
Oeniadae, people or town in Acar- 

nania, 169. 
Oenotria, name given to region on 

west coast of Italy, 37. 
Oenotrians, ancient race of .southern 

Italy, 37-43, 71 f., 307, 415. 



Oenotrus, grandson of Pelasgus, 

35 f., 41, 201, 315. 
Olympus, mountain in Thessaly, 57. 
Oniphale, mother of Tyrrhenus, 89. 
Oplirynium, city in the Troad, 147, 

151. 
Opicans, nation In southern Italy, 

73, 175, 239, 307. 
Orchomenus, city in Arcadia, 159. 
Orvinium, city of the Aborigines, 45. 
Ossa, mountain in Thessaly, 57. 
Ostia, city at mouth of the Tiber, 29. 

Palatine hill, 101 f.. 265-73, 289 f., 
295-301, 307, 315, 417, 455, 503, 
515. See also Pallantiiim. 

Palatium, city of the Aborigines, 45. 

a corruption of Pallantium, 

101, 

Palinurus, Harbour of, 175. 
Palladium, statue of Pallas Athena, 

part of dowry brought by Chryse 

to Dardanu", 227, 229, 505; 

originally one of two, 225 f. ; cf. 

505. 
Pallantium, city in Arcadia, 101, 

201, 315. 
— ^ town founded by Arcadians 

on Palatine hill, 101 f., 109, 125, 

129, 145, 295, 315. 
Palhis, son of Hercules, 103, 141. 

son of Lycaon, 107. 

father of Chryse, 203, 207, 225. 

Pallene, 153 and note, 159, 161 f. 
Pamphylian sea, 11. 

Pan, 103, 121, 267, 273. 
Pauatheuaea (Quinquatria), 515 

and n. 4. 
Papirius, C. (cos. 231), 385. 
Parilia, 305. 
Parnassus, 57. 
Parthians, 331. 
Patron of Thyrium, joins Aeneas, 

167 f. 
Pelargikon, ancient wall about the 

Acropolis at Athens, 93 and note. 
Pelasgians, earlv history of, 55-59, 

91 f. ; in Italy, 29, 43, 55, 59-69, 

73-85, 91-99, 109, 143, 201, 307, 

315 f., 373. 451. 
Pelasgiotis, region in Thessaly, 57. 
Pelasgus, son of Zeus and Niobe, 35, 

41, 55 f. 

son of Poseidon, 57. 

father of Phrastor, 91. 

549 



INDEX 



Peloponnesians, settle in Italy, 109, 

143 f., 201, 307. 
Peloponnesus, 11, 35, 55 f., 67, 83, 

163, 201 f., 225. 
Penates, 221-25. 
Peneus, father-in-law of Pelasgus, 

91. 
Pergamus, citadel of Troy, 147 

and note. 
Persephone, 863. 
Persians, 7 f. 

Peucetians, tribe in Apulia, 37, 41. 
Peucetius, brother of Oenotrus, 37, 

41. 
Phanodemus, historian (date un- 
certain), 205. 
Pheneats, Arcadians from Pheneus, 

111, 201. 
Pheneus, town in Arcadia, 111, 139. 
Pherecvdes of Athens, logographer 

(fifth cent.), 41. 
Philistus of Syracuse, historian (first 

half of fourth cent.), 71. 
Phocis, 57. 

Phoebus, 63. See Apollo. 
Phoroneus, father of Niobe, 35, 57. 
Phrastor, son of Pelasgus, 91. 
Phr^gia, 157, 177 f., 205. 
Phryaians, 93, 153, 157, 365 f. 
Phthiotis, district in Thessaly, 57, 

309, n. 1. 
Phthlus, brother of Pelasgus, 57. 
Pinarii, Koman family, 131 f. 
Pisa, city in Elis, 111. 
Pisae, city in Etruria, 65. 
Piso, Cn. Calpurnius (cos. 7), 11. 
Frugi, L. Calpurnius (cos. 133), 

annalist, 25, n. 2, 263, 423-29. 
Pittacus, one of the seven wise men 

of Greece, 387. 
Placians, inhabitants of Placia, near 

Cyzicus, 95. 
Pleiades, constellation, 203. 
Pluto, 343, n. 1. 
Po, the, 59. 
Polybius of Megalopolis, historian 

(second cent.), 19, 23, 103, 247. 
Pomentine (Poraptine) plain, 453. 
Pompeii, 141. 
Pompo Pompilius, father of Numa, 

481. 
Pomponius, M. (cos. 231), 385. 
Porta Carmentalis, 103. 

CoUina, 509. 

Mugonia, 455. 

550 



Porta Trigemina, 103, 129. 

Portus Veneris, in Calabria, 169. 

Poseidon, 57, 177, 403. See also 
Neptune. 

Posidonia (Paestum), 245, 313. 

Potitii, Roman family, 131 f. 

Potitus, L. Valerius (cos. 389), 249. 

Priam, 157, 173. 

Prisci Latini, 145. 

Proca, Alban king, 235. 

Prochj-ta, island off Italian coast, 
175. 

Prometheus, 57, 137. 

Punic wars, 15, 21, 25, 505 ; cj. 361. 
See also Carthage and Cartha- 
ginians. 

Pyrgion, Athenian archon, 247. 

Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, 19 ; cf. 15, 
n. 1. 

Pythagoras, the philosopher, 481- 
485. 

OljTnpic victor, 481. 

Pji:hian oracles, 161. 

QUIRINAL hill, 421, 455, 493, 515. 
Quirinus, identified with Enyalius, 
449. 

the deified Romulus. 495. 

Quirites, term for Roman citizens 

collectively, 445. 
Quiritis, surname of Juno, 457. 

Rasenna, Etruscan leader from 

whom the nation derived its 

name, 99. 
Reate, city of the Aborigines, 45-49. 
Reatine territory, 43, 449, 451. 
Reatines, 49. 
Remoria, place near Rome, 295 f., 

301. 
Remus, 235, 241 f., 263-303, 317. 

See also Romus. 
Rhea, wife of Cronus, 455. 

Silvia. See Ilia. 

Rhene, a nymph, 203. 
Roma Quadrata, 501. 
Romans, passim. 

Rome, before the time of Romulus, 
29, 99 f., 109 f., 243 f., 313 f. ; 
colonized by Albans led by 
Romulus and Remus, 145, 219, 
235, 243, 293-305, 315-19, 357 ; 
other traditions concerning its 
founding, 235-43 ; regarded by 
many Greek hlstonans as an 



INDEX 



Etruscan city, 98 : in reality a 
Greeli citv, 17, 305-11 ; named 
after (a) Romulus, 31, 145, 319, 
(6) Ronius. 241, 243 and note, or 
(c) Rome, 237, 239 ; extent of its 
dominion, 11, 29, 101, 187. 

Rome, one of ttie Trojan women 
with Aeneas, 237, 239. 

Romulus, son of Aeneas, 159, 
237, 241 f. ; son of Ilia, the 
Vestal, 255 f.. 261 : early life of. 
263-77, 281-93 : founds Rome, 
81, 145, 235, 243, 249 f., 
293-305, 317-23; chosen king, 
325-29 ; political, relisious and 
social institutions of, 329-401, 
411-15, 445 f., 455 f., 499 f., cf. 
459-63; wars of, 403-11, 415- 
445, 457, 463-71 ; death of, 471- 
477 ; w^orshipped under name of 
Quirinus, 495 ; other allusions to, 
249 f., 477, 489 f., 493. 

Romus, founder of Rome in Greek 
traditions. 237 and n. 2, 239 f., 
243, n. 1. 

Rutulians, ancient people of Latium, 
141, 1S9, 197, 211. 

Sabin'e women, seized by Roman 
youths, 399-405 ; efifect peace 
between the two peoples, 441 f. 

Sabines, early history of, 451-55, 
cf. 49 ; make war upon Rome, 
405 f., 417-41, 515 ; conclude 
peace, 443 f. 

Sabus, eponymous hero of the 
Sabines. 451. 

SaUDentine promontory, in Cala- 
bria. 169. 

Salii, dancing priests, 515-21. 

Samnites, 307. 

Samon, son of Hermes, 203. 

Samothrace, 203, 225 and n. 2, 505. 

Samothracians, 225, 229. 

Sancus, Sabine divinity, 451. 

Sardinia, 359. 

Saturn, 111 f., 115, 121 f., 363, 455. 
See also Cronus. 

Satumia, old name for Italy, 59, 
113, 115 ; cf. 63. 

• town founded on Capitoline by 

Peloponneslan followers of Her- 
cules, 145, 295. See also Satumian 
hill. 

town in Etruria, 65. 



Satumian hill (old name for Capito- 
line), settled bv IVloponnesians, 
109. 113. 123. 143, 307, 315. 

SatjTus, mytliographer (date un- 
known), 225. 

Scaniander grandfather of Troa, 
207. 

Scamandrius, son of Hector, 153. 

Scylacian bav, in southern Italy, 
113. 

Segesta, city in Sicily, 173, n. 2. 

Senipronius, C. See Tuditanus. 

Septem Aquae, lake in Reatine 
territory. 47. 

Septem Pagi, region surrendered by 
Veiente* to Rome, 471. 

Servius TuUius, sixth king of Rome, 
251. 

Sibvl of Erythrae, on Mount Ida, 
183 and n. 2. 

Sibylline oracles, 113. 161, 183. 

Sicania. earlier name for Sicily, 71. 

Sicanians, 69 f., 171. 

Sicels, earlv inhabitants of Italy, 29, 
41, .51, 55, 63-69, 201, 313, 415; 
migrate to Sicily, 69-73. 173. 

Sicelus, early Italian king, 41, 71 f., 
245. 

Sicilian quarter, in Tibur, 55. 

strait, 39, 69. 115, 171. 

Sicilv, 39, 69-73, 115. 143, 169, 
171-75,179,209,359,505. 

Silenus, lustorian (end of tiiird cent.), 
19. 

Silvia. Rhea. See Ilia. 

Silvius. posthumous son of Aeneas, 
229-33. 

Soron, 387. 

Solonium, ancient town in Latium, 
419. 

Sophocles, tragic poet (495-406), 39, 
83, 155 f. 

Spain, 109, 135, 141, 359. 

Sparta, 453. 

Spartans, 359. 

Spina, to\vn at mouth of Po, 61. 

Spinetic mouth of Po, 59, 91. 

Straton, leader of Sicels, 73. 

Suesbola (Suessula ?), city of the 
Aborigines, 45. 

Sun, as a god, 181, 455. 

Suna, city of the Aborigines, 45. 

TALirs TYRANNirs, a Sabine, 445. 
Tarentum, 245. 313. 

551 



INDEX 



Tarpeia, betrays citadel to Sabines 

423-29. 
Tarquiniiis Collatinus, L. (cos. 507), 

247. 

Priscus, L., 251. 

Superbiis, L., 251. 

Tartarus, 363. 

Tatiiis Titus, Sabine leader, 417- 

429, 443-49. 
Telesonus, son of Latinus and 

Rome, 239. 
Telephus, father of Tyrrhenus, 89. 
Tellenae, town in Latium, 55. 
Terminalia, festival in honour of the 

gods of boundaries, 531. 
Testruna, original home of Sabines, 

451. 
Teucer, earlv king in the Troad, 

205, 207.' 
Teucrls, old name for the Troad, 205. 
Teutamides, descendant of Pelasgus, 

91. 
Thargelion, Attic month, 207. 
Thaumasius, mountain in Arcadia, 

201. 
Thebans, 11, 359. 
Themis, Arcadian nymph, motlier of 

Evander, 99-103, 129, 315. 

goddess, 535. 

Theopompus, historian (fourth 

cent.), 3. 
Thessaiians, 339. 
Thessalonica, 163. 
Thessaiy, 55 f., 201, 307, 315. 
Thrace, 9, 157 f., 161, 203, 209; 

c/. 81, 155. 
Thvoscol, earlier form of Tusci, 97. 
Tiber, the, 29, 89, 101, 123, 143, 

233, 265. 269, 297, 313, 469, 471, 

513. 541. 
Tiberinus, Alban king, 233. 
Tibur, town in Latium, 55. 
Timaeus of Tauromenium in Sicily, 

historian (ca. 356^a. 260), 19, 

23, 221. 245 ; cf. 15 n. 
Tiora, city of the Aborigines, 47. 
Torebians, 91. 

Torebus, brother of Lydus, 89. 
Torquatus, Manlius (cos. 340), 389, 

n. 1. 

son of preceding, 389. 

Tribula (Trebula /), city of the 

Aborigines, 45. 
Trinacria, early name of Sicily, 69. 
Triptolemus, 39. 

552 



Troad. the, 151, 205, 219, 307, 505. 

Trojan cities, 151, 173, 201. 

Trojan war, as date of reference, 
29, 31, 35, 71 73, 83, 99, 237, 
243, 245, 315. 

Trojan women, bum Aeneas' ships, 
173, 237 ; burn ships of their 
Greek captors, 239. 

Trojans, 93 ; originally Greeks, 201, 
207 ; in army of Hercules, 111, 
139, 201 ; \<ith Aeneas, 143-201, 
209-13, 243, 307, 317, cf. 295; 
with Elymus and Aegestus, 151, 
171, 175 ; with Helenus, 167. 

Tros, ancestor of Aeneas, 207. 

Trov, captured by (a) Hercules, 
lil, (ft) Achaeans, 143, 145-151, 
157, 179, 207 f. ; other allusions 
to, 153, 171 f., 177, 207, 237, 
239 ; capture of, as date of refer- 
ence, 31, 89, 145, 207 f., 213, 235, 
317. See also Ilium. 

tiill near Buthrotum, 167. 

place near Laurent um, 177. 

Tubero, L. Aeli'is, historian (first 

cent.), 25, n. 2. 

Q. Aetius, jurist and historian 

(first cent.). 25, n. 2, 273. 

Tuccia, a Vestal, 513. 

Tuditanus, C. Sempronius (cos. 129), 
jurist and annalist, 35, 43. 

TuUius, Ser\ius, sixth king of 
Rome, 251. 

Tumus. See TjTrhenus. 

Tusci, Roman name for Tyrrhenians, 
97. 

Tyllus, ancestor of Tyrrhenus, 87. 

Tyrannius, Tallus, a Sabine, 445. 

Tyrrhenia (Etruria), 83, 89 f., 119, 
417. 

Tyrrhenian sea, 29, 31, 39, 143, 175, 
209, 239, 313. 453 ; c/. 37. 

Tyrrhenians (Etruscans), (a) iden- 
tical with Pelasgians, 77, 81 f., 
91 f., (b) of Lydian origin, 85-89, 
(c) natives of Italy, 85, 93-97; 
various names for, 85, 97 f . ; other 
allusions to, 37, 67, 85, 99, 213-17, 
307, 327, 329, 373, 419, 423. 

Tyrrhenus, son of Atys, 85 f. ; or 
son of Herakles and Omphalfi, 89; 
or son of Telephus, 89. 

(Turnus), leader of Rutulians, 

211. 

(Tyrrhus), a swineherd, 229 I. 



INDEX 



tJMBRIANS, 33. 43. 51 61, 65, 73. S3 
89, 93. 307. 451. 

Valerius Antias. See Anti.a.s. 
Varro, M. Terentlus, antiquarian 

(first cent.). 45, 369. 447. 451. 
Veicntes, inhabitants of Veii, 467 

471. 473. 
Veii. city of Etruria, 467. 
Velia, marshy lands in country oi 

Abori<zinc9, 65. 

place in Rome, 223. 

Venus, Harbour of, in Calabria, 169 
Vesta, 229. 253 f., 455, 499-515. 
VestaLs 229, 253 f., 201 f.. 499-515 
Via Curia, in llcatine teritory, 4^ 

and n. 1. 

Qnintia, in Reatine territory 

45 and u. 3. 

Sacra, in Rome, 445, 455. 



Victory, as poddess, 51, 105, 107. 
Vitulia, name :;iven to Italy by 

Hercules, 115. 
Vohisus Valerius, a Sabine 445. 
Vulcan, 455, 467. 



Xanthtts of Lydia, historian (early 
fifth cent.), 89. 

Xenatroras. historian (date un- 
certain), 239. 

Xypete, Attic deme, 205. 

Zacynthians, 163 f. 
Zacynthus, island of, 163 f. 

son of Dardanns, 163 f. 

Zenodotus of Troezen, historian 

(late second cent. ?), 451. 
Zeus, 35. 57, 63, 85, 107, 163, 203, 

227, 4Sd. See also Jupiter. 



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(Poetry). D. L. Page. 

PaRTHENIUS. Cf. LONGUS. 

Patjsanius: Description of Greece. W. H. S. Jones. 5 

Vols, and Companion Vol. arranged by R. E. Wycherley. 
Philo. 10 Vols. Vols. I.-V. F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. 

Whitaker; Vols. VI. -IX. F. H. Colson. 
Philo. 2 supplementary Vols. {Translation only.) Vols. I. 

and II. R. Marcus. 
Philostratus : The Life of Apollonitjs op Tyana. 

F. C. Coneybeare. 2 Vols. 
Philostratus: Imagines; Callistratus : Descriptions. 

A. Fairbanks. 
Philostratus and Eunapius: Lives of the Sophists. 

Wilmer Cave Wright. 
Pindar. Sir J. E. Sandys. 
Plato: Charmides, Alcibiades, Hipparchus, The 

Lovers, Theaqes, Minos and Epinomis. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato: Cratylus, Parmenides, Greater Hlppias, 

Lesser Hippias. H. N. Fowler. 
Plato: Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo, Phaed- 

Rus. H. N. Fowler. 
Plato: Laches, Protagoras, Mend, Euthydemtts. 

W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato: Laws. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. 
Plato: Lysis, Symposium, Gorgias. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato: Republic. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. 
Plato: Statesman, Philebus. H. N. Fowler; Ion. 

W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato: Theaetetus and Sophist. H. N. Fowler. 
Plato: Timaeus, Critias, Clitopho, Menexenus, Epis- 

TULAE. Rev. R. G. Bury. 
7 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

Plutarch: Moralia. 14 Vols. Vols. I.-V. F. C. Babbitt; 
Vol. VI. W. C. Helmbold; Vol. VII. P. H. De Lacy and 
B. Einarson; Vol. IX. E. L. Minar, Jr., F. H. Sandbach, 
W. C. Helmbold; Vol. X. H. N. Fowler; Vol. XII. H. 
Cherniss and W. C. Helmbold. 

Plutarch: The Parallel Lives. B. Perrin. 11 Vols. 

PoLYBius. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. 

Procopius: History of the Wars. H.B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 

Ptolemy: Tetrabiblos. CJ. Manetho. 

QuiNTUS Smyrnaeus. a. S. Way. Verse trans. 

Sextus Empiricus. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4 Vols. 

Sophocles. F. Storr. 2 Vols. Verse trans. 

Strabo: Geography. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. 

Theophrastus: Characters. J.M.Edmonds. Herodes, 
etc. A. D. Knox. 

Theophrastus: Enquiry into Plants. Sir Arthur Hort. 
2 Vols. 

Thucydides. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. 

TRYPHIODORU.S. Cf. OpPIAN. 

Xenophon: Cyropaedia. Walter Millai. 2 Vols. 

Xenophon: Hellenica, Anabasis, Apology, and Sym- 
posium. C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 3 Vols. 

Xenophon: Memorabilia and Oeconomicus. E. C. 
Marchant. 

Xenophon: Scripta Minora. E. C. Marchant. 



VOLXJMES IN PREPARATION 



greek authors 



Aristotle: History of Animals. A. L. Peck. 
Plotinus. a. H. Armstrong. 

latin authors 



St. Augustine: City or God. 
Babbius and Phaedrus. B. E. Perry. 

descriptive prospectus on application 

london william heinemann ltd. 

cambridge, mass. harvard university press 

8 



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